INFECTIOUS DISEASES NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE/COMMON CORE STANDARDS ADDRESSED! CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.2 Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem. BELL WORK! Name some of the infections that viruses can cause in the digestive system. Name some of the infections that bacteria can cause in the digestive system. Name some of the infections that parasites can cause in the digestive system. Name some of the infections viruses can cause in the reproductive system. What are predisposing factors that cause ear infections. What are some of the infections that bacteria can cause in the ears and eyes of animals. TERMS! ABSORPTION ARTHRITIS BOVINE CANINE CIRRHOSIS INGESTING NASAL PATHOGEN SALIVATION SYMPTOM INFECTIOUS DISEASES Infectious diseases impact several different systems within the body which include: The digestive system The respiratory system The reproductive system The integumentary system INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM! An inflammation of the stomach and intestines is known as gastroenteritis. Gastroenteritis may be caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites. Symptoms include; vomiting , diarrhea, excessive salivation, straining and abdominal pain. Red bleeding is from the upper GI while dark blood would be from the lower GI. GI caused by viral pathogens is highly contagious. The most common forms are canine parvovirus and swine transmissible gastroenteritis. INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM - GASTROENTERITIS CONT. Spore forming bacteria in the intestine increase in numbers as a result of over feeding or diet change. Bots which are the parasitic larvae of the bot fly may be found in the stomach of horses, large numbers will lead to colic. INFECTIOUS DISEASES – DIGESTIVE CONT. GI diseases caused by parasites may not be as evident as those caused by a virus or bacteria. Intestinal worms may live from a month to one year. Severe cases may lead to anemia, diarrhea and emaciation. Milder cases may show as a poor performing animal. ( wt. gain, growth) Nematodes (roundworms) are common in the gastrointestinal tract of animals. Trichostrongyles (hairworms) are found in the stomach and intestines of ruminants. Strongyles (bloodworms) infect the large intestines of horses. Hookworms infect the small intestines of dogs and cats Large roundworms infect the small intestines of pigs, dogs, cats, horses, and poultry Whipworms are found in the large intestines of dogs and pigs. TRICHOSTRONGYLES STRONGYLES INFECTIOUS DISEASES- DIGESTIVE CONT. Animals are infected with GI parasites when they swallow larvae and eggs while feeding. To confirm the diagnosis of GI infection a fecal flotation test should be performed for confirmation if eggs are found. Some of the worms may suck blood which can cause damage to the arteries, liver and lungs. INFECTIOUS DISEASES- DIGESTIVE CONT. There are other intestinal diseases that are caused by protozoa. Coccidiosis is common in dogs, cats, poultry and young ruminants. Trichomoniasis is also found in dogs. Both of these diseases caused severe diarrhea that may have blood and mucus present. Death may occur as a result of severe dehydration and anemia. INFECTIOUS DISEASES – DIGESTIVE CONT. Liver flukes are worms that cause inflammation and scarring of the liver. A liver disease known as hepatitis if found in young cattle while older animals suffer from cirrhosis of the liver. Symptoms are similar to other GI parasite infections, especially a malnourished appearance. INFECTIOUS DISEASES – RESPIRATORY / REPRODUCTIVE Inflammation of the sinuses is commonly referred to as sinusitis. An inflammation of the nasal passages is known as Rhinitis. Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the eyelids which may accompany either sinusitis or Rhinitis. Strangles in horses is basically a combination of both disorders. INFECTIOUS DISEASES – RESPIRATORY / REPRODUCTIVE An inflammation of the tonsils is known as Tonsillitis. Tonsillitis in dogs is quite common but rare in cats. Tonsillitis is the result of a bacterial infection, symptoms may include coughing, retching, gagging and mucus discharge. INFECTIOUS DISEASES –RESPIRATORY / REPRODUCTIVE Pneumonitis (pneumonia) is an inflammation of the air passages and lung tissue, with symptoms ranging from a deep cough to difficulty in breathing. Pneumonia may be caused by viral and bacterial sources which will lead to congestion, hemorrhage, mucus, and edema. The other common viral respiratory diseases include: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) in cattle Equine rhinopneumoitis, Equine influenza Swine Influenza Canine distemper Feline viral rhinotracheitis, feline calicivirus Fowl infectious bronchitis, fowl infectious laryngotracheitis Avian Influenza IBR INFECTIOUS DISEASES – RESPIRATORY / REPRODUCTIVE Worm parasites may also be the cause of pneumonia in some animals. Several species of lungworms may infect horses, cattle, sheep and goats. Coughing is the common symptom. INFECTIOUS DISEASES – RESPIRATORY / REPRODUCTIVE Bacterial, viral, and protozoal infections of the uterus are known as metritis. Bacterial infection usually occurs after birth indicated by discharge of pus, it may have a very foul odor. Other uterine disorders that may occur could be premature birth, abortion, and retained placenta. Bacterial diseases causing abortions include; vibriosis, brucellosis, and, leptospirosis. It may be necessary to perform lab tests on blood, fetal, placental tissues or fetal discharge to determine the cause. METRITIS INFECTIOUS DISEASES – RESPIRATORY / REPRODUCTIVE Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary glands or udder tissue that may occur during lactation. Bacterial infection may be the result of material passing through the nipple, a wound or through the blood stream. Affected mammary glands are generally swollen, warm to the touch and painful to the animal. Infected milk will be discolored and thickened. INFECTIOUS DISEASES – INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM An inflammation of the skin is known as Dermatitis which is most commonly caused by a bacterial infection. ( could be caused by viruses, parasites, and fungi) Common symptoms include itching, hair loss and lesions. If dermatitis is caused by pus forming bacteria it is known as pyoderma. Pyoderma is usually associated with skin allergies or mange. INFECTIOUS DISEASES – INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM A pathogenic fungus is the cause of ringworm which is highly contagious by direct contact. Ringworm affects all domestic livestock and man. Children are very susceptible to ringworm. INFECTIOUS DISEASES – INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM Warts are fibrous tumors of the skin affecting animals and humans. Wards are caused by a virus which is generally transported by a arthropod. INFECTIOUS DISEASES – INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM Poxvirus in the skin can causes a variety of diseases for domestic livestock. Animals acquire the virus from biting arthropods. Bumps, blisters and bumps are common symptoms. The diseases are named after the affected animals, fowlpox, swinepox, and cowpox INFECTIOUS DISEASES – INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM Ticks may be divided into two groups – soft ticks and hard ticks. Hard ticks will attach directly to the animal and feed for several days. Spread anaplasmosis and Lyme disease. Soft ticks usually affect fowl and are intermittent feeders. INFECTIOUS DISEASES – INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM Dogs and cats are commonly affected with fleas which may infest the animal with tapeworms. Not only are fleas annoying to the animal but may cause anemia. INFECTIOUS DISEASES – INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM Lice infestations are most common during the cooler months of the year. Lice infestations area common in cattle, swine and poultry. Biting and sucking lice will cause large areas of hair loss. Lice are most common in poultry, cattle and swine. INFECTIOUS DISEASES – INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM A mange infestation like lice occurs mostly in the cooler months of the year. Mange life on the skin or in the ear canal of animals. Mange affects few animal other than dogs and cattle. INFECTIOUS DISEASES – CARDIOVASCULAR/LYMPHATIC Bacterial infections may cause; Myocarditis – inflammation of the heart muscle Endocarditis – inflammation of the heart lining Pericarditis – an inflammation of the heart sack INFECTIOUS DISEASES – CARDIOVASCULAR/LYMPHATIC Bites from mosquitos infect dos with a nematode that matures in a dogs heart causing heartworms. The worms/disease when large numbers of worms inhibit blood flow. An infected dog will cough, be weak, have rapid breathing, and appear to be weak. INFECTIOUS DISEASES – MUSCULOSKELETAL/NERVOUS SYSTEM Arthritis is an inflammation of a bone joint, poly arthritis is an inflammation of multiple joints. INFECTIOUS DISEASES-MUSCULOSKELETAL/NERVOUS SYSTEM An inflammation of the brain covering is known as Meningitis. Encephalitis is the inflammation of the brain tissue. The two disorders may occur at the same time. INFECTIOUS DISEASES- SPECIAL SENSES The sensory organs most commonly affected by disease include the ears and eyes. Keratoconjunctivitis is a the inflammation of the surface of the eyeball and the eyelid. The inflammation of the eyeball is keratitis which is evident when the cornea appears to be cloudy. The eyelid may be crusty from drainage. Pinkeye which is common in cattle, goats and man would be an example of this disorder. INFECTIOUS DISEASES – SPECIAL SENSES A bacterial ear infection is known as Otitis which is characterized by itching and drainage. Ear infections are most common in dogs and cats but rare in larger animals. THE END!