U.S. History EOCT test

Report
U.S. History
EOCT test
Unit 9 Preparation
SSUSH 21
SSUSH 21a
Describe the baby boom
and the impact as
shown by Levittown and
the Interstate Highway
Act.
GI Bill changes society
• Serviceman’s readjustment Act
• GI stands for “Government Issue”
• Gave returning veterans money to further
their education, training, home loans and
property and other benefits.
• This money resulted in a social revolution
because common people could afford homes.
Baby Boom
• Because of the GI bill the
nation experienced an
increase in births which
caused a population
explosion.
• Baby boomers are
members of the generation
born within the first few
years after World War II.
• The numbers of babies
born in ’40s and early ’50s.
Levittown
• A developer like William
Levitt became rich by
building entire
communities of homes.
Levitt sold home quickly
and cheaply because of
the close proximity of
the homes.
• Suburbs expanded
because of the GI Bill
and Levitt’s building
strategy
Interstate Highway Act
• Dwight Eisenhower supported
the National Highway Act 1956
• Concern about a possible
nuclear strike against the U.S.
• Highway system provided
improved mobility for
motorists and also caused
expansion of the Suburbs.
• Improved military and troops
to move quickly and meant
people could evacuate much
faster in the event of war.
National Defense
• U.S. Military
could mobilize
faster in case of
Invasion of U.S.
• People could
evacuate areas
under threat
faster.
Transportation
• Helped those
living in
Suburbs travel
to find work
in the cities.
SSUSH 21b
Describe the impact television
had on American Culture;
including the presidential
debates (Kennedy/Nixon,
1960) and news coverage of
the Civil Rights Movement.
Impact of Television on Civil
Rights Movement
• Revolutionized media
coverage.
• Televised coverage of
the violence against
African Americans
won sympathizers to
their cause.
Impact of Television on American Culture
• People could watch
entertaining shows,
news reports,
advertisements, etc.
from the comfort of
their own homes.
• Television stars
became nationally
admired.
• Lucille Ball on the “I
Love Lucy” show.
Impact of Television on American Politics
• Presidential Debates
• (Kennedy/Nixon, 1960)
• Kennedy looked younger,
confident, good-looking
and won the election
• Politicians had to worry
about how they looked on
screen
SSUSH 21c
Analyze the impact of
technology on American life,
include the development of the
personal computer and the
cellular telephone and the
expanded use of air
conditioning.
Impact on American Life made by
Personal Computer & Cell Phone
• Computers made US business,
making calculations, and
transactions faster and business
more efficient.
• Used to tally census in 1950
• Today found in many homes.
• Emails, websites, transfer data,
receive information quickly.
• Cell phones also improved
communication in the U.S.
• Revolutionary technology that
affected communication in the
U.S.
Eisenhower’s response to Sputnik I
• October 4, 1957 the Soviets
launched Sputnik 1 during
the Cold War.
• Signaled a technology gap
between the U.S. and the
Soviet Union
• On July 29, 1958 the National
Aeronautics Space Act
created the Government
Agency NASA
• Its goal was to Pioneer the
future of space exploration,
scientific discovery, and
aeronautics research.
National Aeronautics and Space
Administration (NASA)
SSUSH 22
SSUSH 22a
Explain the importance of
President Truman’s order to
integrate the U.S. military
and the federal
government.
Harry Truman & Integration of U.S.
Military and Federal Government
• Truman was disturbed by
the violence against
southern blacks and became
a supporter of Civil Rights.
• Wanted to ensure voting
rights and fair employment
to African Americans.
• July 26, 1948 Signed
Executive Order 9981
integrating the United States
Military
Executive Order 9980 & 9981
• EO 9980 – Created the Fair Employment Board
to eliminate racial discrimination in federal
employment.
• EO 9981- established the President’s
Committee on Equality of Treatment and
Opportunity in the Armed Services.
SSUSH 22b
Identify Jackie
Robinson and the
integration of
baseball.
Jackie Robinson
• Born Cairo, GA
• First African
American during
the Modern Era
to play Baseball
in the Major
League.
SSUSH 22c
Explain Brown v.
Board of Education
and efforts to resist
the decision.
Major Court cases
• Plessy v. Ferguson
• Established the doctrine of “Separate but
Equal” that allowed segregation.
Major Court Cases
• Brown v. Board of Education
• Established that the policy of “Separate but
equal” was unconstitutional.
• Overturned Plessy decision!
Little Rock, Arkansas - 1957
• Governor Orval
Faubus
• Central High School
• Refused to allow
African American
students in.
Eisenhower & Little Rock, Arkansas
• President Eisenhower sent U.S.
troops to Little Rock (Central High
School) to enforce the law.
Alabama Governor – George Wallace
“In the name of the
greatest people that
have ever trod this
earth, I draw the line
in the dust and toss
the gauntlet before
the feet of tyranny,
and I say segregation
now, segregation
tomorrow, segregation
forever.”
SSUSH 22d
Describe the significance of
Martin Luther King, Jr.’s
Letter from Birmingham
Jail and his I Have a Dream
speech.
Letter from Birmingham Jail
• Famous civil rights writing in which he
addressed white preachers statements that
mass protest and civil disobedience were not
necessary and the courts should handle
complaints.
Martin Luther King, Jr. “I
have a dream” speech
• Delivered before the
Lincoln Monument
during 1963 March
on Washington.
• 200,000 civil rights
activists were in
attendance.
• Demanding equality
for all Citizens.
African-American Civil Rights Movement
Brown v. Board
(1954)
Overturned the Plessy case by declaring that segregated
facilities were inherently unequal, and ordered the integration of
the nation's public schools.
Montgomery Bus
Boycott
Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat in the front of a
Montgomery, Alabama, public bus for a white rider, leading
African-Americans to boycott public bussing.
Little Rock Crisis
After schools in Little Rock, Arkansas, refused to admit AfricanAmericans to all-white schools, President Eisenhower
authorized the U.S. Army to escort and protect AfricanAmerican students.
(1955)
(1957)
University of
Alabama
(1963)
March on
Washington
(1963)
Governor George C. Wallace refused to allow African-American
students to register for classes at the all-white University of
Alabama. President Kennedy authorized the use of the National
Guard to enforce educational integration.
Martin Luther King and his SCLC organized a massive
demonstration in Washington, D.C., where he delivered his
famous "I Have a Dream" speech.
SSUSH 22e
Describe the causes and
consequences of the Civil
Rights Act of 1964 and the
Voting Rights Act of 1965.
African-American Civil Rights Law
Civil Rights
Act of 1964
Provides criminal penalties for discrimination in employment or
voting and integrates most public facilities.
24th
Amendment
Banned the poll tax.
(1964)
Voting Rights
Act of 1965
Banned literacy tests in counties where over half of eligible
voters have been disenfranchised.
SSUSH 23
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Prohibited Segregation in Public Accommodations
Hotels
Restaurants
Prohibited discrimination in Employment and Education
Jobs
Schools
Gave President the Power to Enforce the Law
Military
National Guard
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Suspend Literacy
Test for voter
registration
Send federal
officials to register
voters
Results in huge
increased in African
American voter
registration
Results in increased
number of African
American Candidates
SSUSH 23a
Describe the Warren Court
and the expansion of
individual rights as seen in
the Miranda decision.
Miranda v. Arizona
• Earl Warren – Chief Justice
• 1966
• Ernesto Miranda arrested and interrogated w/o
lawyer present.
• Confessed to Kidnapping and Rape
• The Court held that Miranda’s 5th amendment
protection against self incrimination and his 6th
amendment right to counsel had been violated.
• Police officers must read to people arrested prior to
questioning. “You have the right to remain silent…”
Miranda v. Arizona
Expanded the
Rights of
Individuals
SSUSH 23b
Describe the political impact
of the assassination of
President John F. Kennedy;
include the impact on civil
rights legislation.
JFK Assassination - Impact
• Helped President
Lyndon Johnson
push through civil
rights legislation
• Economic
Opportunity Act of
1964
• Civil Rights Act of
1964.
SSUSH 23c
Explain Lyndon Johnson’s
Great Society; include the
establishment of Medicare.
Lyndon Baines
Johnson
Great Society
Program
LBJ's Great Society
Head Start
(1965)
Job Corps
(1966)
Medicare
(1965)
Medicaid
(1966)
VISTA
(1966)
Provided poor, disabled, and minority kids with extra academic
assistance through pre-school in order to ensure educational
success.
Provided training for poor, minority inner-city youth in order to
cultivate job skills.
Extended Social Security benefits by providing health insurance
for the elderly.
Provides health insurance for the poor and disabled.
Volunteers In Service To America; Organized youth volunteers
to work in economically depressed areas.
SSUSH 23d
Describe the social and political
turmoil of 1968, include the
assassinations of Martin Luther
King, Jr. and Robert F. Kennedy,
and the events surrounding the
Democratic National
Convention.
1968
• Social and Political
Turmoil.
• Defining Moment in
the Modern Era of
U.S. History.
Tet Offensive
Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.
Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy
Riots at the Democratic National Convention
MLK, Jr. Assassination
• Caused riots in over
100 cities across U.S.
• One Week after
death, Congress
passes Civil Rights Act
of 1968
• Prevented
discrimination in
housing.
RFK Assassination
• Kennedy desired social
reforms such as Civil
Rights.
• Opposed Vietnam War.
• Running for President
when Killed.
• Disheartened many people
that wanted civil Rights
and an end to Vietnam
war.
Democratic National
Convention
• Police armed with
clubs and tear gas
violently beat antiwar
protesters.
• Live on Television.
SSUSH 24
SSUSH 24a
Compare and contrast the Student
Non-Violent Coordinating
Committee (SNCC) and the
Southern Christian Leadership
Conference (SCLC) tactics, include
sit-ins, freedom rides, and
changing composition.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(SCLC)
• Chose Dr. Martin Luther King,
Jr. as its first president.
• Sought to unite leaders of the
black community (particularly
black ministers)
• Voter registration, Education
• Montgomery Bus boycott
• Mass protests public
demonstrations
• Non-Violent civil disobedience
Rosa Parks
Student Non-Violent Coordinating
Committee (SNCC)
• Students that devoted
themselves to non-violent
forms of Protest to
demand civil rights for
African Americans.
• Sit-ins: blacks sit in places
until they were served or
arrested.
• Eventually used violence
and abandoned peaceful
protest.
SCLC
Initially
Non-Violent
Remains NonViolent
SNCC
Initially NonViolent
Turns Violent
Black Power
Militant Movement
SSUSH 24b
Describe the National
Organization of Women
(NOW) and the origins and
goals of the modern
women’s movement.
Betty Friedan
• Led Women’s liberation
movement and claimed
that women feeling
fulfilled in the home
was a myth.
• Organized interest
group NOW to promote
women’s equality
• Wrote The Feminine
Mystique
SSUSH 24c
Analyze the antiVietnam War
movement.
SSUSH 24d
Analyze Cesar
Chavez and the
United Farm
Workers’ movement.
United Farm Workers (UFW) & Cesar Chavez
• Founded in 1962
• By Cesar Chavez
• Supported rights for
migrant farm workers
• Conducted hunger
strikes
• Used nonviolent protest
like MLK, Jr.
• Boycott California table
grapes and led the 1970
labor agreement.
African American
Civil Rights
Movement
Bus Boycott
Non-Violent
protests &
Marches
Hispanic Farm
Workers
Movement
Boycott of
California Table
Grapes
Non-Violent
protests &
Marches
SSUSH 24e
Explain the importance of Rachel
Carson’s Silent Spring and the
resulting developments; include
Earth Day, the creation of the
Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA), and the modern
environmental movement.
Rachel Carson
• Wrote “Silent Spring”
• Biologist, ecologist,
Writer
• Protested the use of
chemicals, Pesticides in
the environment for
farming, etc.
• Resulted in the Water
Quality Act
• Triggered the Modern
Environmental
Movement
DDT
• An insecticide
(Pesticide) that Rachel
Carson opposed using.
• Argued that it
contaminated the
water supply and
harmed humans and
other animals.
Earth Day
• A tradition established by
activist John McConnell in
1969
• April 22 intended to inspire
awareness and appreciation
for the earth’s environment.
• Promotes recycling, clear air,
and government regulation
• Protests against deterioration
against the environment such
as oil spills, raw sewage,
toxic dumps, pesticides, etc.
EPA – Environmental
Protection Administration
• Established in 1970
by President Richard
Nixon
• Federal Agency with
the purpose of
enforcing laws aimed
at maintaining a safe
and clean
environment.
SSUSH 24d
Describe the rise of the
conservative movement as seen
in the presidential candidacy of
Barry Goldwater (1964) and the
election of Richard M. Nixon
(1968).
Rise of Conservative Movement
• Liberals moved to: end segregation, establish
stricter regulations, and finance the “Great
Society” and increasing the role of
government to enforce social activism.
• A Conservative movement began to advocate
less government action, lower taxes, limit
government power, protect personal
freedoms, protect property rights, and limit
government control over social issues.
Barry Goldwater
• Senator from Arizona
• Extremely
conservative
• Won Republican
Presidential
Nomination in 1964
in the South
Richard Nixon
• Conservative Republican
Candidate elected
President in 1968
• Wanted to cut
government programs,
give more power back
to states, and turn back
the aggressive tide of
Civil Rights
25b
Explain the impact of Supreme
Court decisions on ideas about
civil liberties and civil rights,
including such decisions as Roe v.
Wade (1973) and the Bakke
decision on affirmative action.
Roe v. Wade (1973)
• Supreme Court ruled
that a woman had a 4th
amendment Privacy
right to her body and
could legally receive an
abortion with in the
first trimester.
• Laws forbidding
abortion in the first
trimester were
unconstitutional.
• Supreme Court
protected women’s
rights to abortion.
• Could be restated to
say that protected
women’s
Reproductive
Rights.
Norma McCorvey
Bakke v. Regents of the
University of California
Affirmative Action
• Policy aimed at increasing minority
representation in the workplace,
educational institutions, social
settings, etc. by imposing guidelines
requiring the hiring or acceptance of
minority candidates, or by actively
pursuing the recruitment of such
candidates.
Bakke v. Regents of University of California
• Alan Bakke applied to
Medical school at
University of California at
Davis.
• Denied because he was
white and the quota for AA
students needed to be
filled.
• Court Protected Affirmative
Action.
• Court said the quota was
reverse discrimination and
unconstitutional.
The Quota System
was ruled
Unconstitutional.
Affirmative Action
ruled acceptable
and Constitutional.

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