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Chapter 4
Transforming and Distorting Objects
Objectives
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Transform objects
Offset and outline paths
Create compound paths
Work with the Pathfinder panel
Use the Shape Builder tool
Create clipping masks
Transform Objects
• Transformation occurs when an object’s size,
shape, or position is changed on the artboard.
• Tools panel contains five transform tools:
•Rotate
•Scale
•Reflect
•Shear
•Free Transform
Transform Objects
• The Reflect tool
flips an image.
Transform Objects
• All transformations are executed in relation to a
fixed point called the point of origin.
• The default point of origin is the object’s center
point.
• You can change the center point to another point
on the object or somewhere else on the
artboard.
Transform Objects
• The X and Y coordinates of an object indicate the
object’s horizontal (X) and vertical (Y) locations on
the artboard.
• X and Y coordinates are dependent upon specified
reference point.
Transform Objects
The default
point of origin
is the center
of an object.
Transform Objects
• Four basic methods for transforming objects:
– Click a transform tool, then click and drag
anywhere on artboard.
– Double-click one of the transform tools, which
opens tool’s dialog box.
Transform Objects
– Click a transform tool, then click the artboard to
define point of origin.
– Click a transform tool, press [Alt](Win) or [option]
(Mac), then click the artboard to open the tool's
dialog box.
Transform Objects
• Repeat a transformation again quickly with
the Transform Again command.
• The quickest way to use the Transform Again
command is to press [Ctrl][D] (Win) or
[Command][D] (Mac).
Transform Objects
• The Transform Each command allows you to
transform multiple objects individually.
• The Transform Each dialog box offers options
including:
– Rotate
– Scale
– Reflect
Transform Objects
Before
After
The eight squares are rotated on their own center points
Transform Objects
• Using the Free Transform Tool
– The Free Transform Tool applies an eight-handled
bounding box to a selected image
• Move handles to scale and shear object
• Click and drag outside the object to rotate the object
Transform Objects
• Use the Free Transform Tool in conjunction
with keyboard commands.
– Press and hold [Shift][Ctrl] (Win) or
[Shift][Command] (Mac) to distort image.
– Press and hold [Shift][Alt][Ctrl] (Win) or
[Shift][option][Command] (Mac) while dragging to
distort in perspective.
Transform Objects
• Transform panel displays information about size,
orientation, and location of one or more selected
objects
– Type new values directly into the Transform panel to
modify selected objects
– You can identify the reference point on the bounding
box from which the object will be transformed
Transform Objects
Use the Free Transform Tool to distort objects in perspective
Transform Objects
Offset and Outline Path Command
• The Offset Path command creates a copy of a
selected path set off by a specific distance.
• Useful when working with closed paths,
making concentric shapes or making many
copies of a path at a regular distance from
original.
Offset and Outline Path Command
When you offset a closed path:
• Positive value creates a larger copy outside
original.
• Negative value creates a smaller copy inside
original.
Offset and Outline Path Command
Concentric circles
produced by the
Scale tool
Concentric circles
produced by the Offset
Path command
Offset and Outline Path Command
• Outline Stroke command converts a stroked
path into a closed path at the same width as
original stroked path.
• Useful for applying gradient to a stroke.
Offset and Outline Path Command
The Outline Stroke command converts a
stroked path to a closed object
Create Compound Paths
A compound shape
is two or more paths
combined so that
‘holes’ appear.
Create Compound Paths
The letter D is an example of a compound path
Create Compound Paths
A compound path functions as a group:
– Select and manipulate an individual element with
Direct Selection tool.
– Cannot change appearance attributes
independently.
– Apply the Release Compound Path command to
return objects to original composition.
Create Compound Paths
Manipulating compound paths can yield interesting effects
Work with the Pathfinder Panel
• Shape modes and Pathfinders are preset
operations that help combine paths.
• The Pathfinder panel contains ten buttons for
creating compound shapes.
– Useful for creating complex or irregular shapes
from basic ones
Work with the Pathfinder Panel
• You can create a compound shape by
overlapping two or more objects, then clicking
one of the four shape mode buttons in the top
row of the Pathfinder panel.
Work with the Pathfinder Panel
Work with the Pathfinder Panel
No Filter
Unite
Minus Front
Intersect
Minus Back
Divide
Work with the Pathfinder Panel
• After applying a shape mode button, you can
select the resulting objects in the compound
shape and format them using the Direct
Selection tool.
• You can also press [Alt] (Win) or [option]
(Mac) when you click a shape mode button.
Use the Shape Builder Tool
• The Shape Builder tool creates new closed
paths from overlapping objects.
• Drag the Shape Builder tool across objects
which you want to turn into a single object.
• You can also specify objects to be deleted.
Use the Shape Builder Tool
Red outlines indicate
which shapes will be
included
Fill and stroke for
new shape
Use the Shape Builder Tool
You can also delete an object with the Shape Builder tool by pressing
and holding [Alt] (Win) or [option] (Mac) while dragging.
Create Clipping Masks
• Use a clipping mask as a ‘window’ to see
some or all of the objects behind the mask in
the stacking order.
Create Clipping Masks
• Apply Make Clipping Mask command
– Top object becomes the mask
– Objects behind become ‘masked’
• Only parts of masked object will be seen
through mask.
Create Clipping Masks
Four
objects
being
masked
Black
circle
becomes
mask
Create Clipping Masks
• Using multiple objects as a clipping mask
– Make objects into compound path
– Single object can be used as a single mask
• Creating mask effects
– Position as many items as you want behind mask
Create Clipping Masks
Masks can be used to create stunning visual effects

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