WAVE - MyWeb - University of Iowa

Website Accessibility Testing
Todd M. Weissenberger
Web Accessibility Coordinator
University of Iowa
The Line on Accessibility
• As many as 1 in 5 web users may experience accessibility
• Accessibility strategies often provide a concrete response to
universal usability issues
• Guidelines and tools exist to assist designers and developers
Web standards
Accessibility Legislation
Development and Evaluation Tools
End-User technologies
• Tools can indicate the presence of accessibility barriers
• Human testing is a necessary part of accessibility testing
An Accessibility Assessment can…
Provide insight into your site’s accessibility
Generate a roadmap of corrective tasks
Expose non-standard practices and outcomes
Help you understand your site’s core functions in a deeper
Site Assessments
• Self-Assessment
– Performed by site managers prior to initial Web Accessibility
– Addresses “low-hanging fruit” and common compliance flags
– Likely to catch numerous occurrences of non-conforming code
• Site assessment by ITS Web Accessibility Coordinator
– Automated evaluation tool
– Recommendations and best practices
– Assistance with remediation/rebuilding
Evaluation Scope: the 3 C ’s
• Content
– Site segments
– Content types (HTML, PDF, Media, Office)
• Criteria
– Guidelines, standards, policy
– Tasks, outcomes
• Conformance
– Essential conformance (Yea/Nay)
– Detailed review (number of issues, where they are located)
– In-depth analysis (remediation/repair options)
What to check
• What content do you want to test?
– Top 20% of visited content
– Content that supports core function of unit
– Content with an accommodation request
• What file types are involved?
– Can content be presented in alternative formats?
• What content is under review?
– Remediate
– Rebuild
– Discard
What to look for
Text Alternatives
Keyboard Operability
Document Structure/Heading Levels
CSS Contrast/Element Styles
What to use
• Online Tools
– Juicy Studio
• Plug-Ins and Extensions
Web Developer
Web Accessibility (FAE)
Juicy Studio
Web Accessibility Toolbar
• Manual examination
Title and heading text
Visual focus indicators
Script and timing control
Client-side forms validation
Indicating changes in
– Multimedia captioning
Types of Assessment
• Automated assessment
– Covers a lot of ground
– Yields objective results
– Defined by the tool’s algorithms
• Manual assessment
– Covers ground more slowly
– Results may be informed by user experience
– Task and process based
Text Alternatives
• ALT text provided for images
– ALT text accurately conveys meaning and function
– Empty ALT attributes employed for decorative images
• Links containing images and text are combined into a single
• Text alternatives to non-text content
– Links and other ALT content provided for embedded objects
• CAPTCHAs are visually accessible
• FRAME and IFRAME use the TITLE attribute
Missing or questionable ALT text (WAVE)
Missing or questionable ALT text (WAT)
Keyboard Accessibility
All content and functionality are available using the keyboard
Keyboard event handlers are equivalent to mouse handlers
No keyboard traps exist
Objects are highlighted onfocus
Custom key shortcuts don’t conflict with the parent
application or operating system
Document Structure/Heading Levels
Pages use an appropriate DTD
All pages include a descriptive <title>
Pages include appropriate meta information
Page language identified by the LANG attribute
Changes in human language are indicated by the use of the
LANG attribute
Document Structure/Heading Levels
Pages use an appropriate DTD
All pages include a descriptive <title>
Pages include appropriate meta information
Page language identified by the LANG attribute
Changes in human language are indicated by the use of the
LANG attribute
FAE Toolbar: Missing DTD, Title, and LANG
Heading Levels
• Open page or document
• In WAVE toolbar, select Outline
• In Web Accessibility toolbar, select Information >> View
Document Outline
• Questions:
– Does heading structure skip levels?
– Does page include <h1>?
– Are there <h2> elements preceding navigation lists?
Visual Appearance
Broken Heading Structure (WAT)
CSS, Contrast and Text Size
• Color contrast ratios
– 4.5:1 (14 point text or smaller)
– 3:1 (larger than 14 point)
• Font sizes described in em, % or names
• Text in form inputs is scalable
• Pages equally legible when style sheets are omitted
• Open the page or document
• In WAVE toolbar, select Disable Styles
• In Web Accessibility toolbar, select CSS >> Disable Styles >>
Disable All Styles
• Questions:
– Is page still legible?
– Does the page order make sense?
Color Contrast
Open Colour Contrast Analyser
Use eyedropper to select foreground/background colors
Results visible in CCA
– Does large text meet contrast standards?
– Does small text meet contrast standards?
Colour Contrast Analyser
Text Size
• Open the page or document
• Firefox
– Increase Zoom (Win: Ctrl ++, Mac: Cmd ++)
• Internet Explorer
• Questions:
– Does text zoom at all?
– Does text remain legible within page layout?
– Are form inputs scalable?
Text Zooming in Firefox
• Form inputs accompanied by <label> OR use the TITLE
• Forms are keyboard operable
• Users can review and correct inputs before submitting form
• Form validation and alert include descriptions of errors
• Form validation and alert are interactive for users of assistive
Check Form Labels
• Web Accessibility Toolbar
– Select Forms >> View Form Information
– All input elements should have ID attributes, and be accompanied by
– Run Errors, Features, and Alerts report
– Note missing label tags positioned next to form inputs
Missing Form Labels: Web Accessibility Toolbar
Missing Form Labels: WAVE
Data Tables
Tables are not used for page layout
Tables use <th> and <td> to structure and present data
Table headers include SCOPE and ID attributes
Data cells include HEADERS attribute
Tables include CAPTION and SUMMARY
FAE: Table construction
Dynamic Content
• Content that updates automatically can be user-controlled
• Content that updates automatically uses ARIA alert or live role
to notify user as appropriate
• User can obtain extension for timed events
• Captioning and Transcripts
– Synchronized delivery
– Searchable
• Keyboard operable

similar documents