US History Chapter 26 Section 1 & 2 The Cold War

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The Cold War
Essential Question:
How did the increase in
Communism after WWII lead to
global issues during the Cold
War?
Post World War II
Much of Europe is left in ruins with little
infrastructure.
 Japan is devastated from use of the A-bomb.
 Two countries with opposite political
philosophies emerge as world powers.
 Early optimism for cooperation quickly fades
into distrust and fear.

Origins of the Cold War
Communism vs. Democracy/Capitalism
U.S.S.R vs. U.S.A
What’s the problem?
What makes the economic and political
systems of the United States and the
Soviet Union incompatible?
 Lingering resentment over past events.

Stalin’s relationship with Hitler, Allied refusal to invade Europe
in 1944, development of the atomic bomb.
Despite issues, both nations join the U.N.
in 1945.
Yalta: Bargain or Betrayal? p. 869
Final meeting of the “Big Three”
 Purpose?
 Final plans made for defeat of Germans &
what would occur to German occupied
territory & E. Europe after WWII
 Japan? Poland?
 Far East/China?

Plans laid for what new
international peace
keeping organization?
A New President



V.P. Harry Truman is
thrust into the spotlight
when FDR dies in 1945.
Americans were
skeptical of Truman’s
ability to lead the
nation. Truman had
only met with
Roosevelt twice in his
82 days as V.P.
Truman would prove he
was up to the task in
his first few months as
President.

Truman had on the job
training in dealing with
leaders like Stalin and
Churchill.
Conflicting Goals in Europe
United States vs. Soviet Union
 How
do the post WWII goals of the
USA & USSR conflict?
 What does each country want to
promote in Europe?
Soviet Satellite Nations
Due to extreme causalities and extensive
damage from WWII, Soviets feel vulnerable
to attack from the West.
 Soviet’s want to control neighboring
countries. Satellite nations will be dependent
upon Soviet Welfare.
 Stalin props up governments in Albania,
Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia,
Romania, Poland, the Baltic States and other
countries all over E. Europe.

The Containment Policy





Time to stop “babying the Soviets”
U.S. diplomat George Kennan
proposes policy of Containment.
U.S. efforts to block the spread
and influence of Soviet
communism during the late 1940s
and early 1950s.
Must stop the domino effect of
communism.
Containment will guide Truman’s
foreign policy.
U.S. Containment Efforts

Truman Doctrine – 1947
U.S. will support free
peoples resisting
takeovers by “armed
minorities or outside
pressures.” a.k.a. communists
 The U.S. will provide
economic and military aid
to free nations threatened
by internal or external
components (communism).
 Begins with aid
to Turkey
and Greece.

Marshall Plan - 1947
W. Europe is devastated
No work, no infrastructure,
millions are homeless.
 The primary purpose of
the Marshall Plan was to
aid the economic recovery
of war-torn Europe
 What’s the catch?
 Congress debates for
months, what happens to
ensure the Marshall Plan’s
passage?
George Marshall
Welches, mit Deutschland zu
machen?
Germany divided into
four zones.
 Soviets want Germany
weak and divided.
 U.S., France, and
Britain believe Europe
will be more stable if
Germany is reunited.
 1948 Western Zones
are combined into one
nation.
 E. Germany becomes a
Soviet Satellite.

Berlin Airlift Soviets blockade West Berlin




American and British
officials fly food and
supplies to W. Berlin to
break the blockade.
Nearly 30,000 flights over
the course of 327 days
brought 2.3 million tons
of supplies to W. Berlin.
Flights took off and
landed every few minutes
and went around the
clock.
Berlin Airlift humiliated
the Soviets and they
eventually lifted the
blockade.
Warsaw Pact
• Formed by the Soviet Union and their E.
European satellites when W. Germany
rearms and joins NATO.
• Warsaw Pact is an alliance just like NATO
Essential Question:
 How
did the increase in Communism
after World War II lead to domestic
issues during the Cold War?
After WWII what / who do Americans fear most of all?
• Post WWII Americans
fear that communism is
taking over the world.
• Americans also fear
nuclear war with the
Soviet Union
The House Un-American
Activities Committee (HUAC)



Based on the Loyalty
Review Board
Developed by
congress to search
out disloyalty before
WWII.
HUAC first made
headlines when
began to investigate
Communist influence
in the movie industry
in 1947.
Walt Disney, Ronald Reagan, Ayn Rand
among those questioned.
Hollywood vs. Washington D.C.
“Reds” in our midst?
The Hollywood Ten





HUAC subpoenas
43 witnesses from
Hollywood.
Many are “friendly”
and cooperate with
HUAC.
10 are “unfriendly”
refuse to name
names
Thought hearings
were
unconstitutional.
Results in being
Blacklisted.
Spy Paranoia
USSR detonates A-bomb
in 1949, three years ahead
of schedule.
 How did Soviets make up
so much ground so
quickly?
 Somebody gave the
Soviets inside info about
America’s atomic bomb
development.

Alger Hiss




Investigated by the
HUAC, Hiss was the
first American to be
indicted for spying
post WWII.
Convicted of perjury
in 1950.
Would set the stage
for the future events.
Spread of communist
fear second red
scare.
Who led the charge against Alger Hiss?
Ethel & Julius Rosenberg
Executed for
espionage in 1953.
 Convicted of
giving American
atomic secrets to
the Soviets.
 Rosenberg's were
members of the
American
Communist Party

 How
did the spy cases
involving Alger Hiss and the
Rosenbergs effect the
domestic environment of post
WWII United States?

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