By: Ayat Ahmad, Reggie and Salvador Foot-in-the-door Low balling Door-in-the-face Definition: Requests persuades target to agree to a small request, then follows it up with a second and larger (actual target) request. Example: Requester persuades target to buy one small bag of M&M’s, for 2 dollars, then later asks them to buy larger bag for 4 dollars. In other words if target is persuaded to sign a petition first then s/he is more likely to comply when next asked to make a donation. Studies: Sherman (1980): Sherman (1980) called residents in Indiana (USA) and asked them if, hypothetically, they would volunteer to spend 3 hours collecting for the American Cancer Society. Three days later, a second experimenter called the same people and actually requested help for this organization. Of those responding to the earlier request, 31% agreed to help. This is much higher than the 4% of a similar group of people who volunteered to help when approached directly. Explanation on why this may work comes from the self-perception theory. Studies continued….. Bem (1972): Bem (1972) hypothesized that people sometimes infer their inner states (such as attitudes and emotions) from their behavior and the situation in which the behavior occurred. So in the above study when peoples hypothetically agreed to collect money for a cancer charity they may engage in a self-perception process in whereby they label themselves as “helpful”. Therefore when the second request is made these individuals are more likely to agree because after all, they are helpful people. Thus the initial request stimulated a self-perception of helpfulness. Evidence for the self-perception theory has also been seen in real life situations. After teenagers participated in repeated and sustained volunteering services, their attitudes were demonstrated to have shifted to be more caring and considerate towards others (Brunelle, 2001) Definition: Two step technique in which the persuader secures agreement with request but then reveals a hidden cost. Example: Requester persuades target to agree to buy a bag of M&M’s for 4 dollars, but shortly after says that it’s actually $ 4.50. Another example is a target books and pays for a package holiday and then they are told that there are charges. She/he agrees to pay the charges. Studies: Cialdini (1978) Cialdini (1978) asked students whether they would participate in a psychology experiment that started at 7 am and most people refused (control group). In an experimental condition Cialdini asked people whether they would participate in a psychology experiment, and even though they weren’t told a time most people agreed. Later they were told that it started at 7 am and given the chance to drop out if they wanted. On the day of the experiment 95% turned up as promised for the 7am appointment. Explanation to where this can be found in is cognitive dissonance theory. Studies Continued……. Festinger & Carlsmith (1957): Festinger (1957) hypothesized that people want their attitudes and behaviors to be consistent with each other. If there is a conflict (dissonance) between the two an uncomfortable state may occur. In order to reduce the inner tension we feel we may do one of three things – change the belief, change the action or change the perception of the action. In the above study dissonance may occur between commitments to take part in the experiment but annoyance at the early start. How did people resolve this conflict? According to cognitive dissonance theory they may have changed their beliefs about 7am being an unreasonable start time. Definition: Another two-step technique in which a large request is made first and is then followed up by a smaller one (the target request) Example: Requester persuades target to big bag of M&M’s for 4 dollars and upon refusal offers a smaller bag for 2 dollars. Another example is the target is asked to do 5 hours voluntary work every week for a charity, and when they request is refused they are asked to simply make a small donation to the charity. Studies: Cialdini (1975) Cialdini (1975) asked people if they would escort a group of young criminals to the zoo; most refused (control group). In control group 2 people were approached and asked to spend 2 hours per week as a peer counselor to young criminals for around 2 years; again most said no. However in the experimental condition people were asked to be peer counselors and then the request was downgraded to escort children to the zoo (the target request). 50% agreed to the request. Asked people if they would escort a group of young criminals to the zoo; most refused (control group). In control group 2 people were approached and asked to spend 2 hours per week as a peer counselor to young criminals for around 2 years; again most said no. However in the experimental condition people were asked to be peer counselors and then the request was downgraded to escort children to the zoo (the target request). 50% agreed to the request. Cialdini proposed this could be explained by the norm of reciprocity. This means we should reciprocate (give back and return) favors done for us. The norm of reciprocity seems to be a universal phenomenon. So when someone presents a smaller, second request following the refusal of a larger request this second request may be seen as a concession on his/her parts – a compromise in response to the initial refusal. Therefore given that the requester has made a concession by lowering the demand, the least the target an do is make a concession in return (reciprocate): the most obvious concession would be to agree to the smaller request. In the above study the requester downgraded his/her request from counseling to zoo trip – therefore the target feels obliged to return the favor by agreeing to the zoo trip. What is an example of low balling? What study was presented for Door-in-the-face? What is the definition of foot-in-the-door? 1. An example of Low balling was requester persuades target to agree to buy a bag of M&M’s for 4 dollars, but shortly after says that it’s actually $ 4.50. 2. Cialdini (1975) 3. Foot-in-the-door: requests persuades target to agree to a small request, then follows it up with a second and larger (actual target) request.