### 邏輯推論的類型 - pugec.org

```邏輯推論的類型
Deduction(演繹推論)

A deduction is speech (logos) in which, certain things
having been supposed, something different from those
supposed results of necessity because of their being so.
(Prior Analytics I.2, 24b18-20)
Aristotle(384-322 B.C.)
 Organon
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Evaluation：由普遍性的律則出發，推

Induction(歸納推論)
induction (epagôgê)：another specie of
argument recognized by Aristotle.
 “argument from the particular to the
universal”(Organon, Cateroriae, 105a11-12).
 E.g. 假設技藝精湛的領航員是最有效能的，技藝精湛的
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[(Ta∧Ea) ∧(Tb∧Eb)] x(Tx∧Ex)
Analytica Priora(68b 15-29)
 完全歸納法
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[F(x1) ∧…∧F(xn) ∧y(G(y) y=x1∨…∨y=xn)]  y(G(y) F(y))
Analytica Priora(68b41-69a11)
 類比推論
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Francis Bacon(1561-1626)
 New Organon(1620)
 亞里斯多德以來建立的邏輯理論，並不


David Hume(1711-1776)
 Problem of Induction(歸納推論的合理性

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Evaluation：透過累積個案的觀察，獲

1. 前提觀察個案越多越好
2. 個案間個體差異越大越好
Abduction(回溯推論)
Inference to the Best Explanation.
 this type of inference is frequently
employed, in some form or other, both in
everyday and in scientific reasoning.
 C. S. Peirce(1839-1914)
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Deduction.
Rule: All the beans from this bag are white.
Case: These beans are from this bag.
Result: These beans are white.
Induction.
Case: These beans are [randomly selected] from this
bag.
Result: These beans are white.
Rule: All the beans from this bag are white.
Hypothesis (Abduction).
Rule: All the beans from this bag are white.
Result: These beans [oddly] are white.
Case: These beans are from this bag.

Evaluation：透過回溯性的尋求最佳可

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