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STAFF FEST TSL Showcase
Blending Teaching, Learning and
Assessment
Level 6 Business Strategy and Beyond at
the Business School:
(Not Just Business as Usual)
Peter J Considine
Blended Learning with Business, Law
and Education
• “Blended learning is a half-way house between face-to-face
and distance learning, typically used when students are
able to attend a college or university for short, relatively
intense sessions but cannot attend on a regular basis.
• As our relations with various organisations deepens, and as
we interact with more diverse student groups in a number
of situations, we will need to develop a more common
understanding of the frameworks to be used when we talk
of blended learning as a strategy”
(Faculty of Business, Education and Law “Blended Learning
Frameworks” 2014)
Approaches to Blending
Rossett, Douglis, and Frazee (2003) Learning Circuits
Model 1 – “Typical” delivery pattern
for a 15 credit module
Week
Face to Face
Lecture
Guided
Learning
Independent
Study
Assessment
Tutorial
1
1
2
1
7
2
1
2
1
7
3
1
2
1
7
4
1
2
1
7
5
1
2
1
7
6
1
2
1
7
7
1
2
1
7
8
1
2
1
7
9
1
2
1
7
10
1
2
1
7
11
1
2
1
7
12
1
2
1
7
9
Totals
12
24
12
84
18
9
150
Model 2 Blended– Reduced class contact and increased Guided
Learning
Face to Face
Totals
Lecture
12
Tutorial
12
Guided
Learning
Independent
Study
Assessment
48
58
20
150
Model 3 Blended – Further reduction in contact, greater guidance
provided
Model 4 – Full Distance Learning
Face to Face
Totals
Lecture
6
Tutorial
12
Guided
Learning
Independent
Study
Assessment
60
52
20
150
Model 4 – Full Distance Learning (DL programmes often start
with a one to many face to face launch)
Face to Face
Totals
Lecture
0
Tutorial
0
Guided
Learning
Independent
Study
Assessment
84
46
20
150
A Look at Blending TLA –
A case study on L6 Strategic and International
Strategic Management: Timeline
•
•
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•
•
•
•
•
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2005/6. A blended approach using Blackboard with learning out of class supported
by embedded links to Macro Media Contribute
2006/7 Blended Assessment with the introduction of a split assessment including
mini-learning portfolios – used until the mandate to have only one assessment
point per 15 credits
2008 Computer based Business Simulations (Double Learning and Teaching
Fellowship) Project saw the successful introduction of Business Simulations – to
2010 with roll out initially on small group teaching and on large group teaching
since 2010
Simulation based learning Student recognition achieved also in the UBC National
simulation – four teams through to the Semi finals on the University Business
Challenge
Above leading to significant improvements in student attainment and satisfaction
with learning
2010 on – e-assessment introduced using Turnitin and Grademark
2014 revisiting blended learning as a more immersive blackboard experience
2014 Re-introducing a blended learning and assessment model on a new 30 credit
module
Business School developing a Blended MBA for corporate clients
Traditional On –Campus USE of VLE’s
Blackboard as a (quick and dirty) repository
• How does this lead to deeper more
engaging off campus “blended “learning?
• Does the “tutor” think as the “learner”
with this drop up one slides approach?
• A Nested Hierarchy of sub learning
blocks
• With Learner Readings, Tasks and
• Learning through Games with:
• Business Simulations
Developing BB VLE as a More Immersive
Environment (beyond the repository) 1.
Blended Learning
Through
Guided Study
Blocks
Developing BB VLE as a More Immersive
Environment (beyond the repository) 2.
Embedded and E-book supported Learning tasks
“Blending” Formative with Summative
Students select a portfolio of formative related assessments for e-submission
Core Texts Available as E-Books (Dawsonera)
ICONIC Blended
Learning Activities
Readings – included supported e-books
Tasks – Individual and Group (Learning Cell)
and both Formative and Summative
Tasks Completed !
Assessment Design with Learning
Portfolios and Strategy Simulations
Strategic Management Delivery at Level 3
– Choice of “mini” learning portfolio topics based upon first
five weeks of modules programme
– Competitive Group Work Project on the Simulation (social
constructionist perspectives on learning)
– Two further learning portfolio’s with one a being a reflective
journal on simulation based learning
A Teaching Learning & Assessment model without the
traditional (Harvard Business School 1920’s Final case
method exam/assignment)
Text Based Case Studies (Long & Short)
Week 15
Week 14
Week 13
Week 12
Week 11
Week 10
Week 9
Week 8
Week 7
Week 6
Week 5
Week 4
Week 3
Week 2
Week 1
The Traditional Case Based Method (HBS in
the 1920’s) In Teaching Strategy and “Case
Study Fatigue” in Students –
Final Summative
Case Study
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Motivation
Wk
1
Wk
3
Wk
5
Wk
7
Wk
9
Wk
11
Wk
13
Wk
15
Case Study
Fatigue?`
Gamification in Pedagogy on Business
Strategy : Some Justifications 1
Some years ago Mintzberg & Quinn (1991) contended that:
The text based case (TCM) method can be counter productive, by
giving misleading, if not even dangerous, over-simplifications of the
realities of strategic processes
That assessment and output tends to converge upon the lecturer’s own
analysis and recommendations.
However Faria & Wellington (2004) found from their surveys of former
users and users that simulations:
– interest and motivate students,
– integrate functional areas within a firm and
– importantly provide a measure of student comprehension and
subject matter understanding.
We Introduced Simulations on Strategic Management in 2007 and
rolled out on large groups teaching (240 plus students) in 2010.
Gamification in Pedagogy on Business Strategy : Some
Justifications 2
The Attainment of Functioning and Professional Knowledge
• To prepare our students for real life career development and
to be on the pathway towards managerial expertise we need
to expose them to as much “practice” as possible and which
requires closer alignment to award level and module level
Learning Outcomes
• On Capstone or integrative modules such as Business Strategy,
the Leaning outcomes related to functioning knowledge and
in particular “Problem Solving” (decision making) &
“Reflection” are difficult, (if not impossible), to properly
realise using the Traditional Case Method alone.
Mini E-Portfolio’s 1 to 3 from a given choice
Introduction to StratSim Manager (Automotive context)
Initial Situation Briefing
For competing Teams
Environmental changes
/Competitive Moves
Input Decisions
Period n=1
Internal Changes –
Financial data etc.
HR = “Team Dynamics”
Mid Nov Submission
Dec for Interim
Summative Feedback
Weeks 3/4 Two week
trial practice familiarisation of
simulation environment
Weeks 5 to 11.Team
Simulation Assignment
Part 1. Initial
Assessment/Mission/Strategi
es/Tactics
Part 2. Decision Output
Reports/Strategy
Adjustment/Successes/
Issues/ (S) Jan Submission
Input Decisions
Period n=7
Assessment Model Formative
to Summative Business
Simulations with E-Portfolios
End Game
Portfolio 4 Simulation based
Portfolio 5 – Reflective Portfolio
against LO’s Jan Submission
Proposition: Learning Business Strategy: The Role of Simulations in
“Top Down” and in “Bottom Up” Learning
.
University “K”:
Declarative,
abstract and
conceptual
(labelling,
differentiating,
elaborating &
Problem Based
Learning (PBL)/ or
Problem Based
Gaming (PBG): Kiili
(2007)
Professional “K”:
(Functioning, specific
– deals with
executing, applying &
making priorities )*
Functioning Knowledge
justifying) *
Conditional Knowledge
Declarative knowledge
(dominant in Universities):
Propositional knowledge –
taught/researched knowledge
– what we “declare in lectures”
e.g. Biggs(2003) SOLO after
“extended abstract”
* McCarthy Young & Merryman (1995) in Biggs (2011)
Subsumes both
procedural and
higher level
declarative
knowledge
Procedural knowledge:
Skill Based, functioning
knowledge without a
conceptual foundation
Welcome to Executive (used in large
group learning (240 plus students)
A Real Time Simulation based on the
European Automotive Industry
The Simulation in Overview…
You will be working in a team environment to manage an automotive
company trading in the European car market. The module will
comprise the following elements :
PLANNING – Preparing a Strategic Plan, agreeing
responsibilities
DECISION MAKING – Making five sets of business
decisions as a team and to deadlines
REVIEWING AND REPORTING – Assessing progress
during each year of the simulation and submitting an
individual report at the end of the module
April Executive Simulations.
Year 1 results . Sorted by ROCE %
World
Team Name
Sales Gross
Post tax
Gross
Sales
Current
Bank
ROCE
Num
(bn)
profit (m)
Margin %
margin %
ratio
Bal (m)
%
profit (m)
Epsilon
6 Chinese Motors
1.58
631
267
39.80
21.85
0.46
16
109.2
Epsilon
5 Innovation Company
2.60
712
296
27.41
14.87
1.77
424
43.2
Delta
2 SU Motors
2.66
701
225
26.31
10.85
1.30
-8
39.8
Alpha
3 Pro Motor plc.
2.07
557
166
26.87
10.26
1.32
133
32.1
Delta
7 AFCHI
1.75
542
138
30.93
10.10
0.56
45
31.4
Alpha
2 Optimum
1.43
570
227
39.79
21.88
3.03
410
30.5
Delta
5 ecoKINETIC
1.84
543
152
29.41
10.53
1.05
110
29.8
Alpha
1 Zone
1.84
450
146
24.41
10.11
1.39
57
28.9
Gamma
7 Giovanni
2.28
730
175
32.03
10.60
1.56
146
26.2
Beta
8 JASK
1.68
502
148
29.87
11.99
1.95
103
25.9
Delta
1 Aston Motors
2.18
588
216
27.05
14.44
4.42
445
25.8
Gamma
9 Royal PLC
1.90
476
122
25.08
8.23
0.90
110
25.3
Beta
2 Fu
1.20
369
122
30.88
13.12
1.23
101
25.2
Gamma
1 Voyager
2.21
463
154
20.96
9.65
1.84
228
24.9
Iota
1 GoGo Ltd
2.20
498
114
22.59
6.61
1.05
232
23.7
Epsilon
2 Golden Glede
2.44
547
108
22.43
6.00
1.55
88
22.2
Iota
2 BEBBO MOTORS LTD
1.61
380
94
23.65
7.54
1.02
-28
20.4
In total. Typically Some 60 Teams of students compete in Worlds (up
to 8 teams per world) and competition for top places across the cohort
(games and competition in blending learning)
Country Manager (used in smaller group situations on
International Strategy – up to 54 students)
The International Business
Simulation
23
Welcome to Country Manager!
CountryManager is an International Marketing
simulation focusing on market entry and
expansion:
• You play the role of Toothpaste Category Manager
for a major consumer products company about to
enter the Latin American market
• For the next ten years, your team will build the
“Allsmile” brand in one market and, ultimately,
expand into other Latin American markets
24
Develop and implement strategies that are attractive
to customers in each country and profitable for Allstar
Brands
A Move to E-Assessment in 2010
Allocation of scripts from the office to the marking team – significant
time spent and now totally time saving with e-assessment
Marking on line – use of Rubrics and “quickmark” can save time and
will improves consistency in marking on large cohort modules
In 2014 with 240 odd students marked completed and released ahead
of deadlines.
Need to consider ergonomic /H&S issues with extensive PC/Screen
work involved in mass on-line marking
External have remote access to sample for moderation
Marks submitted to students via Grademark and to the office for
processing – further time saved and no double entry errors c.f.
manual approaches
E-assessment via Turnitin (1)
Summary of Results of Comparative Study
Strategy.
Without Simulations
Sample 93 students
Average Mark: 60.55.%
SD: 10.81
Max%: 85.00 %
Min%: 18.00 %
With Simulations
Sample Size: 57 students
Average Mark: 63.70%
SD: 8.21
Max: 79.00%
Min: 40.00 %
Individual Case Assignment
Element Av: 62.09 %
Blending with Simulations has led to a consistent improvement in summative attainment
Proposition: Blending TLA, Simulations, Experience and “Deliberate”
Practice. Engaged Learners More Prepared for Professional Practice
Adapted from Ericsson (2007)
3. “Expert
Performance”
Performance
.
2. The UG
Intermediary?
Generative/Experiential Learning
via Blending TLA with Business
Games/Simulations. The
workplace ready “Staffordshire
Graduate”
1. The Novice
“Studies on students’ perceptions of learning in business
simulations often suggest that students like simulations and
view them more positively than both lectures and
case discussions” Palmunen et al (2013)
Experience (time)
Blending
How do you blend? (adapted from
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There’s no cookbook for blends. The topic calls out for empirical research, stymied to date by
murky definitions for blends and their ingredients, as well as the normal challenges associated
with workplace studies. In the meantime, here are some guidelines for thinking about and
constructing successful combinations. Derived from experience, observations of best practices,
and the instructional design literature, these approaches highlight real constraints.
Stability and urgency. Will this content last for one or two years? Will there be changes within
days or weeks? A good distinction to remember is that product information tends to be fickle,
while such concepts as a perspective on leadership or customer service possess more staying
power.
Another consideration is the amount of time developers have to create the belnd's ingredients.
Does the program need to be up and running within five days or will there be several months to
design and develop assets for the blend?
Rossett, Felicia, Douglis, and Frazee (2003)
Going Blended on TLA Costs and Time
Rossett, Felicia, Douglis, and Frazee (2003)
Some Concluding Thoughts (1)
• Blending is a mix of approaches to engaging our learners
• To support out of classroom/off campus engagement we
need to develop our VLE’s beyond being a repository into a
more structured (hierarchal) and immersive learning
environment, with clear specified and supported learning
environments
• This immersive design can be done with environments such
as Blackboard (an ever evolving if clunky application) but
such can support embedded and more suitable applications
such as “Contribute”.
• Blending Assessments. Going beyond the traditional final
summative case based approach has been found to
improve student attainment (the use of choice of eportfolios and which however required more than one
assessment point per 15 credits or a 30 credit module)
Some Concluding Thoughts (2)
• E-assessments complement the blend enabling
students to submit remote from the campus
• Blending with Simulations. Team/game based (social
learning) pedagogies most certainly engages our
students through competitive real world scenarios
• Learning through Simulations aligns with students
acquiring “real world” or “functioning knowledge”,
beyond the novice and aligns with the Staffordshire
Graduate.
• In the case of introducing and then rolling out to large
cohorts simulation based learning requires a certain
amount of courage, but once up and running it is well
worth it
Some Concluding Thoughts (3)
• However such developments put the tutor in the shoes of
the learner and with simulations the tutor becomes a colearner/consultant (relates well a virtual form of practice
based learning).
• Developing more immersive approaches to asynchronous
learning will take time (and cost)
• Other complementary techniques include “Flipping the
Class Room” and by challenging delivery patterns –
(blending teaching).
• Piloting and encouraging innovations in blending learning
approaches alongside having a School/Faculty wide set of
guiding principles is important
Readings
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Biggs, J. (2011) Teaching for Quality Learning at University Open University Press
Bragge, Precha Thavikulwat and Juuso Töyli (2013) Profiling 40 Years of Research in Simulation & Gaming. Simulation and
Gaming Vol 41(6) 848-868
Ericsson, Charness, Feltovich & Hoffman (2007). The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance; Cambridge
University Press
Faria & Wellington (2004). A survey of simulation game users, former users, and never users. Simulation & Gaming, Vol 35, 782007
Fortmuller, R. (2009) Learning through Business Games: Acquiring Competences Within Virtual Realities. Simulation & Gaming
Vol. 40, No1,68-73
Jennings, D.R. (2001) Strategic management: An evaluation of the use of three learning methods. Journal of Management
Development. Vol. 21. No9, 655-665
Kiili (2007). Foundation for problem-based gaming. British Journal of Educational Technology Vol 38, 394-404
Mitchell (2004). Combining cases and computer simulations in strategic management course. Journal of Education for Business,
Vol. 79, 198-204
Mintzberg, Qunin & Ghosal (1991) Strategy Process, Context and Concepts.
Palmunen, Pelto, Paalumäki and Lainema. (2013) Formation of Novice Business Students’ Mental Models Through Simulation
Gaming. Simulation and Gaming. Vol 44(6) 846–868
Rossett, Douglis, and Frazee (2003) Learning Circuits (on line subscritpion)
http://ablendedmaricopa.pbworks.com/f/Strategies%20Building%20Blended%20Learning.pdf (accessed 17th June 2014
Wittrock, M C. (1985). Teacher learner generative strategies for enhancing reading comprehension. Theory Into Practice, Vol.
24. no 2: 123-126
Wortley (2013) Immersive Technology Strategies. Simulation and Gamming Vol 44, 869-881
Towler (2007). An exploration of student perception of a business simulation game. The International Journal of Management
Education 7, 69-79

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