Variations in Consciousness

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Variations in
Consciousness
Are you awake right now? How
about in 20 minutes?
Levels of Awareness

Conscious

Subconscious

Unconscious
How we measure levels of
awareness

EEG

EMG
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EOG
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All used in sleep research
Circadian Rhythms

24 hour or 25 hour?

Ignoring circadian rhythms
Awake (resting)
Alpha waves
Beta waves
Stage 1 sleep
Theta waves
Stage 2 sleep
Sleep
spindle
k complex
Seconds
Stage 3 sleep
Delta waves
Stage 4 sleep
Delta waves
REM sleep
Theta waves
Beta waves
06_05
Fig9_5
EEG sleep stages
Awake
REM
1
REM
REM
REM
REM
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
Hours of sleep
5
6
7
Freud’s theory
of dreams
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Freud believed that nothing
we did occurred by chance; every
action and thought is motivated by
our unconscious at some level.
While we try to repress our urges
and impulses they have a way of
coming to the surface in disguised
forms – such as dreams.

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Freud understood the symbolic
nature of dreams and believed
dreams were a direct connect
to our unconscious.
Freud was preoccupied with
sexual content in dreams.

Thoughts repressed during the day
also have a way of being fulfilled in
your dreams. Freud believed that
every imagery and symbol that
appears in a dream have a sexual
connotation. Anxiety dreams were
seen as a sign of repressed sexual
impulses
Activation-Synthesis Model

States that dreams represent
random and meaningless neural
activity

States that the pons sends out
millions of nerve impulses and the
cortex tries to make sense of these
signals.

May create feelings, emotions,
random movements, perceptions
and meaningless images
Cartwright
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Problem-solving view – work out
problems over the course of the
night
Dream Themes

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Falling – failing
Being attacked or pursuedprocrastination
School, teachers, studying –
dreaming of greatness
Arriving too late – need I say
more? (actually, failure)
Being naked in public
(vulnerability)
Sleep apnea


Most Common Symptoms
-Loud Snoring
-Waking up non refreshed and
having trouble staying awake
during the day
-Waking up with headaches
-Waking up during the night
sometimes with the sensation of
choking
-Waking up sweating
Narcolepsy


Symptoms
Excessive sleepiness.
-Temporary decrease or loss
of muscle control, especially
when getting excited.
-Vivid dream-like images
when drifting off to sleep or
waking up.
-Waking up unable to move or
talk for a brief time.
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TREATMENT:
There is no cure for narcolepsy.
May be treated with stimulant drugs
Basic lifestyle adjustments such as
keeping a good sleep schedule,
improving diet, increasing exercise
and avoiding "exciting" situations
may also help to reduce the effects
of excessive daytime sleepiness and
cataplexy.
Insomnia



-Difficulty falling asleep
-No problem falling asleep but
difficulty staying asleep (many
awakenings)
-Waking up too early
How much sleep does a person
need?
Enough to feel alert during the day.
Typically 7 to 9 hours (varies from
person to person) of good quality
sleep.

Transient and short-term
insomnia generally occur in
people who are temporarily
experiencing one or more of
the following:
- stress
- environmental noise
- extreme temperatures change
in the surrounding environment
- sleep/wake schedule problems
such as those due to jet lag
- medication side effects
Treatment of insomnia

Relaxation Therapy. There are
specific and effective techniques
that can reduce or eliminate
anxiety and body tension. As a
result, the person's mind is able
to stop "racing," the muscles
can relax, and restful sleep can
occur.

Sleep Restriction

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Don’t spend too much time in bed
unsuccessfully trying to sleep.
Reconditioning
associate the bed and bedtime
with sleep.
 Use bed for sleep and relations
only

Reconditioning cont’d

Go to bed only when sleepy.

If unable to fall asleep, the person is told to
get up, stay up until sleepy, and then return
to bed.

Avoid naps

Wake up and go to bed at the same time
each day.

Eventually the person's body will be
conditioned to associate the bed and
bedtime with sleep.
Pseudo-insomnia

These are people who often do,
in fact, get enough sleep, but
they tend to misjudge the
amount that they got.

This is often because of REM
deprivation
Healthology
Night terrors

Usually occur in stage 3 or 4 –
occur during 1st part of night

Child usually displays a piercing
scream, followed by sudden
wakefulness and sympathetic
nervous system is activated
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The child is very difficult to calm
down and may need several
minutes to awaken

Night terrors occur in
approximately 3-7% of children
between the ages of 4-12
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Seems to disappear by
adolescence but may require
therapy

Often do not remember what it
was that they were dreaming
about
Nightmares

Occur during REM sleep, so we tend
to see them occur more towards the
3rd and 4th cycle (not stage) of sleep

When the person awakes, they often
remember the nightmare in detail

Although the nightmare ends upon
waking, the anxiety often persists –
often due to anxiety
Sleepwalking (somnambulism)

Usually occurs in stages 3 and 4
(deep NRem) and consists of
getting up and walking while
sound asleep.

Sleepwalkers generally have
poor coordination, are clumsy,
but can engage in very limited
conversation and have no
memory of sleepwalking
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Sleepwalking is more common
in childhood, however, there are
some adults who may
sleepwalk, although this may be
due to sleep dep., stress, or
mental problems.
Hypnosis: myth and reality

Myth
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Reality
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Mostly just compliance -
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Highly motivated subjects
are often hypnotized
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Willful faking
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Physiological responses
indicate subjects are not
lying
-
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Myth
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Reality
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Subjects in a
sleeplike state
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People who are
hypnotized often lose
control of themselves

Subjects are emitting
alpha waves-awake but
resting
Subjects have been able
to say no to commands
under hypnosis

Hypnosis may help a
person remember the
past more accurately

Subject’s memory is often
muddled between
memory and fantasy

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