Did the Americans achieve their goals in the War of 1812?

Report
•How did a failure of diplomacy lead to the outbreak of war?
•Where did Republicans and Federalists stand on declaring and then fighting
the war?
•How did the war affect the new nation?
•Did the Americans achieve their goals in the War of 1812?
What are some major events leading
to The War of 1812?
In 1802, Napoleon Bonaparte (France) began a
series of conquests called the Napoleonic Wars
intended to compete with European imperialism and
counter attacks related to revolutionary fear
Part of these wars was the sale of Louisiana,
which was positive for the U.S.
However, due to “neutrality” of U.S., trade with
both Britain and France led to hurt feelings—
France had cut off trade of other European nations
with Britain; Britain retaliates
What are some major events
leading to The War of 1812?
One means of retaliation was through trade
restrictions. As the U.S. was trading openly with
France and Britain, US ships were harassed,
cargo that appeared “French” was seized (sugar,
molasses…).
Britain required licenses for ships bound for Europe
France confiscated cargo from licensed ships
Impressment of American sailors
Many British sailors desert their ships, join U.S. crews
British Navy kidnapped these sailors off American
ships and had them rejoin the British Navy
1807: Attack on U.S. Navy vessel Chesapeake sparks
U.S. response (Chesapeake-Leopard Affair)
What are some major events
leading to The War of 1812?
Response to Britain—
Economic Diplomacy
(Coercion): Embargo
Act of 1807
Halted all trade with
Europe until Britain and
France lift restrictions on
U.S. trade; requires
license for any trade
Embargo is a government
ban on trade with other
countries
Overestimated reliance on
trade with Europe;
underestimated resistance
of Northern merchants
“Ograbme” (see above)
Embargo is depicted as a
snapping turtle with a trading
license, biting a smuggler who
is carrying goods toward a
British ship.
hurt the American economy
far more than the British or
French, and resulted in
widespread smuggling.
Enter James Madison…
Madison was already politically famous as
Jefferson’s Secretary of State, author of Federalist
Papers, the “father of the Constitution” and author
of the BoR
However, cited as “too timid and indecisive as a
statesman,” especially on matters of foreign affairs
Britain helps Natives in the West attack Americans on
the frontier (Battle of Tippecanoe, 1811), violating
Treaty of Paris
Spanish use Natives of Florida and Georgia as spies and
encouraged the tribes to raid U.S. settlements
What was Madison’s role leading
up to The War of 1812?
Non-Intercourse Act (replaces Embargo Act)
Forbade trade with France and Britain; however
President could reopen trade when either France or
Britain lifted restrictions
Influence of Republican “War Hawks”
Weary of failed attempts to demand British respect for
American sovereignty in the West, neutrality on the
water
Southern congressmen rise to power in newly-elected,
sectionall-divided Congress (John C. Calhoun—SC,
Henry Clay—KY as leaders)
• Wanted territory in British Canada, Spanish Florida
• Favored war, even though it hurt the east, as a show of
American patriotism of their forefathers (“a second war for
independence”)
Causes of War Simplified
Impressment of U.S. citizens by Britain
Interference with American shipping by
both Britain and France
British support of Native American
resistance in the West
Poor diplomatic efforts to fix economic and
political foreign affairs issues
“Western War with Eastern Labels”
June 1812: Madison asks
Congress for declaration of war;
vote split along regional lines
BENEFITS of WAR
Reopening of trade
Renewed “National Pride”
and “American spirit”
Halt impressment of
sailors and destruction of
business profits
Territorial acquisition
(perhaps Canada, Florida)
DRAWBACKS of WAR
Military was small
State militias made up most
of U.S. forces; didn’t like to
fight outside of borders
Navy was only 22 ships
Could potentially lose
territory gained in Treaty
of Paris or Louisiana
Purchase
Britain was the leading
world superpower
Powerful Navy, Army
Key Early Battles
April ’13: US burns York
(now Toronto)
US figured Canadians
would welcome them and
help expel Britain from
North America…FAIL!
Sept. ’13: Commodore
Perry defeats British on
Lake Erie, major transport
point
"We have met the enemy
and they are ours"
Oct. ’13: Harrison defeats
British and Natives,
killing Tecumseh
Britain blockades Eastern
Seaboard
War started with invasion of
western British Canada, almost
disastrous for U.S.
This prevented shipping
from leaving, and made the
war more unpopular in the
Northeast
Rebellion…and the Roof is on Fire
NE Federalists oppose
war, refuse to let state
militias attack Canada
Boston merchants, banks
refuse to fund/lend money
to gov’t for war
Daniel Webster (NH)
leads Fed in
Congressional opposition
to higher tax, tariffs,
national conscription of
militia
These domestic issues
allow Britain to gain
ground
August 1814: British sail
into Chesapeake Bay and
capture Washington D.C.
burn White House and the
Capitol
Madison and Congress
barely escape (role of
Dolley Madison)
The artist gloats over naval losses suffered by England early in the War of
1812, in particular the defeat of the warship "Boxer" by the American
frigate "Enterprise" in September 1813. King George III stands at left, on
the right, his opponent James Madison says, "Ha-Ah Johnny! you thought
yourself a "Boxer" did you! -- I'll let you know we are an "Enterprize"ing
Nation. and ready to meet you with equal force any day."
Battle of the Thames
Burning of Washington
“Oh Say Can You See…”
Unlike D.C., Baltimore was
ready for the British
city militia inflicted heavy
casualties on the British
After a failed bombardment
of Fort McHenry on
September 13, 1814, British
abandon the attack
Francis Scott Key witnessed
the bombardment from a
nearby ship, where he penned
a poem, “The Star-Spangled
Banner” (becomes the
National Anthem)
The original Star-Spangled Banner
The Smithsonian’s National Museum of American History,
Washington, D.C.
The Hartford Convention,
December 1814
Convention of New England merchants who opposed the
Embargo and other trade restriction, and the War of 1812.
Propose Constitutional amendments, such as four-year
presidential term, restriction of embargoes, 2/3 majority of
Congress to declare war (not 51%) or admit new state
Advocate states rights, including nullification, or ability
to say federal laws were unconstitutional.
discussed the idea of seceding from the U.S. if their desires were
ignored (the “Essex Junto” led by Aaron Burr)
Hartford Convention turned public sentiment against the
Federalists, who have already started to split
Treaty of Ghent
Treaty was Negotiated in
Europe and was signed on
Dec. 24, 1814 ending the
war of 1812
The War ended in a
stalemate, where no party
gained or lost any
territory.
The issue of impressment
was not addressed, but
faded on its own.
Battle of New Orleans, January 1815
British invasion force was
repelled by Andrew
Jackson’s troops at New
Orleans, an important port
and point of control of
Mississippi
2,500 British soldiers were
killed or captured; only 13
Americans died.
Neither side knew that the
Treaty of Ghent had ended
the War of 1812 two
weeks before the battle.
This victory inspired
American nationalism,
ensured treaty ratification,
and makes Jackson a
national hero
If The War of 1812 ended in a
“tie,” why was it important?
Increased American Patriotism
(Nationalism)
We were able to hold our own against the
British, the world superpower
Growth of U.S. manufacturing and military
power
Weakened Native American resistance
Started thinking about continuing westward
expansion (Manifest Destiny)

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