PPT - CED

Report
Chair of the Advisory
Group: Walter
Mendoza
Questionnaire and
Research Design:
Hita Unnikrishnan
Researchers :Veena
B N, Hita
Research Assistance:
Jacintha Menezes,
Viju & others
Census 2011
In India,
31.2% live in urban centres compared with
27.8% in 2001 and
25.5% in 1991.
For the 1st time, absolute increase in 10 years
in urban areas ( at 91 million) was
> in rural areas (at 90.4 million)
Every city is marked by
informal settlements
where the poor are forced to live
without access to basic services
like water and sanitation.
In some cities like Mumbai, half of the
population (49 percent according to
Census 2001) lives in slums.
In Bangalore, the number of slum
dwellers in a decade has risen from 23%
in 2001 to nearly 30-40% of the city's
current population.
1/3rd of slums in the city are located in
environmentally sensitive and filthy
areas.
Almost 90% of all slum houses are
kutcha and semi pucca shabby dwellings
Further, the Corporation
limits have recently been
expanded to incorporate
fringe areas of the city. 85
such zones with area
characteristics of a village
have already been
considered as slums.
( to answer Bablu’s question.. )
For all these people, any untoward
natural event is likely to become a
disaster.
Thus, Vulnerability is not so much
created by Climate Change, but by
poor access to land, overcrowding
and low-quality housing etc.
These need to be fixed.. For any talk of
adaptation to be meaningful..
Indicators of Vulnerability
Impacts
Indicators
Flooding, Extreme Events Habitat, Housing
Higher Temperature
Livelihood Loss
Vector Borne Diseases
Over-crowding, Tall Concrete
buildings/Flyovers
overshadowing the habitat,
Vectors .
Flexi use of space. Biomass,
Water bodies
Sanitation, Water
So the Indicators are ..
housing structure
energy sources
•
accessibility and consumption of water
sanitation facilities
solid waste management
•
health care
public and civic amenities
Transportation,
•
educational amenities
livelihoods
KS Garden:
Old slum in the core of
the city
vulnerability to climate
changes marked by the
cramped houses, large
number of homes and
their proximity to the
open drains
EWS Quarters:
relocation settlement
vulnerability due to institutions
kutcha homes - exposure of its
residents to climatic extremes s.
Parappana Agrahara:
Fringe habitat
recently incorporated into the city’s limits,
example of rural to urban transition
the community’s evolution to a more
urban mindset,
degradation of natural resources
Gender
Male
Female
Total
M
F
KS EWS
14
19
41
35
55
54
PA
14
31
45
47
107
154
Coolies:
46
Service
30
Workers:
Carpenters, Auto drivers, Cable operators,
Contractors, catering, Tailors ,Painters,
Electrical repair, welding,Grocers
Service
Jobs:
BBMP Workers, CMC worker , Watchmen,
Choultry helpers, Office cleaners
24
Employm 9
ent:
Informal
Work
33
Factory supervisors, Senior factory
employees, Social work, factory
employees,Garment workers
Domestic Help, Child caretakers
Some Data
• They are only indicative, and should not be
taken as percentage, but as instances..
• See it?
• `
Most vulnerable: Those in low
lying areas
Most vulnerable: Those who have mud floors
Type of flooring
KS
EWS
PA
0
25
2
Mud
1
Brick
2
Stone
4
1
2
Cement or Red 8
Oxide
Tiles 10
29
25
17
27
3
31
85
6
23
Solid
Waste
Disposal
KS
EWS
PA
Throwing
into empty
plot
2
12
14
Throwing
into open
drain
9
2
11
Burning
1
1
2
Communit
y bins
41
4
3
48
Collection
Vans
6
36
26
68
Toilet
Facilities
Open fields
Community
toilets – paid
Community
toilets – free
Individual
toilets in
home
KS
47
EWS PA
1 23 24
41
88
1
9
1
9 21 39
Bath Facilities KS EW P
S A
Open water
bodies –
lakes/ponds
Community
2
2
baths- paid
Community
2
baths – free
Individual baths 53 50 41
at home
Total 55 52 43
Responses
out of 55 54 45
0
4
2
144
150
154
Grey
Water
Drainage
KS EWS PA
Pipes to
next plot
property
6 16 22
Drains to
stormwater
drainage
1
27
Open
drains to
chamber
4
12 16 32
BWSSB
sewerage
connection
47
4
3 31
51
Perception of Climate Change:
No concept of Climate Change..
But understand that weather is
changing..
Adaptation:
People “adjust” at the dwelling level..
At a larger level,
it is is difficult to organize. Thus
politics take over
Govt. Policy of putting people in 325
sq ft concrete blocks by PPP –
handing over slum lands to
developers and giving them more
FSI/FAR.
Many of these blocks for example
even the ones created by a prominent
NGO in Mumbai, need people to
switch on their light at mid-day.
PPP is not working
For communities to act together,
•Security of land tenure
•Secure relocation, if required
•Pre-planning of amenities structures
Clear Policy is required.
Sanitation:
Government/contractor run Community
toilet
v/s
Community owned and run toilets.
Options:
• Dry toilets, ECOSAN
• DEWATS..
For Small Group owned or
Individual owned system, there is
no space for structure, piping,
gravity flow.. Therefore land needs
to be set aside. Therefore
a pro-slum Development Plan.
Water:
Borewell or Piped water or both?
Main issue is
maintenance & cleanliness
Destruction of common water
places like open wells, lakes, ponds.
Sometimes privatized by tanker
owners.
:
In fact policy should be prowater spaces
• improve drains as places of
recreation:
• Design for animal use, and
washing/bathing
•Link design to parks , urban
agriculture
Solid Waste Policies
Waste to Electricity model ? dubious.
Centralised Waste dumps/treatment- dubious.
Alternatives:
New ARTI model for micro- biogas.
Source separation
Decentralised waste treatment:
Community Groups; ALMs
Health:
Equip people to better take care of
themselves
They will do Self care so we may as
well educate on proper use &.
tipping signs..
TINA : Free Primary Health Care..
Disciplining Chemists
Thank You

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