Denial Example: Student cheats on a test, the teacher see him doing it but when asked about it he denies it happened. High school students are excepts at denial. Umbrella to which all the defense mechanism exist. Denial, in ordinary English usage, is asserting that a statement or allegation is not true. psychological defense mechanism by Sigmund Freud, in which a person is faced with a fact that is too uncomfortable to accept and rejects it instead, insisting that it is not true despite what may be overwhelming evidence. The subject may use: simple denial: deny the reality of the unpleasant fact altogether Rationalization: Example: A high schooler get a failing grade on the Maslow test. However when asked why they fail, the student says it is because the teacher hates her. Instead of taking responsibility for the reality they didn’t attend class and didn’t study the content. The defense mechanism that occurs when the ego does not accept the real motive for the individual’s behavior and replaces it with a cover motive. Repression Example: A child was sexually molested from the age of 5-9 by her 1st uncle, but she does not remember the event happening to her. She does not like to talk about abuse, but doesn’t think it pertains to her. Works to push an unacceptable ID impulses and traumatic memories out of the awareness. Rationalization is the foundation from which all other defense mechanisms work. Displacement Example: A parents has a verbally abusive boss at work and doesn’t defend themselves, but when they get home they yell and spank their kids. Occurs when an individual shitfs and unacceptable feeling from one object to another more acceptable one. In Freudian psychology, displacement an unconscious defense mechanism whereby the mind redirects effects from an object felt to be dangerous or unacceptable to an object felt to be safe or acceptable. Sublimation *Example, a person experiencing extreme anger might take up kick-boxing as a means of venting frustration *Jack and Jill example Occurs when the ego replaces an unacceptable impulse with a socially approved course of action. Sublimation is a defense mechanism that allows us to act out unacceptable impulses by converting these behaviors into a more acceptable form. Freud believed that sublimation was a sign of maturity that allows people to function normally in socially acceptable ways Projection Example: If you have a strong dislike for someone, you might instead believe that he or she does not like you. You have a tardy problem and you are upset when you are meeting someone and they are late. Occurs when we attribute our own shortcomings or problem to the fault of others. We can’t face how our own unwanted feelings so we project them onto others as undesirable traits. Projection works by allowing the expression of the desire or impulse, but in a way that the ego cannot recognize, therefore reducing anxiety Reaction Formation An example of reaction formation would be treating someone you strongly dislike in an excessively friendly manner in order to hide your true feelings. You try out for the basketball team anddon’t make it but say you didn’t want to be on that team anyway. Occurs when we express an unacceptable impulse by transforming into the opposite. reduces anxiety by taking up the opposite. Regression Example An individual fixated at an earlier developmental stage might cry or sulk upon hearing unpleasant news. An individual get into the fetal position when they see a scary movie. Occurs when we behave in a way characteristic of a previous developmental level. When confronted by stressful events, people sometimes abandon coping strategies and revert to patterns of behavior used earlier in development Final Thoughts: Defense mechanisms are unconscious coping mechanisms that reduce anxiety generated by threats from unacceptable impulses. Defense mechanisms are sometimes confused with coping strategies Defense mechanisms are psychological strategies brought into play by the unconscious mind to manipulate, deny, or distort reality. Healthy persons normally use different defenses throughout life. An ego defense mechanism becomes pathological only when its persistent use leads to maladaptive behavior such that the physical and/or mental health of the individual is adversely affected.