Periodic Trends

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Periodic Trends
• For each slide with a periodic table - copy the
definition. Copy ALL of the other slides.
• The purpose of this exercise is for you to be able
to understand 4 periodic trends and how to
predict them.
• You will need to know the definitions of the
trends and be able to tell me whether two atoms
are bigger are smaller, or have more ionization
energy, etc. (memorize the diagram with the
arrows)
• Place the icons at the right over the numbers
indicated by the range below the icon.
Bonding
• More will be explained about bonding later…
for now you need to know:
– Covalent bonds = sharing electrons
– Ionic bonds = stealing electrons
H
13.6
If atoms love their electrons it will cost you a lot of
energy to steal 1 of them.
He
24.6
Li
5.4
Be
9.3
B
8.3
C
11.3
N
14.5
O
13.6
F
17.4
Ne
21.6
Na
5.1
Mg
7.6
Al
6
Si
8.2
P
10.5
S
10.4
Cl
13
Ar
15.8
17-25
12.1-16.9
K
4.3
Ca
6.1
Ga
6
Ge
7.9
As
9.8
Se
9.8
Br
11.8
Kr
14
Rb
4.2
Sr
5.7
In
5.8
Sn
7.3
Sb
8.6
Te
9
I
10.5
Xe
12.1
8.6-12
Cs
3.9
Ba
5.2
Tl
6.1
Pb
7.4
Bi
7.3
Po
8.4
At
9.3
Rn
10.7
6-8.5
Fr
4.1
Ra
5.3
1st Ionization
Energy
3.9-5.8
1st Ionization Energy
He
24.6
Fr
4.1
Helium loves its electrons
because it is full and small.
The closer to the right = the
closer to fullness = love for
electrons. Large elements
have a hard time holding
electrons. It would cost you a
lot of energy to steal an
electron
from
Helium.
Francium would be easy to
steal from.
H
2.2
How strongly atoms attract electrons to themselves
when bonding.
He
Li
.98
Be
1.57
B
2.04
C
2.55
N
3.04
O
3.44
F
3.96
Ne
Na
.93
Mg
1.31
Al
1.61
Si
1.9
P
2.1
S
2.5
Cl
3.16
Ar
3.9-4
3.01-3.89
K
.82
Ca
1
Ga
1.81
Ge
2.01
As
2.18
Se
2.55
Br
2.96
Kr
Rb
.82
Sr
.95
In
1.78
Sn
1.96
Sb
2.05
Te
2.1
I
2.66
Xe
2.01-3
Cs
.79
Ba
.89
Tl
1.8
Pb
1.9
Bi
1.9
Po
2
At
2.2
Rn
1.01-2
Fr
.7
Ra
.9
Electronegativity
0-1
Electronegativity
F
3.96
Fr
.7
Small elements can attract
electrons more easily because
their positive nucleus is closer.
Elements on the right want
more electrons until the last
Group because they are full.
Noble gases like Helium is
therefore unreactive. Fluorine
attracts electrons the most and
Francium the least.
H
37
Atoms get bigger as you go down and to the left.
He
31
Li
152
Be
112
B
85
C
77
N
75
O
73
F
72
Ne
71
Na
186
Mg
160
Al
143
Si
118
P
110
S
103
Cl
100
Ar
98
K
227
Ca
197
Ga
135
Ge
122
As
120
Se
119
Br
114
Kr
112
Rb
248
Sr
215
In
167
Sn
140
Sb
140
Te
142
I
133
Xe
131
Cs
265
Ba
215
Tl
170
Pb
146
Bi
150
Po
168
At
140
Rn
140
Fr
282
Ra
223
Atomic Radii
31-80
81-100
101-159
160-269
270-300
Atomic Radii
He
31
Fr
282
Helium is the smallest
because it has the least
energy levels and is farthest
to the right
Francium is big because it has
the most energy levels and is
farthest to the left.
H
Ions are atoms that have gained or lost electrons. Their
size depends on how big they were and whether or not
they have gained or lost electrons.
He
Li
76
Be
31
B
20
C
15
N
146
O
140
F
133
Ne
Na
102
Mg
72
Al
54
Si
41
P
212
S
184
Cl
181
Ar
15-40
61-100
K
138
Ca
100
Ga
62
Ge
53
As
222
Se
198
Br
195
Kr
Rb
152
Sr
118
In
81
Sn
71
Sb
62
Te
221
I
220
Xe
Cs
167
Ba
135
Tl
95
Pb
84
Bi
74
Po
At
Fr
194
Ra
Ionic Radii
41-60
101-170
Rn
171-200
Ionic Radii
He
C
15
As
222
Fr
194
The left side loses electrons
and the right side gains
electrons. Carbon is the
smallest and looses the most,
so its ion is the smallest. As
you go down and to the left
toward Francium, it gets
bigger. It continues to get
bigger from the top right
down and to the left toward
Arsenic which is the biggest.
Noble Gases don’t make ions.
Questions
Copy the following and paste it on a wiki titled 10-1 Periodic
Trends. Answer the questions there.
ATOMIC RADIUS - Rank the following from smallest to largest atomic radius.
1. Li, C, F
2. Li, Na, K
3. Ge, P, O
4. C, N, Al
5. Al, Cl, Ga
6. Describe the periodic trend
IONIC RADIUS - Rank the following from smallest to largest ionic radius.
7. Mg2+, Si4-, S28. Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+
9. F-, Cl-, Br10. Ba2+, Cu2+, Zn2+
11. Si4-, P3-, O212. Describe the periodic trend
IONIZATION ENERGY - Rank the following from lowest to highest ionization energy.
13. Mg, Si, S
14. Mg, Ca, Ba
15. F, Cl, Br
16. Ba, Cu, Ne
17. e. Si, P, He
18. Describe the periodic trend
ELECTRONEGATIVITY - Rank the following from lowest to highest electronegativity
19. Li, C, N
20. C, O, Ne
21. Si, P, O
22. K, Mg, P
23. S, F, He
24. Describe the periodic trend

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