Ch 29 Lecture

Report
Chapter 29 Lecture
physics
FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS
a strategic approach
THIRD EDITION
randall d. knight
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Chapter 29 Potential and Field
Chapter Goal: To understand how the electric potential is
connected to the electric field.
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Chapter 29 Preview
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Chapter 29 Preview
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Chapter 29 Preview
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Chapter 29 Preview
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Chapter 29 Preview
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Chapter 29 Preview
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Slide 29-8
Chapter 29 Reading Quiz
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Slide 29-9
Reading Question 29.1
What quantity is represented by the symbol ?
A. Electronic potential.
B. Excitation potential.
C. emf.
D. Electric stopping power.
E. Exosphericity.
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Slide 29-10
Reading Question 29.1
What quantity is represented by the symbol ?
A. Electronic potential.
B. Excitation potential.
C. emf.
D. Electric stopping power.
E. Exosphericity.
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Slide 29-11
Reading Question 29.2
What is the SI unit of capacitance?
A. Capaciton.
B. Faraday.
C. Hertz.
D. Henry.
E. Exciton.
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Slide 29-12
Reading Question 29.2
What is the SI unit of capacitance?
A. Capaciton.
B. Faraday.
C. Hertz.
D. Henry.
E. Exciton.
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Slide 29-13
Reading Question 29.3
The electric field
A. Is always perpendicular to an equipotential
surface.
B. Is always tangent to an equipotential surface.
C. Always bisects an equipotential surface.
D. Makes an angle to an equipotential surface
that depends on the amount of charge.
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Slide 29-14
Reading Question 29.3
The electric field
A. Is always perpendicular to an equipotential
surface.
B. Is always tangent to an equipotential surface.
C. Always bisects an equipotential surface.
D. Makes an angle to an equipotential surface
that depends on the amount of charge.
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Slide 29-15
Reading Question 29.4
This chapter investigated
A. Parallel capacitors.
B. Perpendicular capacitors.
C. Series capacitors.
D. Both A and B.
E. Both A and C.
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Slide 29-16
Reading Question 29.4
This chapter investigated
A. Parallel capacitors.
B. Perpendicular capacitors.
C. Series capacitors.
D. Both A and B.
E. Both A and C.
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Slide 29-17
Chapter 29 Content, Examples, and
QuickCheck Questions
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Slide 29-18
Connecting Potential and Field
 The figure
shows the
four key ideas
of force, field,
potential
energy, and
potential.
 We know, from Chapters 10 and 11, that force and
potential energy are closely related.
 The focus of this chapter is to establish a similar
relationship between the electric field and the
electric potential.
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Slide 29-19
Finding the Potential from the Electric Field
 The potential difference between two points in space is:
where s is the position along a line from point i to point f.
 We can find the potential difference between two points if
we know the electric field.
 Thus a graphical interpretation of the equation above is:
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Slide 29-20
Example 29.1 Finding the Potential
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Slide 29-21
Example 29.1 Finding the Potential
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QuickCheck 29.1
This is a graph of the x-component
of the electric field along
the x-axis. The potential
is zero at the origin. What
is the potential at x  1m?
A.
2000 V.
B.
1000 V.
C.
0 V.
D. 1000 V.
E. 2000 V.
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Slide 29-23
QuickCheck 29.1
This is a graph of the x-component
of the electric field along
the x-axis. The potential
is zero at the origin. What
is the potential at x  1m?
A.
2000 V.
B.
1000 V.
C.
0 V.
D. 1000 V.
E. 2000 V.
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V = –area under curve
Slide 29-24
Tactics: Finding the Potential From the Electric
Field
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Slide 29-25
Finding the Potential of a Point Charge
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Slide 29-26
Example 29.2 The Potential of a Parallel-Plate
Capacitor
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Example 29.2 The Potential of a Parallel-Plate
Capacitor
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Example 29.2 The Potential of a Parallel-Plate
Capacitor
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Slide 29-29
Sources of Electric Potential
 A separation of charge
creates an electric
potential difference.
 Shuffling your feet on
the carpet transfers
electrons from the
carpet to you, creating
a potential difference
between you and other
objects in the room.
 This potential
difference can cause
sparks.
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Slide 29-30
Van de Graaff Generator
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Slide 29-31
Batteries and emf
 The most common
source of electric
potential is a battery.
 The figure shows the
charge escalator
model of a battery.
 Lifting positive
charges to a positive
terminal requires that
work be done, and the
chemical reactions
within the battery
provide the energy to
do this work.
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Slide 29-32
Batteries and emf
The potential difference between the terminals of an
ideal battery is:
where is the emf, which, long ago, was an
abbreviation of “electromotive force.”
A battery constructed to have an
emf of 1.5 V creates a 1.5 V
potential difference between its
positive and negative terminals.
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Slide 29-33
QuickCheck 29.2
The charge escalator in a battery does 4.8  1019 J
of work for each positive ion that it moves from the
negative to the positive terminal. What is the
battery’s emf?
A. 9 V.
B. 4.8 V.
C. 3 V.
D. 4.8  1019 V.
E. I have no idea.
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Slide 29-34
QuickCheck 29.2
The charge escalator in a battery does 4.8  1019 J
of work for each positive ion that it moves from the
negative to the positive terminal. What is the
battery’s emf?
A. 9 V.
B. 4.8 V.
C. 3 V.
.
D. 4.8  1019 V.
E. I have no idea.
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Slide 29-35
Batteries in Series
 The total potential difference
of batteries in series is simply
the sum of their individual
terminal voltages:
 Flashlight batteries are
placed in series to create
twice the potential difference
of one battery.
 For this flashlight:
Vseries  V1  V2
 1.5 V  1.5 V
 3.0 V
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Slide 29-36
Finding the Electric Field from the Potential
The figure shows
two points i and f
separated by a small
distance s.
The work done by the electric
field as a small charge q moves
from i to f is W  Fss  qEss.
The potential difference
between the points is:
The electric field in the s-direction
is Es   V/s. In the limit s  0:
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Slide 29-37
Finding the Electric Field from the Potential
Quick Example
 Suppose we knew the potential of a point charge to be
V  q/4 0r but didn’t remember the electric field.
 Symmetry requires that the field point straight outward
from the charge, with only a radial component Er.
 If we choose the s-axis to be in the radial direction,
parallel to E, we find:
 This is, indeed, the well-known electric field of a point
charge!
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Example 29.3 The Electric Field of a Ring of
Charge
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Example 29.3 The Electric Field of a Ring of
Charge
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Example 29.4 Finding E From the Slope of V
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Example 29.4 Finding E From the Slope of V
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Example 29.4 Finding E From the Slope of V
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QuickCheck 29.3
At which point is the electric field stronger?
A. At xA.
B. At xB.
C. The field is the same strength at both.
D. There’s not enough information to tell.
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Slide 29-44
QuickCheck 29.3
At which point is the electric field stronger?
A. At xA. |E| = slope of potential graph
B. At xB.
C. The field is the same strength at both.
D. There’s not enough information to tell.
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Slide 29-45
QuickCheck 29.4
An electron is released from rest at x  2 m in the potential
shown. What does the electron do right after being released?
A. Stay at x  2 m.
B. Move to the right ( x) at steady speed.
C. Move to the right with increasing speed.
D. Move to the left (x) at steady speed.
E. Move to the left with increasing speed.
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Slide 29-46
QuickCheck 29.4
An electron is released from rest at x  2 m in the potential
shown. What does the electron do right after being released?
A. Stay at x  2 m.
B. Move to the right ( x) at steady speed.
C. Move to the right with increasing speed.
Slope of V negative
=> Ex is positive
D. Move to the left (x) at steady speed.
E. Move to the left with increasing speed. (field to the right).
Electron is negative
=> force to the left.
Force to the left =>
acceleration to the
left.
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The Geometry of Potential and Field
In three dimensions, we can find the electric field
from the electric potential as:
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QuickCheck 29.5
Which set of equipotential surfaces
matches this electric field?
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QuickCheck 29.5
Which set of equipotential surfaces
matches this electric field?
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QuickCheck 29.6
The electric field at the dot is
A.
10î V/m.
B. 10î V/m.
C.
20î V/m.
D.
30î V/m.
E. 30î V/m.
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Slide 29-51
QuickCheck 29.6
The electric field at the dot is
A.
10î V/m.
B. 10î V/m.
C.
20î V/m.
D.
30î V/m.
20 V over 2 m,
pointing toward
lower potential
E. 30î V/m.
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Slide 29-52
Kirchhoff’s Loop Law
 For any path that
starts and ends at
the same point:
 The sum of all the
potential differences
encountered while
moving around a loop
or closed path is zero.
 This statement is
known as Kirchhoff’s
loop law.
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Slide 29-53
QuickCheck 29.7
A particle follows the
trajectory shown from
initial position i to final
position f. The potential
difference V is
A.
100 V.
B.
50 V.
C.
0 V.
D. 50 V.
E. 100 V.
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Slide 29-54
QuickCheck 29.7
A particle follows the
trajectory shown from
initial position i to final
position f. The potential
difference ΔV is
A.
100 V.
B.
50 V.
C.
0 V.
D. 50 V.
E. 100 V.
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V = Vfinal – Vinitial, independent of the path
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A Conductor in Electrostatic Equilibrium
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A Conductor in Electrostatic Equilibrium
When a conductor is in equilibrium:
 All excess charge sits on the
surface.
 The surface is an equipotential.
 The electric field inside is zero.
 The external electric field is
perpendicular to the surface
at the surface.
 The electric field is strongest
at sharp corners of the
conductor’s surface.
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A corona discharge, with crackling
noises and glimmers of light, occurs
at pointed metal tips where the
electric field can be very strong.
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A Conductor in Electrostatic Equilibrium
 The figure shows a
negatively charged
metal sphere near a
flat metal plate.
 Since a conductor
surface must be an
equipotential, the
equipotential
surfaces close to
each electrode
roughly match the
shape of the
electrode.
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Slide 29-58
QuickCheck 29.8
Metal wires are attached
to the terminals of a 3 V
battery. What is the
potential difference
between points 1 and 2?
A. 6 V.
B. 3 V.
C. 0 V.
D. Undefined.
E. Not enough information to tell.
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Slide 29-59
QuickCheck 29.8
Metal wires are attached
to the terminals of a 3 V
battery. What is the
potential difference
between points 1 and 2?
Every point on this conductor is at the
same potential as the positive terminal
of the battery.
A. 6 V.
B. 3 V.
C. 0 V.
D. Undefined.
E. Not enough information
to tell.
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Every point on this conductor
is at the same potential as the
negative terminal of the
battery.
Slide 29-60
QuickCheck 29.9
Metal spheres 1 and 2 are
connected by a metal wire.
What quantities do spheres 1
and 2 have in common?
A.
Same potential.
B.
Same electric field.
C.
Same charge.
D.
Both A and B.
E.
Both A and C.
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Slide 29-61
QuickCheck 29.9
Metal spheres 1 and 2 are
connected by a metal wire.
What quantities do spheres 1
and 2 have in common?
A.
Same potential.
B.
Same electric field.
C.
Same charge.
D.
Both A and B.
E.
Both A and C.
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Slide 29-62
Capacitance and Capacitors
 The figure shows a
capacitor just after it
has been connected
to a battery.
 Current will
flow in this manner
for a nanosecond or
so until the capacitor
is fully charged.
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Slide 29-63
Capacitance and Capacitors
 The figure shows
a fully charged
capacitor.
 Now the system
is in electrostatic
equilibrium.
 Capacitance always refers to the charge per voltage
on a fully charged capacitor.
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Slide 29-64
Capacitance and Capacitors
 The ratio of the charge Q to the potential difference VC is
called the capacitance C:
 Capacitance is a purely geometric property of two electrodes
because it depends only on their surface area and spacing.
 The SI unit of capacitance is the farad:
 The charge on the capacitor plates is directly
proportional to the potential difference between the
plates:
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Slide 29-65
QuickCheck 29.10
What is the capacitance of
these two electrodes?
A. 8 nF.
B. 4 nF.
C. 2 nF.
D. 1 nF.
E. Some other value.
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Slide 29-66
QuickCheck 29.10
What is the capacitance of
these two electrodes?
A. 8 nF.
B. 4 nF.
C. 2 nF.
D. 1 nF.
E. Some other value.
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Slide 29-67
Capacitance and Capacitors
Capacitors are important
elements in electric
circuits. They come in a
variety of sizes and
shapes.
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The keys on most computer
keyboards are capacitor
switches. Pressing the key
pushes two capacitor plates
closer together, increasing
their capacitance.
Slide 29-68
Example 29.6 Charging a Capacitor
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Slide 29-69
Forming a Capacitor
 The figure shows
two arbitrary
electrodes charged
to Q.
 It might appear that
the capacitance
depends on the
amount of charge,
but the potential
difference is
proportional to Q.
 Consequently, the capacitance depends only on
the geometry of the electrodes.
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Slide 29-70
Combinations of Capacitors
 In practice, two or more capacitors are sometimes
joined together.
 The circuit diagrams below illustrate two basic
combinations: parallel capacitors and series
capacitors.
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Slide 29-71
Capacitors Combined in Parallel
 Consider two capacitors C1
and C2 connected in parallel.
 The total charge drawn from
the battery is Q = Q1 + Q2.
 In figure (b) we have replaced
the capacitors with a single
“equivalent” capacitor:
Ceq = C1 + C2
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Slide 29-72
Capacitors Combined in Parallel
If capacitors C1, C2, C3, … are in parallel, their
equivalent capacitance is:
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Slide 29-73
QuickCheck 29.11
The equivalent capacitance is
A.
9 F.
B.
6 F.
C.
3 F.
D.
2 F.
E.
1 F.
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Slide 29-74
QuickCheck 29.11
The equivalent capacitance is
A. 9 F.
B.
6 F.
C.
3 F.
D.
2 F.
E.
1 F.
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Parallel => add
Slide 29-75
Capacitors Combined in Series
 Consider two capacitors
C1 and C2 connected in
series.
 The total potential
difference across
both capacitors is
VC = V1 + V2.
 The inverse of the
equivalent
capacitance is:
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Slide 29-76
Capacitors Combined in Series
If capacitors C1, C2, C3, …
are in series, their
equivalent capacitance is:
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Slide 29-77
QuickCheck 29.12
The equivalent capacitance is
A. 9 F.
B. 6 F.
C. 3 F.
D. 2 F.
E. 1 F.
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Slide 29-78
QuickCheck 29.12
The equivalent capacitance is
A. 9 F.
B. 6 F.
C. 3 F.
D. 2 F.
Series => inverse of sum of inverses
E. 1 F.
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Slide 29-79
The Energy Stored in a Capacitor
 The figure shows a
capacitor being charged.
 As a small charge dq is
lifted to a higher
potential, the potential
energy of the capacitor
increases by:
 The total energy
transferred from the
battery to the capacitor is:
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Slide 29-80
The Energy Stored in a Capacitor
 Capacitors are important elements in electric circuits
because of their ability to store energy.
 The charge on the two plates is q and this charge
separation establishes a potential difference V  q/C
between the two electrodes.
 In terms of the capacitor’s potential difference, the
potential energy stored in a capacitor is:
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Slide 29-81
The Energy Stored in a Capacitor
 A capacitor can be
charged slowly but then
can release the energy
very quickly.
 An important medical
application of capacitors
is the defibrillator.
 A heart attack or a serious injury can cause the heart to
enter a state known as fibrillation in which the heart
muscles twitch randomly and cannot pump blood.
 A strong electric shock through the chest completely
stops the heart, giving the cells that control the heart’s
rhythm a chance to restore the proper heartbeat.
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Slide 29-82
QuickCheck 29.13
A capacitor charged to 1.5 V stores 2.0 mJ of energy.
If the capacitor is charged to 3.0 V, it will store
A. 1.0 mJ.
B. 2.0 mJ.
C. 4.0 mJ.
D. 6.0 mJ.
E. 8.0 mJ.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 29-83
QuickCheck 29.13
A capacitor charged to 1.5 V stores 2.0 mJ of energy.
If the capacitor is charged to 3.0 V, it will store
A. 1.0 mJ.
B. 2.0 mJ.
C. 4.0 mJ.
D. 6.0 mJ.
E. 8.0 mJ.
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UC  (V)2
Slide 29-84
Example 29.8 Storing Energy in a Capacitor
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Slide 29-85
Example 29.8 Storing Energy in a Capacitor
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Slide 29-86
The Energy in the Electric Field
The energy density of an electric field, such as
the one inside a capacitor, is:
The energy density
has units J/m3.
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Slide 29-87
Dielectrics
 The figure shows a
parallel-plate capacitor
with the plates
separated by a vacuum.
 When the capacitor is
fully charged to voltage
(VC)0, the charge on
the plates will be Q0,
where Q0  C0(VC)0.
 In this section the
subscript 0 refers to a
vacuum-filled capacitor.
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Slide 29-88
Dielectrics
 Now an insulating
material is slipped
between the
capacitor plates.
 An insulator in an
electric field is called
a dielectric.
 The charge on the
capacitor plates does
not change (Q = Q0).
 However, the voltage
has decreased:
VC < (VC)0
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Slide 29-89
Dielectrics
 The figure shows
how an insulating
material becomes
polarized in an
external electric field.
 The insulator as a
whole is still neutral,
but the external
electric field
separates positive
and negative charge.
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Slide 29-90
Dielectrics
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Slide 29-91
Dielectrics
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Slide 29-92
Dielectrics
 We define the dielectric constant:
 The dielectric constant, like density or specific heat, is a
property of a material.
 Easily polarized materials have larger dielectric constants
than materials not easily polarized.
 Vacuum has  = 1 exactly.
 Filling a capacitor with a dielectric increases the
capacitance by a factor equal to the dielectric
constant:
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Slide 29-93
Dielectrics
 The production of a practical capacitor, as shown, almost
always involves the use of a solid or liquid dielectric.
 All materials have a maximum electric
field they can sustain without
breakdown—the production of a spark.
 The breakdown electric field
of air is about 3  106 V/m.
 A material’s maximum
sustainable electric field is
called its dielectric
strength.
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Slide 29-94
Dielectrics
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Slide 29-95
Example 29.9 A Water-Filled Capacitor
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Slide 29-96
Example 29.9 A Water-Filled Capacitor
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Slide 29-97
Example 29.9 A Water-Filled Capacitor
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Example 29.9 A Water-Filled Capacitor
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Slide 29-99
Example 29.10 Energy Density of a Defibrillator
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Slide 29-100
Example 29.10 Energy Density of a Defibrillator
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Slide 29-101
Example 29.10 Energy Density of a Defibrillator
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Example 29.10 Energy Density of a Defibrillator
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Chapter 29 Summary Slides
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General Principles
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General Principles
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General Principles
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Important Concepts
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Important Concepts
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