Gender Roles in Sports Slideshow

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GENDER ROLES IN SPORTS
By: Sarah Mills, Gil-Lyoung Kim, and Maddy Boire
QUOTE
People say ‘how could a woman take a hit like that?’
But we run track, play basketball, baseball,
lacrosse and have babies. We're just as physical
as men.
~
Crystal Turpin, NY Sharks GM
Introduction

Traditional gender roles portray women
as soft, submissive, passive, weak, or
less-passionate.

Whereas men are strong, able-bodied,
aggressive, and competitive.
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If female athletes seem to be violating
stereotypical gender roles, some people &
media sources assume that they are lesbians.

Men are paid more than women in the
athletic field.

3 of the 5 top-paid female athletes in 2011
sexualized themselves in the media and
spoke of it as a necessity when asked about it.
Modern Stereotypical Men’s Sports
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Football
Wrestling
Hockey
Boxing
Golf
Range
Soccer
Horse, bike, and
motorcycle racing
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Car racing
Track and field
Basketball
Lacrosse
Baseball
Curling
Modern Stereotypical Women’s Sports
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Gymnastics (and
rhythmic gymnastics)
Cheerleading
Ballet (and other
dances)
Field hockey
Figure skating
Tennis
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Badminton
Croquet
Horseback riding
Swimming
Synchronized swimming
Skiing
Past
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Competitive sport that
required aggression.
Women began competing
4 decades later, in 1920.
One of the few sports that
allowed women to
compete without any sexist
issues. The sport evolved
men and women.
Today
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Both genders have their
advantages and
disadvantages due to
gender anatomy
Both genders equally
participate, but men
have more media
coverage.
Women tend to learn
quicker than men.
Equestrian
Past
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Was a male dominated sport.
Considered a ‘manly sport’ because
competing horses was incredibly
dangerous compared to most sports
(Still is today).
Men didn’t want women in the sport,
because they thought it would affect
their image.
Spectators stole saddles from
women’s horses, scared them out of a
race; resulted in women being afraid
to compete because of the bullying
and hate.
Women were banned to compete in
Eventing, because it was deemed
“too dangerous.”
Today

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Female dominated
sport and now
considered a ‘female
sport.’
American Horse Show
Association ratio of
women to men is 8:1.
Ski Jumping
Then
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Gian Franco Kasper, FIS
president and member of the
IOC, said he didn't think women
should ski jump because the sport
"seems not to be appropriate for
ladies from a medical point of
view.“
Ten female jumpers sued the
Vancouver Organizing
Committee (VANOC) for violating
the ban on gender discrimination
in Canada's Charter of Rights
and Freedoms.
Now
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Only sport in Olympics that
banned women from
competing.
Currently, Lindsey Van holds
the record among both men
and women for the longest
jump.
First participation of women’s
ski jumping will occur in 2014
Sochi olympics.
Media Coverage
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On Sportscenter, men's sports are covered more
than women's at a 20 to 1 ratio
Over various channels, women's sports took up 6.3%
of the airtime whereas men's sports took up 91.4%
In the media, female athletes are sexualized in
order to be found appealing by a generally male
audience
Many female athletes are photographed with
children or their boyfriends in order to dispel any
rumors that they might be lesbians
The Olympics
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The Olympics were originally a male-only event
The first team of women in the Olympics was in 1900 – it consisted
of 19 female athletes
Some comparisons:
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First male speed skating team recorded by the IOC was in 1924, women in 1960
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Track and field: men started in 1896 and women started in 1928
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Both sexes began badminton in 1992
Women’s ski-jumping is to be included for the first time ever at Sochi
2014, men’s ski jumping has long been included
Men's sports in the Olympics are much more viewed
Videos
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Playing Unfair: The Media Image of the Female
Athlete
Nike Ad: If You Let Me Play (1995)
Statistics
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Sex testing at the games began at the 1966 European Athletics Championships
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Women's teams account for 37% of athletic program operating expenses
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Women make up 57% of college undergraduates but receive only 42% of
athletic participation opportunities
Women account for only 42% of head coaches in women's sports and 2% in
men’s
Women hold 35% of all athletic administrative positions but only 19% of head
administrative jobs in women's athletic programs
Statistics Continued
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Only 8% of athletic directors are females in Division I schools
Female participation in high school sports has increased from 294,000
athletes in 1971 to 2.9 million in 2006
Female participation in intercollegiate sports has increased from 16,000 in
1970 to over 180,000 in 2005
The number of women's collegiate athletic teams has increased from an
average of 2.5 to 8.45 per school
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43% of men and 26% of women participating in sport. 1998
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36% of men and 21% of women participating in sport. 2005
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In 2005,
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Women involved in amateur sport as coaches reached 882,000, 15% higher
than in 1998.
Over the same period, the number of male coaches dropped 9% to 874,000
Claimed Equality
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How do you verify the eligibility of an athlete to
compete in a sporting event that is limited by sex?
In the Olympics an issue arose where it was said
that males competed as women in order to win
Intersex people also competed as women
Sex tests to avoid this controversy
But…This only increased the gender division in
sports
AND adds more controversy in terms of intersex,
transgender and hermaphrodite athletes in
gendered sports
Timeline
1900 – The first 19 women to compete in the modern Olympics Games
in Paris, France, play in just three sports: tennis, golf, and croquet.
1918 – Eleanora Sears, after winning at polo, baseball, golf, field
hockey, auto racing, swimming, tennis, yachting and speedboat racing,
takes up squash.
1943 – The owner of the Chicago Cubs establishes the All-American
Girls Softball League, the forerunner of the All-American Girls Baseball
League (AAGBL).
1965 – The Women's Golf Open is televised nationally for the first
time.
Timeline Cont’d.
1972 – Billie Jean King is named the Sportswoman of the Year
by Sports Illustrated, the first time the award is given out.
1983 – Women's sports come under the NCAA.
1984 – Billie Jean King becomes the first woman head of a
professional athletic league.
1991 – NCAA elects Judith Sweet as its first woman president.
1999 – Girl’s participation rates are rising faster than those of
boys in almost every team sport.
2000 – According to the International Olympic Committee
women will compete in the same number of team sports as men
for the first time in the history of the Olympic Games.
Theories & Schools of Thought
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Feminism: Believes that women can perform
equally like men, even though doctors claim that
women’s body were in jeopardy if they competed.
Functionalism: Women need to be physically fit in
order to be healthy. Women in sports encourage
girls, men in sports encourage boys.
Psychoanalytic Theory: Sports/physical activity
releases endorphins; therefore, it is highly
recommended.
Solution
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So far we’ve realised the value of athletics for females:
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Effects:
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Higher self esteem
Less risk of depression
Better academic performance
Portrayed as sexual objects as opposed to competitive athletes
Makes women seem non-competitive, weak and emotional
Women receive less media coverage and therefore become disempowered
What it should be:
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Gender neutral (no girls or boys teams)
Instead of divided by gender, dive by skill level
Works Cited
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Gender Differences: Sports Sexualizing Women. (2012, August 6). Mett Kopas | Sociology of
Sexuality. Retrieved October 18, 2013, from
http://mkopas.net/courses/soc287/2012/08/06/gender-differences-sports-sexualizingwomen/
Newell, A. (n.d.). Despite Women’s Strength, Stereotypes Still Nip Sports Performance – With
No End in Sight. Cross-Country Ski, Biathlon, and Nordic Combined Racing, Training and News —
FasterSkier — All Things Nordic. Retrieved October 18, 2013, from
http://fasterskier.com/article/despite-womens-strength-stereotypes-still-nip-sportsperformance-with-no-end-in-sight/
Patchan, A., Urquia , M., & Kerr, J. (n.d.). Stereotypes - woMen in Sports. woMen in Sports Home. Retrieved October 18, 2013, from http://womeninsportz.weebly.com/stereotypes.html
Starr, B. (n.d.). Gender Roles in Women's Sports. Masculinity and Gender Roles in Sports.
Retrieved October 18, 2013, from http://ma
Suddath, C. (n.d.). Why Can't Women Ski Jump?. Time. Retrieved October 19, 2013, from
http://content.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1963447,00.html
Sports - Statistics on Women and Gender: Where and How to Find - Research Guides at
University of Wisconsin-Madison. (n.d.). Home - Research Guides at University of WisconsinMadison . Retrieved October 21, 2013, from
http://researchguides.library.wisc.edu/content.php?pid=107566&sid=814905
Works Cited Cont’d.

http://queensjournal.ca/story/2008-04-03/sports/time-move-past-gender-stereotypesathletics/
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http://journalism.nyu.edu/publishing/archives/wis/bizouati_sexuality_1_2.html
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http://www.northnet.org/stlawrenceaauw/timelne4.htm
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English, Jane. "Sex Equality in Sports." Philosophy and Public Affairs (1978)
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Gantz, Walter, and Lawrence A. Wenner. "Men, Women, and Sports: Audience Experiences
and Effects." Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media (1991)
Guttmann, Allen. Women's Sports: A History. 1st ed. New York, NY: Columbia University Press,
1991
Hall, M. A. (2002). The girl and the game: a history of women's sport in Canada.
Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview Press.
Nelson, M. B., & Smith, L. (1998). Nike is a goddess: the history of women in sports. New York:
Atlantic Monthly Press.
Rhode, Deborah L., and Christopher J. Walker. "Gender Equity in College Athletics: Women
Coaches as a Case Study." Stanford Journal of Civil Rights and Civil Liberties (2008)
Sabo, Don. "Women's Athletics and the Elimination of Men's Sports Programs." Journal of Sport
and Social Issues. (1998)
Image Sites
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http://onlyagame.wbur.org/2012/10/20/college-football-commentary (Football
team)
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http://www.dublindance.com/ballet.php (Ballerinas)
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http://www.xoxojes.com/2013/05/tv-shows-renewed-and-cancelled-2013.html (TV)
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http://www.bannernews.net/sports/?attachment_id=19 (Olympic rings)
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http://readytoflyfilm.com/storage/post-images/RTF_banner_newFinal.jpg (Ski
Jumping Banner)
http://katiemortimore.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/IMG_7248banner.jpg
(Equestrian Banner)
http://www.texastwistersskiclub.com/images/snow_skiing_banner-TT.gif (Skiing
Banner)
http://blytheducation.com/wpcontent/uploads/2013/08/Blyth_Academy_Programs_WhitbySports_674.jpg
(Hockey Banner)
http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/young-man-woman-walking-sports-outfits28590157.jpg (Men and Women)
Image Sites Cont’d
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http://www.supplementen-voor-afvallen.nl/wpcontent/uploads/2011/05/men-and-womenexercising.jpg (Men and Women)
http://images2.sina.com/english/sports/p/2008/0
821/U102P200T1D180637F10DT200808210727
47.jpg (Men running)

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