SELEBI PHIKWE PROFILE

Report
SELEBI PHIKWE
Presentation


PRESENTED BY: MR. MOMPATI SELEKA- TOWN CLERK
SELEBI PHIKWE TOWN COUNCIL, URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE
1.
HISTORICAL
BACKGROUND
 The
town of Selebi Phikwe was
established in the early 1960s following
the onset of copper/nickel mining
activities. The first official activities related
to the discovery of the Selebi Phikwe
mineral deposits date from 1959, when
surface prospecting started over an area
of some 67,000 square kilometers.
 Geochemical exploration techniques were
used to discover the Selebi deposit in
1963, followed by the discoveries of
Phikwe and Selebi North deposits.
This gave an impetus to commencement of
robust mining activities in 1970. The town
hence evolved from the mine workers
quarters which were provided by the BCL
mine for its employees. Selebi Phikwe has
since grown into the third largest urban
centre in the country.
2. GEOGRAPHICAL
SETTING
2.1 Location
Selebi Phikwe is situated in the Eastern
part of Botswana, about 415km by road
from Gaborone (national capital) and about
150km south east of Francistown(second
largest urban centre), and 60km east of
the Gaborone – Francistown road.
It lies 80km west of Bobirwa Sub
district headquarters at Bobonong and
within the Eastern Planning region of
Botswana as delineated by the
National Settlement Policy of 2004. It
shares its borders with the Bobirwa
Sub-District. The closest border to
South Africa, which is at Zanzibar, lies
100 km to the south east of the town
while the Martins Drift Border to South
Africa is 120 kilometres to the south.
2.2
Size and Status
Selebi Phikwe was declared a planning area
under the Town and Country Planning
(Declaration of Planning Areas) order of
1980. The land within the town is wholly
state owned (state land) albeit the existence
of a substantial number of tribal land grants
within the planning area which includes BDF
camp, Airport, Prisons and two exclusive
surface rights areas granted to BCL for
mining purposes.
The District Planning area boundary covers
260 km2 of which 50km2 is within the
Township boundary. The land allocation and
administration is the sole responsibility of
the department of Lands (Ministry of Lands
and Housing), while Selebi Phikwe Town
Council is the responsible Planning
Authority exercising all local government
functions over the entire township area. The
210km2 outside the township area boundary
is all tribal land, allocated and administered
by the Ngwato Land Board.
3. DISTRICT
ENVIROMENTAL
STATUS
3.1 Physical Features
Selebi Phikwe is well endowed with
ephemeral rivers and streams, kopjes and
inselbergs of granitoid rocks which rise above
a flat pediment dipping gently to the north.
The Motloutse, Letlhakane and Mathathane
rivers are the dominant physiographic
features, flowing sporadically during the rainy
season from October to April; discharging
northwards.
The topography is generally flat and typical
of the basement system of Botswana lying at
an altitude of between 780 - 950 metres
above sea level with a gradient sloping gently
to the south. The most prominent hill is the
Selebi hill located at the south west corner of
the township boundary. The stretch of these
topographic features indeed constitutes a
serious constraint to the settlement
development growth in this direction.
3.2 Climate
Selebi Phikwe has a semi-arid climate, with
summer rainfall during the months of
October to March ranging between 400 and
500 mm per annum. Most of the rains fall in
high intensity spells, and because of the
seasonal nature of the rainfall, and the high
probability of drought conditions during the
dry season.
Highest temperatures in the Township are
recorded in October, with an average of
320 Celsius, and minimum temperatures
recorded in July with an average of 50
Celsius. Ground and air frosts occur in
the early mornings during winter months.
Solar radiation levels recorded in SelebiPhikwe are high throughout the year,
which is good for heating purposes.
3.3 Vegetation and Soil
3.3.1
Vegetation
The township lies within the eastern
hardveld
and
the
vegetation
is
characterized by the predominance of
tree savannah, with Mophane and Acacia
(Mooka) prevailing. Other tree species
such as Baobab are sparsely found in the
district boundary outside the township
area.
Mophane trees also bring in Mophane
worm (phane) known for its nutritious
status and mostly harvested in this area
to sell to both locally and regionally. The
worms boost the economic status of low
income during summer and autumn.
The felling of trees and the effects of
urbanization has led to more shrubdominated vegetation, especially in the
township area.
The vegetation is however thicker along
the banks of the rivers characterized by
riparian woodland. A policy is in place
which encourages the planting of trees
and discourages the felling of trees in the
planning area
3.3.2
Soils
Selebi Phikwe area has two major soil
groups, which are on alluvial deposits and
soils on acid igneous and metamorphic
rocks. Only a small strip of soils on basic
igneous and metamorphic rocks founding in
the extreme north-west, while the topsoil
cover is scanty, with recorded depths not
exceeding 1.75 metres, but averaging 1.5
metres.
This consists of silty sands and sandy
clays with a predominant light brown to
brown colour, with some grey sandy
soils in the western area.
Subsoil materials consist mainly of
weathered and decomposed granites
with laterite, calcrete and quartz
gravels layers influencing the colouring
of the topsoil layer.
Calcrete and laterite are found on the
western area while quartz gravels occur
over most of the planning area.
The quartz, calcrete and laterite gravels
found in the Planning Area are suitable
for road construction materials. The
rivers in the planning area are good
sources of sand used for building
constructions.
3.4
Natural Resources
3.4.1
Wildlife
There are limited number and types of
wildlife species within the District.
Baboons and other small species are
common in the kopjes to the south of the
town. Different kinds of birds’ species are
also common, which present an
opportunity for tourism development.
There is plan to create a game park
which will attract tourists to the area
hence diversifying the town’s economy.
3.4.2
Sources of Energy
Selebi Phikwe like any other settlement in
the country is dependent on electricity
generated from other areas which this
instance comes from Morupule Power
Station. The electricity is used for mining,
commercial, residential and street lighting
purpose while low income uses other
sources of fuel such as paraffin, fuel
wood and candles.
Though there is a great potential to use
solar energy in residential houses due to
high temperatures and long hours of
sunlight there are only a few hours of its
usage. The district authorities, through
the Urban Development Plan III, have
consolidated strategies to encourage the
use of solar energy and discourage use
of fuel-wood.
The main water sources in the district is the
Letsibogo dam in Mmadinare through a few
water courses like Letlhakane, Mphakenoko
and Mathathane rivers which discharge into
Motloutse and ultimately Letsibogo dam. These
rivers are all seasonal.Water Utilities
LETSIBOGO DAM
Corporation is responsible for
water supply the
district with boreholes only
restricted to those
exploiting the sand rivers
aquifers in the
Ephemeral
3.4.3 Mining
The town is heavily dependent on two
minerals; copper and nickel which are
being mined by the BCL mine. This has
rendered the economy of the mine to be
monolithic hence posing a challenge to
diversify the economy. This has become
more urgent since studies have revealed
that the mining activities may not continue
beyond 2021 owing to the depletion of
mineral deposits. However, the BCL mine
is doing everything in its capacity to extend
the mine life beyond 2021. Exploration is
continuous.
4. COMMUNICATIONS
&
LINKAGES
4.1 Road Transport
There are two primary roads within the district;
which are Selebi Phikwe – Serule and Phikwe Martins Drift road. The 60 km Selebi Phikwe –
Serule road links the town with Francistown,
another major urban centre in the north, as well
as Gaborone, the capital city, through the major
Francistown – Gaborone artery.
This road also provides a link between Palapye
and Selebi Phikwe by linking the Francistown Gaborone road and Martins Drift - Selebi
Phikwe through the 40km Tamasane – Kgagodi
road. There are other link roads constructed
like the Tobane – Selebi Phikwe and
Mmadinare roads to close and provide better
linkages with surrounding villages. There is also
a network of 180 kilometers of tarred internal
road. Public transport in Selebi Phikwe
comprises local minibuses and taxis, and
scheduled coach services to Gaborone,
Francistown and other centres.
4.2 Rail Transport
The town is linked to the national railway
line through the 60km Selebi Phikwe –
Serule railway line which is solely meant
to ferry goods to and from Selebi Phikwe.
No passenger transport is provided in this
service. There are private rail lines within
the town which link the BCL mining areas.
4.3 Air Transport
Selebi Phikwe has an airport with a 2.8kilometre hard surfaced runway capable of
taking aircraft up to BAe 146 and equivalent. It
is scheduled as a port of entry and there are
Customs and Immigration services provided. It
lacks refueling and night landing (lighting)
facilities. Landing fees and other charges are
the same as those applied at civil airports
elsewhere in Botswana.
There is however need to promote utilization of
air transport
4.5 Telecommunications
Currently the Botswana Telecommunications
Corporations is the main provider for
telecommunication
infrastructure
services.
Mobile phone network communication provider
like Be Mobile, Orange and Mascom are also
available.
4.6 Postal Services
Botswana Post with two postal
offices in Botshabelo and Main Mall
are the main postal services
provider. Courier services are also
provided by private companies.
5. DISTRICT SOCAL
DEVELOPMENT
5.1 Culture
Though the Batswapong and Babirwa
are the dominating ethnic groups in
Selebi Phikwe, the mining town has a
diverse mix of ethnical groups, attracted
by employment opportunities. The
cultural spectrum therefore reflects the
national cultural diversity.
5.2 Population Characteristics
Botswana Population and Housing
Census of 2001 revealed that the overall
population of Selebi Phikwe was 49 849
comprising of 24 334 males and 25 515
females. The 1991 revealed a population
of 39 772 reflecting a growth of 25.34%.
The table below shows the population
projections
Table 5.2.1: Population Projections.
Year
2001
Population
49,849
% growth
2006
50,040
0.38
2011
52,049
4.01
2016
55,133
5.93
2021
59,111
7.22
Source: 2001 population and Housing Census
5.3 Employment & Unemployment
According to the 2001 Census, BCL
mine is the largest employer with about
5 000 people and mainly men. The
census results reveal that 60% of the
economic active population is employed
while 40% are unemployed of which
24% are engaged in the mining sector
while 14.3% were engaged in
manufacturing
.
Table5.3.1:EconomicallyActive
Population Engaged Per Sector.
Sector
Agriculture, hunting and Forestry
Male
56
Female Total
43
99
Fishing
Mining and Quarrying
Manufacturing( inc. repair of
machinery & equipment)
Electricity, gas and water supply
3
4,565
861
143
1,946
3
4,708
2,807
213
32
245
Construction
Wholesale & retail trade(inc. repair
of motor vehicles & goods)
1,061
1,147
90
1,855
1,151
3,002
Hotels and restaurants
95
336
431
Transport, storage and
communications
507
129
636
Financial intermediaries
66
138
204
Real estate, renting and
business activities
458
243
701
Public Administration
1,927 653
2,580
Education
359
668
1.027
Health and Social work
115
319
434
Other community, social &
personal service activities
Private households with
employed persons
Foreign missions,
international organizations
Unknown
Total
260
240
500
61
925
986
1
1
2
30
59
89
11,768 7,825 19,611
Source 2001 Population and Housing Census
There was a decrease in the number of
people employed in the past due to
closure of manufacturing industries and a
decline in the mining sector. The
government introduced some measures
like the Selebi Phikwe Economic
Diversification Unit to encourage investors
to locate in Selebi Phikwe. There are
deliberate efforts by the Government to
diversify the economy of Selebi Phikwe
and its immediate region from the mining
sector.
6. INSTITUTIONAL
FRAMEWORK
In terms of the National Settlement Policy
of 2004, Selebi Phikwe is classified as a
primary centre. This accords the town the
opportunity to provide high order services.
The town is ad ministered by the Selebi
Phikwe Town Council, an elected body.
The Town Council’s jurisdiction extends
over the township area and it is
responsible for the provision of municipal,
social and community services.
These include primary schools, public
health, township roads, social and
community development programmes, and
physical planning and development
Headed
by
the
Deputy
District
Commissioner, several central government
departments have offices in Selebi Phikwe.
These include the Department of Animal
Health, Department of Civil Aviation,
Department of Immigration, Department of
Labour,
Botswana
Police
and
Administration of Justice. Parastatals with
offices in Selebi Phikwe include Water
Utilities Corporation, Botswana Power
Corporation
and
Botswana
Telecommunications Corporation, Local
Entrepreneurship
Authority,
Citizen
Entrepreneurial Development Agency, and
Botswana Tourism Organization.
Selebi Phikwe is the dominant
commercial and industrial centre in its
immediate region. Its regional retail
market is estimated at over 100,000,
covering the whole of the Bobirwa SubDistrict
7. AREAS OF
ECONOMIC
COMPARATIVE
ADVANTAGE
7.1 Location
Its proximity to SA and it being the main
artery in the SADC region present the
opportunity of establishment of a dry
port.
Selebi Phikwe is located astride or close to
important road arteries linking South Africa
with eastern and northern Botswana.
Traffic entering Botswana through the
Zanzibar border crossing on its way to
Francistown, Kasane and the Okavango is
likely to pass through Selebi Phikwe
.
In the case of freight traffic, which generally
uses the Martin’s Drift crossing (as there are
no customs clearance facilities on the South
African side of the Zanzibar crossing), an
itinerary passing Selebi Phikwe is one option
(and could be encouraged through strategic
signposting). As an established regional
commercial centre, the town offers facilities
for travellers (hotels, banks, retail outlets,
etc.) which are superior to those in Palapye,
the only other urban centre of any size on or
near the route.
Selebi Phikwe is only 60 kilometres off the
main Gaborone-Francistown A1 highway.
The fact that it is a mining town especially
copper and nickel places it at an advantage
to attract large manufacturing and service
industry especially high technology and
heavy plant repairs and services.
7.2 Infrastructure
Selebi Phikwe is served by an excellent and
well-maintained road network, which includes
several new or recently upgraded roads.
Efficient storm-water drainage systems in
most areas of the town and sewerage
infrastructure are available in all areas of the
town. There are more than 2500 serviced
(residential and commercial) plots at Mekoro
and 74 serviced light industrial plots.
Selebi Phikwe has one of the most
beautiful and well maintained parks. There
are recreational facilities such as children’s
playgrounds around town.
The town is linked by branch railway to the
Botswana Railways main line at Serule,
facilitating the transport of heavy and bulky
cargoes. The branch is not used for
passenger traffic but a frequent and
reliable coach service is provided between
Selebi
Phikwe
and
Francistown,
Gaborone.
7.3 Administrative and other
services
Selebi Phikwe is the location for departments
of several central government ministries,
commercial banks, offices of Parastatals such
as the Botswana Building Society, CEDA and
BPC, and a wide range of commercial and
industrial services.
There is 1 senior secondary school, 6 junior
secondary schools, 11 primary schools and 22
pre-schools in Selebi Phikwe. There is also a
Vocation Training College as well as wellresourced
health
facilities.
This
is
complemented by a number of private learning
institutions.
The health system comprises of a district
hospital, and 6 clinics (of which two have
maternity wings)
The establishment of the Selebi Phikwe
Economic Diversification Unit will also play
a major role in the development and
investment in the town by finding
innovative and sustainable ways of
diversifying the economy, provide an
inventory of the town’s /region’s resource
base and identifying particular areas of
comparative advantage.
7.4 Land and water
The rural areas surrounding Selebi
Phikwe are not heavily populated, and
contain land and soils with the potential
(through irrigation or rain-fed agriculture)
for the production of a wide range of
commercial food crops. In terms of its
location and infrastructure, Selebi Phikwe
is an obvious location for marketing and
downstream processing activities.
7.5 Tourism & Recreation
Facilities
7.5.1 Current Status of Tourism
Recreation in Selibe Phikwe Township
&
The primary types of tourism occurring in the
Selibe Phikwe Township are MICE tourism
(Meetings, Incentives, Conferences, & Events).
Wildlife based tourism is largely centered on
the Tuli area, whilst MICE tourism is mainly
focused in Selibe Phikwe town. It is observed
that accommodation facilities are as a result
mostly available in Tuli and Selibe Phikwe.
The Department of Tourism license
database indicates that there are 8
accommodation facilities (hotels, guest
houses etc) in Selibe Phikwe. It also
indicates that there are no travel agents
and tour operators in town.
Car hires can only be accessed in the city of
Francistown. There is only one airport in
Selibe Phikwe which services mostly private
airliners as the commercial airliner does not
fly into the region. The lack of some of these
facilities creates an opportunity for business
growth in those areas.
There is potential for tourism development
in Selibe Phikwe. Eco-tourism sites include
but are not limited to; Anne Adams Park
located right in the middle of town and
offers beautiful scenery for local tourists.
Anne Adam’s Park: a
place for Relaxation,
Fun, Peace & Tranquility
There are a few tourist attractions found in
Selibe Phikwe most of which are not yet
developed. These include but are not
limited to; Anne Adams Park located right in
the middle of town and offers beautiful
scenery for local tourists. There are some
archeological and historical sites such as
Mothodi site, Mekoro Nature Park etc. if
properly developed they have potential to
also bring diversity into the area.
A number of events are held annually in
the mining town. These include the
annual Phikwe Marathon, Cycling tours,
horseback race etc. There are also a
number of recreational clubs such as
Lion’s Club, Golf Club, Bowling Club etc.
These sporting activities have the
potential to uplift sports tourism and
thereby bring diversity in town.
Recently a number of tourism studies
were commissioned by the government of
Botswana through the SPEDU Regional
Development Agency (Regional Tourism
Study and Tourism Study on Potential of
Letsibogo Dam).
These studies have identified a number
of potential projects and initiatives that
could boost the tourism offerings in the
region. The initiatives also include local
communities through their existing and
proposed activities.
Some of these initiatives are still in the
early stages of development and face a lot
of challenges especially related to funding
and infrastructure development. Cultural
tourism is one aspect of tourism that is still
yet to be explored. There are diverse
cultures and ethnic groups in Selibe
Phikwe.
These
include
the
rich
Batswapong and Babirwa cultures which
are dominant in the area.
It should be noted however that the
township has a lot of potential for tourism
development especially because it is a
transit point through Martin’s Drift border
post for tourists on their way to Northern
Botswana. Most of these tourists are selfdrive tourists. This segment market could
easily be captured by developing
commercialized ready-to use products
along the corridor, thereby creating tourist
revenue for the region.
In 2008 there were over 149 000 visitors
recorded crossing through the Martin’s
Drift Border Post, and this number does
not include visitors entering through other
small entry points like Plaartjan, Pont drift,
Zanzibar and Selibe Phikwe airport.
8. SWOT ANALYSIS
A SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses,
Opportunities, and Threats) analysis for
Selebi Phikwe is outlined in the table
below:
STRENGTHS
Good physical infrastructure, e.g. factory shells, Dry
Port, water, health facilities, schools, roads
Availability of serviced land
Trained personnel (engineering skills, etc.)
WEAKNESS
No scheduled air services
Negative image of Selebi Phikwe (poor air quality)
Lack of sense of “ownership” of the town by inhabitants.
High prevalence of HIV/AIDS
•Over dependence on the mine
•Poor enforcement of statutes
•Underdevelopment of recreational facilities
OPPORTUNITIES
•Enlightened/Informed community
•Economic diversification drive
•Information technology
•Decentralization
•Outsourcing & commercialization
•Political intervention
•Regional accessibility
•Geographical size
Tourism, e.g. handicrafts centre, Letsibogo dam, Tuli
Block, tourist circuits
•Leisure activities, e.g. water sports
•Local “branding”, image enhancement
•Exploitation of agricultural potential
•Development of training and education facilities.
• Utilize infrastructure left behind by BCL
THREATS
•HIV/AIDS pandemic
•Economic downturn.
•Exchange rate fluctuations
•Corruption
•Shortage of serviced land
•Environmental pollution
•Closure of BCL mine brought forward by serious fall in
world prices for copper and nickel and depletion of
deposits
•Decision-taking delayed by bureaucracy and red tape
•Lack of national support for local projects
•Other towns are more effective or efficient in attracting
new investment
•Strength of the Pula affects copper and nickel earnings
DEVELOPMENT PLANNING
•Development Planning in Botswana follows the Integrated Results Based
Management System.
•Embraces Integrated Development Planning methods with emphasis on
Bottom-Up approach (Public Participation, social justice, allocative
efficiency).
•Development Projects prioritized according to – Economic Growth
- Employment Creation
- Economic Diversification
- Equity
•The Selebi Phikwe Development Plan(2000-2024) is under review. To align
it with the economic diversification drive.
•The Urban Development Plan III(2009-2016) is in pursuant of the Vision
2016 and MDGs key result areas.
•The following studies were conducted to inform development:
1. Study on Diversification of the economy of Selebi Phikwe (CSA: 2006)Recommended establishment of SPEDU
2. Horticultural and Agricultural Crops Production and Agro-processing
Study(SPEDU:2009)
3. Potential for Tourism and Leisure Facilities in and Around
S/Phikwe(SPEDU)
4. )
4. Study on Tourist, Recreation and other related opportunities in the
environs of Letsibogo Dam(SPEDU
5. Traffic Study (RTS)
9. POSSIBLE AREAS
OF COOPERATION
9.1 Local Economic Development
Following one of the recommendations
from the study on the Economic
Diversification of Selebi Phikwe, it has
been deemed imperative to revive the
informal
sector
to
facilitate
the
diversification of the economy of the town.
Selebi Phikwe Town Council does not have
the capacity, in terms of skills to facilitate
LED and there is need for exchange of
skills and experiences in this regard.
This will accord Selebi Phikwe the
opportunity to acquire requisite skills in,
among others, determining the local Gross
Domestic Product of the town conducting
feasibility studies for projects and
formulate various development strategies
for the communities. Partnership in this
regard is highly recommended.
,
9.2 Waste Management
Urban centres around the world have
been found to be characterized by high
levels of waste generation due to
population
densities
and
other
unfavorable demographic and economic
attributes. It has become apparent that
cities in developing countries fall short of
dealing with the massive waste that is
being generated by their activities. Selebi
Phikwe as a mining town, like all other
industrialized urban areas is faced with
waste management problems.
During the formative years, the major form of
material which was used in construction of
housing was asbestos. When gradual
improvements were made to the town’s
housing the asbestos was replaced with
modern building material. Disposal of this
asbestos has been a challenge as there are
no facilities that can handle this hazardous
waste in the country. facilities which can
handle this type of waste is in South Africa
and due to the provisions of the Basil
Convention, the requirements for transboundary movement of hazardous waste
render it prohibitive.
Selebi Phikwe finds itself having to
contend with tons of hazardous asbestos
lying all over the town. There are
challenges pertaining to the general
waste management due to shortage of
resources. Selebi Phikwe Town Council
recommends cooperation in these areas
to exchange skills and experiences in,
inter alia, reclamation, reprocessing and
recycling of waste.
EXCHANGE OF KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE ON
RECREATION AND LANDSCAPING
•Availability of undeveloped land (recreational
spaces)
•Limited skills on landscaping techniques
•Availability of recyclable water
•Lack of technology to tap recyclable resources
Thank You Very Much
SELEBI PHIKWE TOWN COUNCIL
85

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