TERM PAPER- CEL 795 EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES IN REMOVING AMMONIA FROM YAMUNA WATER IN DELHI Group Members Vineet Kumar : 2014 CEV 2851 Subhash Chandra Verma : 2014 CEV 2781 Umesh Kumar : 2014 CEV 2095 Under the guidance of Dr. Arun Kumar, IIT, Delhi Background • To study some of the prevalent methods for ammonia remediation from surface waters, and to indicate which among them is best suited for water treatment plants in Delhi. • Presence of heavy concentration of ammonia in Yamuna water is a serious problem for Delhi water treatment plants as this frequently forces these WTPs to stop their production or remain shut down [15, 16, 17, 24] till ammonia levels get reduced to permissible limits of 0.5 ppm . • Excess ammonia in drinking water could lead to difficult and complicated chlorination process, because ammonia would react with chlorine to form disinfection by-product, which could damage human nervous system, are carcinogenic in nature, and deteriorate taste and odour of water [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 25]. • It, therefore, becomes imperative to take steps to remove ammonia from the water before disinfection so as to supply safe potable water to the consumers. Method used Processes studied for effective removal of ammonia upto permissible levels from the surface waters : • • • • • • • • Moving-Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) [19, 20] Hollow-fiber membrane contactors  Modified clinoptilolite zeolite  Biological Aerated Filter (BAF)  Adsorption onto natural zeolite  Trickling filter  Hybrid membrane process  Biosorbents  Findings • Process using Modified Clinoptilolite zeolite found to be best suited for Yamuna waters. This process is stable, suits automation, quality control, easy maintenance, and has very high ammonia removal efficiency (98.46%) with economy of operation. • Process using Biosorbents has high ammonia removal efficiency (97 to 100%) from polluted waters. Can be adopted for ammonia removal from the industries discharging untreated effluent into the river Yamuna. • Moving-Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) and Hollow-fiber membrane contactors, have high ammonia removal efficiency (98.2% & >99% resp.), however, these need to be studied further for their economical viability and ease of operation. • Biological Aerated Filter (BAF) process has comparatively low ammonia removal rate (84.10%), though this process can be adopted for simultaneous removal of ammonia and manganese, with manganese removal rate of 86.1%. …..contd…… Findings • The process of Trickling filter again has comparatively low ammonia removal rate (82%), though this process can be adopted for simultaneous removal of ammonia, iron and manganese from potable water. • The process of adsorption onto natural zeolite has low ammonia removal rate (69%), though this process can be adopted for simultaneous removal of ammonia and humic acid, having best performance at pH 7, which overcomes the necessity of pH manipulation for maximizing the adsorption, making the treatment process more cost-effective. None of the research papers reviewed by us broadly and thoroughly discusses the cost (of material or process as a whole) per litre production of potable water. As such, this aspect remains to be explored in order that economically viable solutions, along with ease of operation and maintenance, can be worked out for effective ammonia remediation at conventional water treatment as well as small industrial units/communities discharging their untreated effluents/waste into the river Yamuna. Issues and directions for future research • Pilot studies for all the processes reviewed may be carried out for Yamuna waters under various influent and operation conditions in order to find out the optimal ammonia removal rate/efficiency, for the applicability of these processes to real water treatment. • Cost of material as well as application cost of processes for effective ammonia remediation need to be studied further. References  Moussavia,G., Talebia, S., Farrokhib, M, & Saboutic, R.M., 2011. 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