Chris Edwards - HiPER - Alberta Council of Technologies

Report
The European Pathway to Laser Energy
Dr. Chris Edwards
HiPER Fusion Project Director
[email protected]
www.hiper.org
Outline
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STFC: The home of HiPER
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HiPER: Europe’s “other” fusion energy project
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Europe: Capability, Complexity & Constraints
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Aspirations and Relationships
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Funding prospects and the importance of ignition at NIF
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Discussion
STFC: Home of HiPER
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STFC: Science & Technology Facilities Council
Funded via Research Councils UK by Ministry of Business,
Innovation and Skills (BIS)
Science Minister David Willetts
STFC operates large scale facilities (VULCAN laser, telescopes, ISIS spallation
neutron source, Diamond synchrotron, HPC infrastructures) for university
researchers and manages UK contributions to CERN, etc., . . . . .
. . . . but neither ITER nor JET (via EURATOM from E.C. and EPSRC)
STFC (Mike Dunne) invented HiPER. STFC funded partners’ technical work for 3
years; E.C. funded coordination & governance for (3 + 2) years (to April 2013)
HiPER: Europe’s “other” fusion
energy project
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Before LIFE there was HiPER
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HiPER is an “ESFRI” project (European Strategy Forum on Res. Infrastructures)
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HiPER brings together 9 funding agencies and 17 other partners across Europe
26 European Partners
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Funding Agency involvement by 9 partners
– STFC
(UK)
– CEA, CNRS and CRA
(France)
– MSMT
(Czech Republic)
– GSRT
(Greece)
– MEC and CAM (through UPM)
(Spain)
– ENEA and CNR
(Italy)
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Institutional involvement by 17 other partners
– IST Lisbon
(Portugal)
– CNSIM
(Italy)
– TEI, TUC
(Greece)
– IOP-PALS
(Czech Republic)
– IPPLM
(Poland)
– FVB, FSU Jena, GSI, TUD
(Germany)
– Lebedev Physical Institute,
(Russia)
Institute of Applied Physics-RAS
– Imperial College London,
(UK)
Universities of York, Oxford,
Strathclyde, Queens Belfast
HiPER: Europe’s “other” fusion
energy project
•
Before LIFE there was HiPER
•
HiPER is an “ESFRI” project (European Strategy Forum on Res. Infrastructures)
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HiPER brings together 9 funding agencies and 17 other partners across Europe
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HiPER was conceived in ~ 2006/7 as the next step to laser driven
commercial fusion energy following “First Ignition” demonstration at NIF
The project was re-scoped in 2009; 10Hz laser driver; full blanket to capture fusion
neutrons; electricity generation. (Many implications!)
HiPER has developed a delivery strategy that satisfies current constraints:
financial, technical & political
Delivery Strategy
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Single major facility construction step to deliver laser energy
HiPER
Now
2012
2014
2016
NIF
Ignition
2018
2020
LMJ
available
2022
2024
2026
Roll-out
2028
2030
2032
2034
2036
2038
2040
LMJ
Ignition
Robust ignition; physics optimisation
Technology Devt. & Risk Redn.
Laser: 10kJ / 10Hz beamline prototype; Target mass prod.; Chamber concept
HiPER B. C.
Invest.
decision
HiPER construction &
commissioning
Exploitation
2012
2014
2016
2018
2020
2022
2024
2026
2028
2030
2032
2034
2036
2038
2040
Europe’s “other” fusion energy project
•
Before LIFE there was HiPER
•
HiPER is an “ESFRI” project (European Strategy Forum on Res. Infrastructures)
•
•
•
•
HiPER was conceived in ~ 2006/7 as the next step to laser driven
commercial fusion energy following “First Ignition” demonstration at NIF
HiPER brings together 9 funding agencies and 17 other partners across Europe
HiPER has a developed a delivery strategy that satisfies current constraints:
financial, technical & political
This schedule is not ideal, but it is credible, keeps partners engaged and
preserves options in the “pre NIF ignition” era
Europe: Capability, Complexity & Constraints
Capability (simplified)
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U.K.
Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) maintains UK deterrent:
Orion laser facility, HPC, tritium, in-house HED science programme,
physics codes. Working to add “fusion energy” to its mission
STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory:
VULCAN laser facility, HPC, centre for DPSSL laser development, HED
science programme in partnership with UK university groups
Nuclear power industry (declined); AMEC, RR, BAE Systems, NNL, etc.
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France
CEA:
“NIF-like” LMJ (on-line 2015 – 16) and associated capabilities
Host organisation for ITER
Carbon neutral energy mission; GEN-IV development, solar, etc.
Extensive nuclear power industry; EDF, Areva, etc
Europe: Capability, Complexity & Constraints
Capability (simplified)
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Czech Republic: ELI Beamlines
One of three large laser projects which comprise the Extreme Light
Infrastructure (ELI), funded largely from E.U. “Structural Funds”
Other projects of similar scale are starting in Hungary and Romania
These facilities require a new laser technology; high efficiency,
high repetition rate (>10Hz) and high power . . .
. . . also the requirement for the laser driver for inertial fusion energy
Contracts between IoP Prague and U.K. (CLF) and U.S. (LLNL)
are driving the development of this DPSSL technology
Europe: Capability, Complexity & Constraints
Complexity & Constraints
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MFE programme, JET and ITER (under construction)
LIFE and HiPER programmes will validate all the physics, engineering,
technology and commercial viability of fusion power via single, major
facility build using existing materials
ITER will not have a full blanket or tritium cycle; larger machines
required for commercial power production will introduce physics
unknowns, plasma stability, materials issues
Extreme sensitivity over IFE / MFE delivery schedule
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Physics design for IFE based on X-ray (indirect) drive (NIF) requires
access to computer codes that are not in the public domain
HiPER Executive Board determined an ignition physics strategy based
on direct drive (shock ignition) to be demonstrated at LMJ ~ 2022
UK works on both schemes; indirect drive is outside of HiPER scope
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Demonstration of ignition at NIF is likely to change this landscape
Energy
“The struggle for existence is the struggle
for available energy.”
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Affordable
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Security of supply
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Environmentally responsible
Ludwig Boltzmann (attrib), 1886
Aspirations & Relationships
U.K.
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UK has the opportunity to be on the supply side of IFE through laser technology,
fuel capsule design and manufacture, etc.
AWE is actively seeking an energy remit, supported (not funded) by MoD;
AWE’s Board has agreed to co-fund start-up programme
STFC, AWE and Livermore have signed an MoU to collaborate on IFE;
announced by BIS Minister David Willetts and Ed Moses at an IFE event at
Royal Society in London
STFC has a long history of collaboration on ICF with Japan. MoU and staff
exchanges, etc.
An inter-Govt. agreement on IFE is possible following ignition
Aspirations & Relationships
France
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Keeping options open; CEA maintaining influence
France (CEA) partnered with US on production of NIF & LMJ
laser glass and other components
France and UK are collaborating on defence procurement; CEA
and AWE are developing joint facilities
Local Government in Bordeaux region is contributing additional
capability to LMJ which can be used for HiPER relevant research
LMJ beam time will be available for academic access and HiPER,
from 2016
President Sarkozy visits LMJ
14th October 2010
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“LMJ to be used for energy research”
“By choosing to build the PETAL laser
next to the Laser MegaJoule, we open
the way to explore a new type of
energy”
Funding Prospects
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HiPER “Preparatory Phase” was funded by EC (coordination & governance);
STFC and MSMT funded technical work
STFC is funding continued coordination and governance until April 2014 . . . .
. . . beyond April ‘14, STFC will fund 50%; seeking 50% from partners in return
for representation on the HiPER Steering Board
Technical work is funded on a national basis
Laser technology in UK, France & Czech Republic
Physics modeling in UK, France & Italy
Systems engineering in France & Spain
Materials and chamber design in Spain
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Funding from E.C. is likely beyond 2014 within “Horizon 2020” programme
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Ignition at NIF is likely to unlock substantial funding, at least in UK and France
Fuel sustainability
Fuel
D: 115 ppm
in seawater;
chemical
extraction
+
+
D
+
+
+
T
+
He
n
TBR >1.1
Li: abundant in earth’s crust
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7%
Li6 +
93%
Li
7
+
n slow
He4 + T3 + 4.8 MeV
n fast
He4 + T3 + nslow - 2.466 MeV
Castle Bravo (1954) yielded 15MT compared to a predicted 5MT
Also neutron breeding from 207Pb (or 9Be) (n,2n) reactions
Power Plant Materials for 1 TWe (DRAFT)
Material
Use
Consumption
Inventory
Production
Reserve
Deuterium
Fuel
95 t/yr
Small
140 t/yr
2.3×1013 t
Tritium
Fuel
143 t/yr
?
N/A
N/A
Helium
Cryogenics
?
25000 t/yr
2.3×1011 t
340 t/yr
349000 t
340 t/yr
80000-485000 t
155 t/yr
3100 t
7000 t/yr
425000 t
Turbine fluid
Lithium
Coolant
3H
production
3800 t/yr
Beryllium
n0 breeding
Gallium
Laser diodes
Arsenic
Laser diodes
Yttrium
Laser host
Indium
Laser diodes
Xenon
Chamber gas
?
1370 m3
5000-7000 m3/yr
3.5×1011 m3
Ytterbium
Laser material
100 t/yr
2000 t
50 t/yr
1×106 t
Tungsten
First wall
240 t/yr
24000 t
58000 t/yr
2.8×106 t
Gold
Target cones
500 t/yr
Small
2350 t/yr
470000 t
Lead
n0 breeding
17600 t/yr
?
4×106 t/yr
1.5×109 t
Target cones
7000 t/yr
Small
Economic Analyses
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Laser energy must be commercially and technologically viable
Many aspects to be assessed
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Role of laser energy as part of the energy mix
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Value of “security of supply” & “first to market” advantage
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Cost of electricity (€/kWh) & dependencies
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Rate and cost of build
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Investment & funding scenarios (NPV, DCF, debt, …)
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Impact of carbon (obligations, taxing, …)
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Economic Impact on the collaborating nations
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Industrial sector impact and alignment
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Exploitation of spin-off technology development
Studies in progress; no “show stoppers” identified so far
High gain ignition scheme and > 10 Hz repetition rate
UK Electricity Production
Slide20
2 GW coal station at Didcot closed in March ‘13
UK is facing high probability of power cuts in 2015
Slide21
Renewable energy in UK requires space!
fusion,
fission,
(or coal!)
Solar
(PV)
For 1GWe
Wind (offshore)
Tidal
45km
Energy form
Energy
Density
(W/m2)
Onshore wind
2
Offshore wind
3
Solar
(photovoltaic)
10
Solar biomass
0.5
Tidal
3
Hydro
0.24
Geothermal
0.017
Fission/fusion
1000
Wind (onshore)
Solar bio-mass
(Hydro is twice this size;
Geo-thermal is 30 times this size)
DJC McKay (2009)
22
UK Energy Realities
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There are options for the future, but they come with difficult choices
In the short term, UK is committed to replace coal with gas (from Norway &
Eastern Europe; lpg from Qatar)
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. . . . followed by a fission reactor build programme in the medium term . . . .
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. . . . or a huge scale-up of renewables supported by feed-in subsidies
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Fusion could solve our energy needs beyond 2050
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Requires ignition at NIF, long term political vision and investor support
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Progress to date is encouraging!
Laser Energy “SWOT” analysis
Strengths
1. Deliverable on "energy relevant" timescale
2. Separability enables parallel development
3. Physics can be demonstrated at full scale at NIF & LMJ
4. < 1kg Tritium inventory
5. Sustainable
6. Inherently (comparatively?) safe
Weaknesses
1. Laser driver scalability not yet demonstrated
2. Mass production of fuel capsules to quality and cost
3. Novel material may be required for first wall (HiPER)
4. Commercial viability not yet demonstrated
5. "Fusion is always 50 years away!"
Opportunities
1. Technology has high, immediate exploitation potential
2. First wall has no containment function
2. Use of existing, qualified materials simplifies licensing
3. High reaction temperature enables chemical processes
Threats
1. First Ignition" is not assured
2. Laser diode cost reduction not yet demonstrated
3. Political focus on renewables
4. Difficult economic environment for R & D funding
www.hiper.org

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