Needs Assessment

Report
A focus on Title I, Part A
Jan Mahowski
Senior Coordinator Evaluation, Title I,
Pinellas County Public Schools
Richard Janiak, Ph.D.
Title I Evaluator
Charlotte County Public Schools
Needs Assessment
Overview of Title I Part A,
 Ten Components
Needs Assessment Intro
Needs Assessment
Building on Florida’s complimentary
model for school improvement
Step Zero
8 Step Problem Solving Model
5 Essentials
CIMS website (hands-on)
Title I Primary focus
 The Elementary and Secondary
Education Act (ESEA) requires
all Title I schools to include the
following:
Ten Components
(Annual Documentation)
1. Comprehensive Needs Assessment
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Reform Strategies
Instruction by Highly Qualified Teachers (HQT)
High Quality Professional Development
Strategies to Attract HQT
Strategies to Increase Parent Involvement
Transition
Teacher Decision Making Regarding Assessments
Effective and Timely Assistance to Students
Coordination and Integration of Federal, State, and Local
Services and Programs
Required:
(A) A comprehensive needs assessment of the entire
school (including taking into account the needs of
migratory children as defined in section 1309(2))
based on information which includes the
achievement of children in relation to the State
academic content standards and the State student
academic achievement standards described in section
1111(b)(1).
But FIRST…..
•
How comfortable are you
working with data?
Is it just another 4 letter word?
Activity #1: Synectics
Purpose: To determine a baseline for your
current comfort level in discussing
data/evaluation.
Test Your Knowledge
Activity #2: Term Match
 In small
groups, match the data
terms with the correct definitions.
 Refer to Data Terms
handout for
clarification and confirmation.
Hmmm….
What is a Comprehensive
Needs Assessment (CNA)?
What is a Need?
 “Need” = gap or discrepancy between a
present state (what is) and a desired
state (what should be). The need is
neither the present nor the future state;
it is the gap between them.
Desired
Current
Need
65% Reading
Proficiency (AMO)
59% Reading
Proficiency
6% More Reading
Proficient
Do you currently conduct a
Title I Needs Assessment?
• In the real world, there is never
enough money to meet all needs.
Needs assessments are conducted to
help program planners identify and
select the right job before doing the
job right.
A CNA…
• A “needs assessment” is a
systematic set of procedures
that are used to determine
needs, examine their nature
and causes, and set priorities
for future action.
Focus on the end…….
NEEDS are not Solutions
Needs Assessment focuses on the
ends (i.e., outcomes) to be
attained, rather than the means
(i.e., process). For example, reading
achievement is an outcome
whereas reading instruction is a
means toward that end.
The Needs Assessment Model (Phases & Key Steps)
Phase
Phase 1
Pre-Assessment
Key Steps
Overarching Phase Descriptor
Focusing the NA and What do we know
about possible needs?
1.Focusing the Needs Assessment
2.Forming a NAC Committee
3.Learn as Much as we can about preliminary what
should be and what is conditions from available
data sources
4.Moving to Phases 2 and/or 3 or Stopping
1.Conducting
Phase 2
Assessment
Do we need to know more, will we have
to conduct a much more intensive data
collection effort, and do we have ideas
about what are the causes of needs?
a Full NA about what should be and
what is conditions
2.Identifying Discrepancies (Levels 1, 2, and 3)
3.Prioritizing Discrepancies
4.Causally Analyzing Needs
5.Preliminary Identification of Solution Criteria and
Possible Solution Strategies
6.Moving to Phase 3
1.Making
Phase 3
Post-Assessment
Are we ready to take action and have we
learned enough about the need to feel
comfortable with our proposed actions?
Altschuld & Kumar (2010) Sage Publishing
Final Decisions to Resolve Needs and
Selecting Solution Strategies
2.Developing Action Plans for Solution Strategies,
Communicating Plans, and Building Bases of
Support
3.Implementing and Monitoring Plans
4.Evaluating the Overall NA Endeavor (document
with an eye to revisit and reuse)
3 PHASES of Needs…
1. Explore “What IS?”
2. Gather and Analyze Data
3. Make Decisions
PRE-ASSESSMENT
Phase 1: Explore “What IS?
 investigate what is already known about
the needs of the target group (students,
parents, teachers)
 determine the focus and scope of the
needs assessment;
 gain commitment for all stages of the
assessment; including the use of the
findings for program planning and
implementation
Key Elements of Phase 1
Form a Needs Assessment
committee
Create a timeline
Identify Major Concerns
Determine data (what do we need)
ASSESSMENT
Phase 2: Gather/Analyze Data
 Document “what is” of the concerns/issues
 Compare “what is” to “what should be”
 Determine magnitude of the needs and
their causes
 Develop a set of needs statements in
tentative order of priority, based on the
criticality of the need, and its causes.
Key Elements of Phase 2
 Determine target groups (3rd grade
students, parents)
 Gather data
 Prioritize the needs (based on the data)
 Root cause*****
 Summarize and share
Gather Data
 Title I Audit Box
 Title I Application
 Demographics
 Student Achievement
 School Culture and Climate
 Staff Quality Recruitment and Retention
 Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment
 Family and Community Involvement
 Technology
Root Cause Analysis:
Five Whys
Asking the question ‘Why’ 5 times, can help
identify the root cause of the need.
Steps:
1. Identify the need.
2.Ask why the need exists.
3.Repeat 5 times – 5 ‘Whys’, until the essential
cause of the need is identified.
Five Whys
Handout 1 (Yellow Folder)
The Case of the Pokey
Elevators
“Well,” he began, “you told me that your
problem was slow elevators. What that said to
me was that your solution to tenant complaints
was faster elevators. But that wasn’t really your
problem. What those folks were trying to tell
you is that they are bored stiff while waiting for
the elevators. That’s your real problem.” So for
less than $1,000, mirrors were installed beside
the elevators on every floor. Women
straightened their hair, men their ties. There
were no more complaints.
Problem Statement
You’re not getting wet
because it’s raining…
You’re getting wet
because your umbrella
has a hole in it.
DATA COLLECTION
5 WHYS
Root Cause
POST-ASSESSMENT
Phase 3: Decision Making
 Bridge from the analysis to action—to use
needs assessment findings
 It answers important questions:
 What needs are the most critical? What
are some possible solutions? Which
solutions are best?
Key Elements of Phase 3
Prioritize
Identify possible solutions
Select solutions
Propose Action Plan (SIP) (Title I
Application)
Florida’s Complimentary
model for Assessing and
addressing Needs
The Continuous Improvement
Management System (CIMS)
 Data visualizations for needs assessment and goal
development
 School and district improvement plans
 School Improvement Grant 1003(g) proposals
 Registration for BSI-hosted professional
development opportunities
 Resources, tools and guidance to support
continuous improvement
CIMS
• 8 Step Planning and
Problem Solving
• Step Zero
5 Essentials
 Effective Leadership
 Supportive Environment
 Problem Analysis
 Ambitious
Instruction/Learning
 Data Analysis
Visualization Tool
 Collaborative and Public
Teaching
 Strategic Goal
Formulation
 Involved Families and
Community
Engagement
 Problem Identification
8 Step Planning & Problem Solving
Criteria
• Collaborative Nature
• District Familiarity
• Flexibility
• Explicit Structures
It fit the bill!
Data Source: FLDOE
8 Step Planning & Problem Solving: Evolution
Step Zero
Problem ID
(what)
Data
visualizations;
Guiding
Questions
Problem
Analysis (why)
5 Whys; Guiding
Questions Organized
by 5Essentials
Domains; Situational
Awareness
NEEDS ASSESSMENT
Strategic
Goal
Formulation
POWERFUL
criteria
HOW DOES IT ALL FIT TOGETHER?
SWP 10
Components
5
Essentials
CNA
Step Zero
Handout 2 (Yellow Folder)
Phases 1 and 2 CNA
Review the 5 Essentials
Focus on elements/ facets
Develop guiding questions
Examine possible data sources
Establish useful indicators
Supportive
Environment
Examine components of an
“essential”
Teacher Support for
Students
Safety
High Expectations
for Student Success
Student-Teacher
Trust
Develop Needs assessment
Question(s) for each component
Supportive Environment
High Expectations for Student Success
• Do the school leadership and faculty
have high expectations for the success
of all students?
• Does the school implement support
systems and procedures such as MTSS
that most effectively support student
success in the classroom?
Consider Possible Data Sources
• Do the school leadership
and faculty have high
expectations for the
success of all students?
• Climate surveys
• Parent surveys
• Student surveys
• Does the school implement
support systems and
procedures such as MTSS
that most effectively
support student success
in the classroom?
• List of interventions
and support
programs
• MTSS procedures
Develop Useful indicators
• Do the school leadership
and faculty have high
expectations for the success
of all students?
Climate surveys
Parent surveys
Student surveys
Survey results showing school
leadership and teachers support
the academic success of all
students
Suggestions
Assign data collection roles
Seek multiple data sources
Use available – plan for
future
Extend and add to questions
Navigating CIMS
Building on Florida’s complimentary
model for school improvement
FLDOE CIMS
https://www.floridacims.org/
 LOGIN
 DISTRICTS
 School

Performance Data
PHASE 1
Problem ID
(what)
Data
visualizations;
Guiding
Questions
PHASE 2
Step Zero
Problem
Analysis (why)
5 Whys; Guiding
Questions Organized
by 5Essentials
Domains; Situational
Awareness
PHASE 3
Strategic
Goal
Formulation
POWERFUL
criteria
Step Zero
Problem
Problem ID
Analysis
(why)
• Does (what)
our strategic goal form
a credible
theory
5 Whys; Guiding
of action? That is, is it causal?
•
Data
Questions Organized
5Essentialsby
visualizations;
Will
reaching our goal servebystudents
Domains; Situational
Guiding
making
teaching better?
Awareness
Questions
• Can we measure progress toward our
strategic goal?
• Could our goal arguably have a positive
impact
on outcomes in multiple grades and
subjects?
• Would effective implementation result in
improvements across multiple 5Essentials
domains?
Strategic
Goal
Formulation
POWERFUL
criteria
Step Zero
Problem ID
(what)
Data
visualizations;
Guiding
Questions
Problem
Analysis (why)
5 Whys; Guiding
Questions Organized
by 5Essentials
Domains; Situational
Awareness
Strategic
Goal
Formulation
POWERFUL
criteria
Explore – PHASE 1
Click on PROBLEM ID
Select “ACCEPT”
Problem ID
(what)
Data visualizations;
Guiding Questions
Handout 3 (Yellow Folder)
Handout 4 – Yellow Folder
Handout 5 – Yellow Folder
Handout 6 – Yellow Folder
Handout 7 – Yellow Folder
Last Handout– Yellow Folder
Sample CNA Template
Aligned to 10 components
Lists 5 Essentials and elements
Follows the process described
Includes a worksheet
Adapt as needed
A Part of the school improvement process
“But Wait, That’s not all….”
SWP 10
Components
CNA
Evaluation
Step Zero
5
Essentials
Needs Assessment KIT (2010)
Books
1: Needs Assessment: An Overview Altschuld & Kumar
2: Needs Assessment Phase I: Getting Started
Altschuld & Eastmond
3: Needs Assessment Phase II: Collecting Data Altschuld
4: Needs Assessment: Analysis & Prioritization
Altschuld & White
5: Needs Assessment Phase 3: Taking Action for Change
Stevahn & King (A is editor)
Witkin & Altschuld (1995), A & W (2000), and New Directions Issue
(2014), Altschuld & Watkins (Eds) with chapter by Engle and A

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