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ศูนย์รบั แจ้งเบาะแสและให้ความช่วยเหลือเด็ก มูลนิธปิ วีณา หงสกุล
แจ้งเหตุดว่ นหรือร้องทุกข์ บริการให้ขอ้ มูลในเรือ่ งคดีเศรษฐกิจ
สายด่วนทางหลวงชนบท รับแจ้งถนนชารุด
สายด่วนยาเสพติด
ศูนย์ให้คาปรึกษาธุรกิจระหว่างประเทศ
ศูนย์รบั แจ้งอุบตั เิ หตุทางน้ า
ศูนย์นเรนทร
สายตรงวิศวกร ซีแพค
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Yingluck Obama Press Conference
• Show video here.
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• Using ICT:
– Use it appropriately.
– Bad publicity may follow you because of ICT.
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• Think global, act local.
• Think outside the box.
• Do it the other way around or do it completely
differently from the norm.
– Do the opposite. Yunus. 2005 Nobel Peace Laureate
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ICT Impacts on Public Sector
Framework
• Resources are not unlimited.
• To survive/compete is to improve efficiency.
• We need outcome indicators regardless of
processes in place.
Objectives
• Describe 3 major problems of ICT implementation in
public sector
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Henri Fayol
Major functions of a manager
• Planning (การวางแผนงาน)
• Leading (การนาองค์กร) (commanding and
coordinating): Policy
• Organizing (การจัดระบบองค์กร)
• Controlling (การควบคุมการดาเนินงาน)
– Empowerment, supervision and accountability
– Innovation and creativity
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• Public sector หมายถึง
– State and/or government agencies
– Ministries, state enterprises and public organizations
– Local governments: provincial administrative
organization, sub-district administrative organization
(TAO = อบต).
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Government Functions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
General public services
Defense
Public order and safety
Economic affairs
Environmental protection
Housing and community amenities
Health (Public health)
Recreation, culture and religion
Education
Social protection
Scheme by OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development)
องค์การเพือ่ ความร่วมมือทางเศรษฐกิจและการพัฒนา (องค์การเพือ่ ความร่วมมือและการพัฒนาทางเศรษฐกิจ)
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• Many government agencies have applied
ICT to their missions in one form or
another.
• This session focuses on e-Government.
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e-Government
• Use of internet and www for delivering government
information and services to the citizens. (UN)
• การใช้อนิ เทอร์เน็ต และ เว็บ เพือ่ การให้ขอ้ มูลและการบริการของ
ทางการต่อสาธารณชน (ประชาชน)
– ไม่มมี ติ ปิ ระสิทธิผล/ประสิทธิภาพ
• นิยามในทีน่ ้ี - การใช้เทคโนโลยีสารสนเทศและการสือ่ สารเพือ่
ส่งเสริมและปรับปรุงประสิทธิภาพของการให้ขอ้ มูลข่าวสารและการ
บริการของรัฐบาลทีม่ แี ก่ผมู้ สี ว่ นได้สว่ นเสียทัง้ หลาย (ภาครัฐบาล
ภาคธุรกิจ และภาคประชาชน)
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พจนานุกรมฉบับราชบัณฑิตสถาน
ประสิทธิผล
• น. ผลสาเร็จ, ผลทีเ่ กิดขึน้
ประสิทธิภาพ
• น. ความสามารถทีท่ าให้เกิดผลในการงาน
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Terminology
Effectiveness (ประสิทธิผล)
• ความสามารถในการให้ได้ผลตามประสงค์
• The capability of producing a desired result
Efficiency (ประสิทธิภาพ)
• การทางานให้สาเร็จโดยไม่สญ
ู เปล่าด้านเวลาและทรัพยากร
• Ratio of output to input
Productivity (ผลิตภาพ)
• ประสิทธิภาพในการผลิต การทางาน
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Framework for Evaluation
Input
Process
People
Money
Equipment
Raw materials
Policies
etc.
Training
Logistics
Management
Communications
etc.
Output
Outcome
Impact
Business
opportunity
Economic
growth
Etc.
Goods
Services
Professionals
etc.
Sale
Business growth
Service growth
etc.
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Measuring Government Functions
• System Model:
– Input > Process > Output > Outcome > Impact
–สิง่ เข้า > กระบวนการ > สิง่ ออก > ผลได้ > ผลกระทบ
–Effectiveness = Outcome Output
• What to measure
– Output, outcome, impact
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Scenarios
• ไปโรงพยาบาลตามนัดแต่ไม่พบแพทย์ รูส้ กึ อย่างไรบ้าง
• เซ็งสิครับ
• วิธแี ก้ปญั หา
–ติดต่อสือ่ สาร แจ้งล่วงหน้าว่าแพทย์จะไม่ออกตรวจ โดยใช้
โทรศัพท์ การส่งข้อความ เป็ นต้น
–แจ้งกาหนดนัดหมายใหม่เมือ่ ผูป้ ว่ ยไปถึง
–จัดหาแพทย์ออกตรวจแทนแพทย์ตามนัดเดิม
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Scenarios
• เพือ่ นบ้านก่อความราคาญ ไปพึง่ ตารวจแต่ตารวจไม่รบั แจ้ง
ความด้วยมีจานวนผูร้ อ้ งเรียนจานวนมากแน่นโรงพัก จะทา
อย่างไร
• วิธแี ก้ปญั หา
– ขอพบผูบ้ งั คับบัญชา
– ร้องเรียนผ่านสือ่ มวลชน
– ยืน่ ฟ้องกับศาลปกครอง
– กลับบ้านไปหาวิธแี ก้ปญั หาเอง เช่น ซ้อมเพือ่ นบ้าน
– ทา web board รับแจ้งเรือ่ งร้องเรียน
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ปญั หาของ web board โดยทัวไป
่
• Anonymous users: irresponsible accusation
• Threads/topics not moderated, inappropriate
expressions
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Problems:
• Thai society in general observes process-oriented
activities with little attention on outcomes.
– การรณรงค์ต่างๆ
– Less on campaigning and more on enforcing.
• ICT is accepted and implemented one way or another.
• When we implement a new process, 2 things should be
considered:
– Cost-effectiveness and impact on stakeholders
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For e-Government services
• ICT is to be applied in the work process to improve
service efficiency.
– Mission/Vision, Policy, Goals
– Action plan with indicators, Standard operating
procedure (SOP)
– Etc.
• Intranet web service with all in place but no
outcome indicators, only process indicators are up
there.
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What really happens?
• What all government agencies do:
– Webpage presence
– Information for the public
– Online services
• With transparency, efficiency is generally expected.
• But:
– Incomplete information and poor delivery, not up to date
– Process-oriented attitude
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Criteria for Usability
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Website presence
Organization structure
Top management list
Links (internal)
Help
Contact info
Social media presence
Multiple languages
Search function
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•
Public info
Public services
Annual report
Site map
Navigation control
Job opportunity
Announcement
Update frequency
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Acceptable page with room for improvement
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http://www.bb.go.th/bbhome/index.asp
Acceptable page with a lot of room for improvement
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Why Government Is Slow to Improve!
• In ICT, government employees are followers, not
leaders.
• “All information is confidential.” attitude.
• Transparency is at the discretion of government
employees.
• Government view: information = vulnerability
• Public view: information = transparency
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Why is transparency important?
• Corruption = low efficiency due to high cost of
operation
• Transparency requires all financial and public
information to be disclosed.
• Transparency deters corruption.
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•
•
•
•
•
Top secret
Secret
Confidential
Classified
Non-classified
=
=
=
=
=
ลับทีส่ ดุ
ลับมาก
ลับ
ปกปิด
ไม่ปกปิด
• ระเบียบว่าด้วยการรักษาความลับของทางราชการ พ.ศ.๒๕๔๔
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7 Dimensions of e-Government Failure
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Information
Technology
Processes
Objectives and values
Staffing and skills
Management systems and structures
Other resources: time and money
RICHARD HEEKS Most e-Government-for-Development Projects Fail. How Can Risks be
Reduced? Institute for Development Policy and Management 2003
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1 Information Dimension
• Perform a requirements analysis on information
needs of stakeholders, besides standard approach.
• Use prototyping – getting users to use a test version
of the e-government application – in order to help
them explain what information they really need.
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2 Technology Dimension
• Explore ways in which better services could be
delivered without ICTs.
• Explore ways in which better services could be
delivered using the existing ICT infrastructure.
• Avoid leading-edge technologies in the design.
• Explore opportunities for use of donated or recycled
equipment. (Analogy of erecting building)
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3 Process Dimension
• Keep doing things the same way, only with the
addition of some new technology.
• Avoid total business process reengineering;
– Try optimization or minor modification of existing
processes within the e-government application design.
• Consider a two-stage approach:
– 1st: processes are optimized without any change to
ICTs;
– 2nd: at later stage, new ICTs are brought in.
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4 Objectives and Values dimension
• Use rewards to alter stakeholder objectives and values (e.g. messages of
management support, better pay, better working conditions, career advancement, etc.).
• Use punishments to alter stakeholder objectives and values (e.g. threats,
reprimands, transfers, worsened pay and conditions, etc.).
• Communicate with stakeholders about the system: sell the true benefits and
address the true negative aspects.
• Get key stakeholders (those regarded as key opinion formers or those vociferous in their
resistance to the e-government application) to participate in the analysis and/or design
of the e-government application.
• Base e-government application design on a consensus view of all main
stakeholders.
• Use prototyping: this helps incorporate stakeholder objectives in the design,
and also helps to make actual stakeholder objectives more realistic.
• If feasible in skill, time and motivational terms, get users to help develop
and build the e-government application.
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5 Staffing and Skills Dimension
• Outsource contracts in order to improve the current
reality of available competencies (though this may
increase other gaps).
• Train staff to improve current reality of competencies.
• Improve recruitment and retention techniques to reduce
competency (staff) turnover.
• Make use of external consultants (though this may
increase other gaps).
• Hire new staff to expand the volume of current
competencies.
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6 Management Systems & Structures
Dimension
• Make an explicit commitment to retain the existing
management systems and structures within egovernment application design.
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7 Other Resources Dimension
• Prioritize e-government applications that maximize revenue
generation for government (e.g. those dealing with tax, fees,
fines, etc).
• Seek additional financing from donor or central government
agencies.
• Take out loans from private sector institutions.
• Get private firms to develop, own and operate the egovernment application.
• Charge business or wealthier users of the e-government
system.
• Scale-down ambitions of the e-government project, e.g., try
10% realization.
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7 Other Resources Dimension
• Extend timescales of the e-government project.
• Negotiate central/shared agency IT agreements to
reduce hardware and software costs.
• Use 'one for all' contracts that are reusable.
• Use project management techniques to reduce waste
and delays.
• Outsource contracts in order to reduce time (and
possibly costs) gaps.
• Make use of open source software if feasible (though
cost savings are often less than anticipated).
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Royal Institute Case
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•
•
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Thai language dictionary ≅ 30,000 entries
Oxford English dictionary ≅ 300,000 entries
RI generates less than 100 new entries a year.
How to handle word spelling always in dispute
– ปรกติ หรือ ปกติ
– Labor vs labour
• Website is there but nothing new is available.
• How do you apply ICT to improve output/outcome?
– Public participation through web process such as web board
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Government Hospital
• Scanned medical record
– Convenience v.s.
– Legibility, liability (digitized manual work),
storage/backup requirement, network traffic/bandwidth
requirement, loss of opportunity, etc.
• Root causes
– Management commitment
– Change management
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TQA award
• Thailand version of Malcolm-Baldrige Quality Award
• Outcome indicators
• Agency that handles outcome comparison
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Category 7: Results
To earn point, an enterprise must show relative performance in
comparison with other players in the same industry.
There is no such data.
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Outcome Indicators
• How do we compare performances between two
hospitals?
• One hospital is cleaner.
• Another hospital is more beautiful.
• Death, complication, cost and length of stay.
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Making Comparison
• An independent, third party shall perform tasks
necessary.
• Indicators are sent to this 3rd party agency
• Indicators are compared and published.
• But:
– How do we know that those indicators are not falsified
by a given hospital?
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Hospital A vs Hospital B
Parameter
Mortality rate
Complication rate
Expense per discharge
Length of stay
Hospital A
1%
5%
THB 10K
4 days
Hospital B
2%
6%
THB 15K
3 days
How do we know that these figures are not falsified?
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Information Audit
• Information security standard
– ISO 17799 (based on British Standard)
– ISO 27001 Information Security Management System
ISO/IEC 27001:2005 – Information technology – Security techniques –
Information security management systems – Requirements.
– ISO 27002 Code of practice for information security
management
IISO/IEC 27002:2005 Information technology - Security techniques - Code of
practice for information security management.
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• What do we do if there are no standards?
– Gas station
– Electrical outlet
– ATM card
– Car tires
– Etc.
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Consequence of non-conforming
• Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability are
compromised.
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• Ministry of Education websites were hacked by
teenagers.
– What is the implication of this attack?
• Power outage caused an operation downtime in a
hospital.
– Impacts of such downtime on patient safety.
• Etc.
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ISO 27002
IS
Acquisition
Mgmt
Compliance
Organizing
IT Security
Asset
Mgmt
Security
Policy
Incident
Mgmt
ISO
27002
HR
Security
BCM
Access
Control
Physical
Security
Comm and
Ops Mgmt
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Recap.
• Think global. Act local.
• Follow available international standards.
• Pay attention to outcomes and the processes will be
handled accordingly.
– High school exam, TOEFL exam, etc.
• Enforce all rules and regulations.
• Easier said than done. Because it is against the
Thai cultures.
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Problem 1
• Chiang Mai University Hospital has a parking space
for 1,000 cars but 2,000 outpatients. Assuming 1
patient/car.
• What are possible solutions?
– Relocate or build a new outpatient facility
– Rent a parking space across the street
– Build a parking deck for 2,000 cars in the compound
– Build a parking deck for 3,000 cars near the compound
– Etc.
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Problem 2
• Blood Bank Division has a space that can
accommodate 6 beds for blood drawing.
• It takes less than 30 minutes to process 1 donor.
• There are about 30 donors a day.
• At times, 20 donors show up at the same time.
• What are possible solutions?
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Possible solutions
• Relocate the facility to a new building with more
space
• Set up a temporary facility to accommodate
occasional high traffic
• Etc.
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Problem 3
• Multiple scheduling.
• Patient A is to see a psychiatrist once a month and
to see a neurologist once every 2 months.
• What are possible ways of appointment scheduling?
– Free style scheduling
– Appointment that accommodates patient’s schedule
– Appointment that accommodates physician’s schedule
– Appointment that accommodates both parties.
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Mass Casualty Situation
• About 1,600-2,000 patients visit a hospital daily,
each is registered one by one individually.
• What is a reasonable plan to accommodate a mass
casualty of 200 patients?
– Immobilize 20 personnel
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