GCSE Music Listening Revision

Report
GCSE Music Listening Exam
Music Department
This file contains:
•Links to useful revision websites
•Revision notes on Area of Study 2 (Shared Music)
•Revision notes on Area of Study 3 (Dance Music)
Note: Clicking on the pictures links to relevant clips
Useful Websites
BBC Bitesize:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/m
usic/
Exam board website:
http://www.ocr.org.uk/qualifications/gcsemusic-j535-from-2012/
Ensembles
Indian Classical Music
Venue / occasion
Religious
ceremonies
Date & Place of
Origin
3000 years
Metre, rhythm &
tempo
•Based on cycle of
beats called the tala
•The table player
improvises around the
tala
Ravi
Shankar
(R.I.P)
Indian Classical Music
Melody
•Based on the set of notes called a raga
•Ragas are associated with seasons, moods etc...
•Everyone agrees on the raga at the start –
players improvise using the notes
•Dialogue / pitch bends / glassandos / scales /
ornamentation
How do the players
know what to play?
•Master-student
tradition (no notation)
•The players agree on
the tala and raga to use
at the start and then
improvise around it
Structure
•3 main sections (Alap –
no tabla / Gat - tabla
enters/ Jhalla – gets
faster)
Instrumentation
•Sitar (melody - raga)
•Tabla (rhythm – tala)
•Tanpura (drone)
•Sarod (glissandos)
•Bansuri (flute)
Indian Instruments
The Tambura
This is a 4 stringed
instrument.
It is a backing
instrument
The Sitar
This is a 7 stringed
instrument.
One string plays
the main melody
and the others
drone.
It improvises.
The Tabla
This is a pair of drums.
Musician: Ravi Shankar
Gamelan Music
Date & Place of
Origin
Indonesia
Hundreds of years
Metre, rhythm &
tempo
•Based on cycle of
beats called the tala
•The table player
improvises around the
tala
Venue / occasion
Courts, temples. Village
squares for puppet shows,
dances or religious
ceremonies
Gamelan Music
Melody & Texture
•Scales – slendro / pelog
•All instruments play the same melody which
repeats but they play at different speeds =
heterophonic texture
How do the players
know what to play?
•Learned by ear
•Listen carefully to each
other
•Drummer leads the
groups indicating
tempo changes etc...
Structure
•Cyclic
•Gongan is the name for
a cycle – marked by the
gong
Instrumentation
•Gongs
•Metallophones
(saron)
•Drums (kendang)
Baroque & Classical
Chamber Music
Date
Baroque: 1600-1740
Classical: 1740 - 1800
Texture / Dynamics /
ornamentation
•Baroque ;
Contrapuntal /
terraced dynamics /
frequent ornaments
•Classical: melody &
accompaniment /
gradual dynamic
changes / less
ornaments
Venue / occasion
Chamber (small room)
Baroque & Classical
Chamber Music
Composers:
Baroque: Bach
Classical:
Mozart
How do the players
know what to play?
•Notation
•They face slightly
towards each other
Structure
•Baroque: 4 short
movements eg. Dances
•Classical: 4
movements
(f/s/minuet/f)
Types of Ensembles
•Baroque: Solo sonata
/ trio sonata
(Harpsichord)
•Classical: String
quartet / wind quintet
Voice & Accompaniment
Romantic Song
Date & Place of
Origin
Romantic Period
(1800-1900),
Germany
Ravi
Shankar
(R.I.P)
Venue / occasion
Small audience or
private home
Romantic Song
How do the players
know what to play?
•Sheet Music
•They work together
Structure
•Strophic
•Through composed
Schubert
Melody & Texture
•Melody & Accompaniment texture
(homophonic)
•Music reflects the mood or words in the poem
•German lyrics
•Dialogue
•Piano interludes
Instrumentation
•Solo voice & piano
Pop Ballad
Mariah
Carey
Venue / occasion
Pop Concerts
Elton John
Date & Place of
Origin
Modern
Metre, rhythm &
tempo
•4/4 metre
•Slow tempo
•Chords change slowly
How do the players
know what to play?
•Chord sheets
•Notation
•Multi-tracked
Pop Ballad
Melody & Texture
•Expressive vocal line – ornaments, melismas,
rubato, large range, long held notes...
Structure
•Verse-chorus
Instrumentation
•Solo voice
•Piano
•Guitar
•Saxophone
•Backing singers
•Reverb added
Area of Study 2: Shared Music
Ensembles
Area of Study 2: Shared Music
The Classical Concerto
Venue / occasion
Large concert hall
(The Sage / Albert
hall)
Mozart
Date & Place of
Origin
Classical period
(1740-1800)
The Classical
Concerto
Melody & texture
•Question & answer phrases
•Melody and accompaniment (homophonic
texture)
•Gradual changes in dynamics
How do the players
know what to play?
•Conductor follows the
soloist, orchestra follow
the conductor
•Notation
Structure
•3 movements (fastslow-fast)
•Ends with a cadenza
•Sometimes a
movement is in Rondo
form (ABACABA)
Instrumentation
•Solo instrument and
orchestra (eg. Flute and
orchestra)
Area of Study 2: Shared Music
Jazz
Miles Davis
Venue / occasion
Bar / club
Duke Ellington
Date & Place of
Origin
America early 20th
century (1900s)
Metre, rhythm &
tempo
•4/4 metre
•Swung rhythms
•Syncopated rhythms
•Blues scale
Jazz
Melody & Texture
•Improvised
•Walking bass
•Comping
•Scat singing
How do the players
know what to play?
•Learned by ear
•From a lead sheet
•The head (main idea)
is pre-composed and
memorised
Structure
•12 bar blues
•Instrumentalists take it
in turns to play the solo
Instrumentation
•Frontline: (melody)
clarinet, trumpet,
saxophone
•Rhythm section:
Piano, bass, drums
Area of Study 2: Shared Music
Large Scale Vocal Works
Area of Study 2: Shared Music
How do the players
Venue / occasion
know what to play?
Large concert hall
•Conductor
(The Sage / Albert
•Notation
hall) or a church
Baroque: Handel
Classical: Haydn
Date & Place of
Origin
Baroque, Classical,
Romantic & Modern
periods
The Great Choral
Classics
Romantic: Verdi
Modern: Orff
Melody & Texture
•Texture: varied (monophonic / homophonic /
polyphonic / unison / octaves / 2 part etc... /
dialogue with the orchestra / orchestra doubling
the voices
•Word setting: Syllabic or melismatic
•Word painting
Structure
•Oratorio: Arias (soloist
& orchestra), Recitative
(soloist in a spoken
style & a few
instruments), Chorus
(Choir & orchestra)
Instrumentation
•Choir, orchestra and solo
singers. Sometimes
accompanied by organ.
•Voices: Soprano, mezzosoprano, alto, tenor,
baritone, bass
Area of Study 2: Shared Music
Ladysmith Black
Mambazo
Date & Place of
Origin
Africa
Metre, rhythm &
tempo
•Rhythms: Complex /
syncopated / follow
natural rhythms of
speech
Venue / occasion
Religious ceremonies /
weddings
How do the players
know what to play?
•Learned by ear (oral
tradition)
•Follow the soloist
African A Cappella
Singing
Structure
•Very repetitive
Melody & Texture
•Texture: Call & response /
unison / harmony =
homophonic
•Melodies: repetitive /
phrases die away at the end
& descend
Instrumentation
•Voices only
•Whispering / speaking
/ talking / Gasping /
tongue clicking /
sighing / nasal etc...
•Marching feet /
clapping etc...
Area of Study 3: Dance Music
Group Dances
Area of Study 3: Dance Music
American Line Dancing
Group Dance
Music: Country &
Western
Venue
Clubs and dance
halls
Date & Place of
Origin
1980s America
Metre, rhythm &
tempo
•4/4
•Stead Tempo
•Crotchet bass line
Melody
•Repetitive
•Narrow range
•4 bar phrases
•Slides (glissandos)
between notes
American Line Dancing
Group Dance
Music: Country &
Western
Steps
•Choreographed
•Dancers stand in lines
•All face the same way
•Perform the steps in
unison together
•Specific steps:
Grapevine
Structure
•Verse-chorus
•Sections of equal
length
•Repetitive
Instrumentation
•Guitar / banjo /
Harmonica / Accordion
/ violin / drums
Irish Jig & Reel
Group Dance
Music: Jig / reel
Date & Place of
Origin
Ireland
Metre, rhythm & Tempo
•Jig = compound time (6/8)
•Reel = simple time (2/4)
•Fast tempo
•Constant quaver
movement
Venue
Ceilis, festivals,
dance
competitions
Irish Jig & Reel
Group Dance
Music: Jig / reel
Steps
•Choreographed
•Dancers stand in lines
•All face the same way
•Upper Body straight &
stiff with arms at sides
•Complex footwork
•Fast & energetic
•Kicks & Jumps
Structure
•Binary form AABB
Melody
•Small intervals (lots of
4ths and 5ths)
•4-bar phrases
•Ornamented by the
performers
Instrumentation
•Violin / tin whistle /
flute / accordion /
Bodhran / Uillean pipes
Area of Study 3: Dance Music
Bhangra
Group Dance
Music: Bhangra
Venue
Indian Wedding
Night club
Date & Place of Origin
Traditional Bhangra came from
the Punjab region of India
Modern Bhangra came from the
UK in the 1980s
Metre, rhythm & tempo
•4/4 metre
•Chaal rhythm played by
the dhol drums
•Fast tempo (140-180 bmp)
Melody
•Small range
•Notes go down at the
end of the phrase
•Ornamented
•Punjabi Lyrics
Steps
•Groups
•Often in a circle
•Energetic steps
•Acrobatic stunts
Bhangra
Group Dance
Music: Bhangra
Structure
•Verse-chorus
•Instrumental
Introduction
Punjabi
MC
Instrumentation
•Dhol drum / Sitar &
Western pop
instruments
•Music Technology
(looping etc...)
Area of Study 3: Dance Music
Improvised Dances
Area of Study 3: Dance Music
Disco
Venue
Discotheques,
Night clubs
Date & Place of
Origin
1970s New York
Metre, rhythm & tempo
•4/4
•Steady Tempo 120bpm
•Drum pattern:
•Bass plays every
crotchet
•Snare plays offbeats
•Hi-hat plays
quavers
Disco
Melody
•Vocal line is 4 bar
phrases
•Hook
Steps
•Improvised
•Stay in one spot
•Hip, hand & shoulder
movement
•Pointing
•Danced alone
•The hustle
Structure
•Verse-chorus
•Introduction
•Middle 8
•Fade out
Instrumentation
•Solo singer & backing singers
•Electric guitar & piano
•Drum kit/ drum machine
•Horn section (sax, trumpet &
trombone)
•Synthesised strings
Area of Study 3: Dance Music
Club Dance
Date & Place of
Origin
Evolved out of Disco
from 1970s onwards
Metre, rhythm & Tempo
•4/4
•Fast tempo
•Regular phrases
Melody
•Sampling
•Regular phrases
Venue
Night clubs
Club Dance
Musicians
•Acid house: The Sharmen
•Techno: Juan Atkins
•Drum ‘n’ bass: Roni Size
•Garage: So Soliday Crew
•Trance: Sasha
•Ambient: The Orb
Steps
•Improvised
•Dancers stay in one
place
•Make up their own
moves
Digital Effects
•Reverb (resonance)
•Delay (echo)
•Panning (left/right)
•Distortion
•Remix
•Overlay
•Multitracking
•Quantising
•Looping
Instrumentation
•Drum machine, mixing
desk, sampler, synthesiser,
sequencer, Decks,
Vocoder
Paired Dances
Area of Study 3: Dance Music
Waltz
Venue
Ballroom
Date & Place of
Origin
Late 18th century
Vienna, Austria
Metre, rhythm &
tempo
•3/4 metre
•Um-cha-cha
accompaniment
•Fast tempo (minim =
70)
•Rubato
Melody
•4 bar phrasing
•Smooth and flowing
Johann
Strauss
Steps
•Paired dance
•Ballroom hold (close)
•Circle around the
room
•3 steps
•Rising and falling
Waltz
Structure
•Often Binary AABB
•Sometimes have an
introduction
Instrumentation
•Orchestra
•Included in ballets and
operas
•Sometimes for solo
piano
Area of Study 3: Dance Music
Tango
Date & Place of
Origin
Late 19th century,
Argentina
Metre, rhythm & Tempo
•2/4 metre
•Tempo crotchet = 66
•Syncopated, jerky rhythms
•Staccato notes
Melody
•Regular phrase lengths
•Chromatic melodies
•Lyrical
Venue
Ballroom
Tango
Steps
•Paired dance
•Close embrace
•Upper body remains
the same
•Legs are the interest
•Fast steps, stalking,
legs intertwining
Instrumentation
•Bandoneons
(accordians), Violins,
piano, double bass
Area of Study 3: Dance Music
Salsa
Date & Place of Origin
1960s and 70s New
York (based on Son
from Cuba)
Metre, rhythm & tempo
•4/4 metre
•Highly syncopated
•Clave rhythm works as a 2
bar ostinato throughout
played on the claves
Melody
•Major key
•Sybcopated
•Parallel 3rds and 6ths
•Spanish Lyrics
•Call and response
Venue
Clubs, festivals,
carnivals
Celia
Cruz
Steps
•Paired dance
•Hold each other
loosely
•Step forward and
backward and to the
sides
•Spins and turns can be
added
Salsa
Structure
•Instrumental
introduction
•Verse-chorus
Instrumentation
•Claves,Cowbell.
Timbales. Congas,
Guiro, trumpets,
trombones, piano and
voices
Long notes
Arpeggios
Descending
Flutes
Legato
Instruments and how they
are played
Tremolando
No clear pulse
Melody & Rhythm
Unison
Polyphonic
Texture
Countermelody
Tempo & Metre
Slow
Dissonance
Major chords
Fast quavers
Scales
Trill
Tonality & Harmony
(Key & Chords)
Minor Key
Crecsendo
Dynamics
Quiet
Composers
Bach
Handel
Baroque
C1600-1740
Musical Characteristics
Instruments: Harpsichord – continuo =
Harpsichord + cello (no piano), small
orchestra (no clarinet)
Works: Oratorio (GCC) or Sonatas
(BCM)
Dynamics: Terraced (sudden changes)
Ornaments: LOTS! Grace notes, trills,
turns, mordents
Texture: often polyphonic /
contrapuntal sometimes homophonic
Topics
•Baroque Chamber
Music (AOS2)
•The Great Choral
Classics (AOS2)
Harpsichord
Composers
Mozart
Haydn
Classical
C1740-1820
Musical Characteristics
Instruments: Orchestra is bigger
(Timpani drums are only percussion),
string quartets, wind quintets
Works: Oratorio (GCC), Concerto
(CC) or String Quartets & Wind
Quintets (CCM)
Dynamics: Gradual changes
Ornaments: Used less often
Texture: Melody and accompaniment
(homophonic)
Topics
•Classical Chamber
Music (AOS2)
•The Classical
Concerto (AOS2)
•The Great Choral
Classics (AOS2)
Balanced phrases, lyrical
melodies. Alberti bass
Composers
Schubert
Saint Saens
Romantic
C1820-1900
Topics
•The Great Choral
Classics (AOS2)
Musical Characteristics
Instruments: Orchestra is massive,
Works: Oratorio (GCC), Lieder (RS),
•Romantic Song
(Schubert) (AOS2)
•Waltz (AOS3)
•Programme Music
(AOS4)
Programme Music
Dynamics: Very expressive
Ornaments: Used less often
Texture: Anything is possible
Very expressive.
dissonance
Composers
Orff
John Williams
Modern
C1900 +
Topics
•The Great Choral
Musical Characteristics
Instruments: Orchestra is massive,
Works: Oratorio (GCC), Lieder (RS),
Classics (AOS2)
•Programme Music
(AOS4)
•Film Music (AOS4)
Programme Music, Film Music
Dynamics: Very expressive
Ornaments: Used less often
Texture: Anything is possible
Very expressive.
dissonance

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