Common Disorders of the Eye - Central Coast Day Hospital

Report
COMMON DISORDERS
OF THE EYE
Presentation by
Beverley Baily
Clinical Nurse Specialist
Central Coast Day Hospital
2012
OBJECTIVES
AT THE END OF THE SESSION
PARTICIPANTS WILL BE ABLE TO:

ATTAIN KNOWLEDGE ON THE BASIC
ANATOMY OF THE EYE

UNDERSTAND SOME OF THE COMMON
DISORDERS OF THE EYE
OBJECTIVES cont’d

DEVELOP AN INTEREST IN THE CURRENT
TREATMENTS AVAILABLE FOR EYE
DISORDERS

ACQUIRE KNOWLEDGE OF SERVICES
AVAILABLE FOR THE VISUAL IMPAIRED
ANATOMY OF THE EYE
ENJOY HEALTHY EYES FOR
LIFE

Eye changes occur as we get older.
 Permanent vision loss need not be a part of
ageing.
 The majority of eye conditions that affect
older people are painless and progress
slowly over many years.
 Most eye conditions affecting older people
can be treated.
ENJOY HEALTHY EYES FOR
LIFE

Regular eye checks, early detection and
medical intervention can help to restore
vision or prevent further vision loss.
 People aged 35 and over are encouraged to
have regular eye checks.
ENJOY HEALTHY EYES FOR
LIFE

Your eyesight is your most valuable sense.
 Protect your eyes.
 If you experience a gradual or sudden loss of
vision, seek medical advice immediately.
CATARACT
DEFINITION
 A cataract is a clouding of the normally
clear lens inside the eye. When the lens
becomes cloudy, light rays cannot pass
easily through.
CATARACT
SYMPTOMS
 Vision becomes blurred, both for near and
distance objects.
 Sensitivity to glare in bright sunlight.
 Distortion or ghosting of images may also
occur.
 Colour vision can be decreased.
CATARACTS
CATARACT
CAUSE
 Age is the most common cause, but
cataracts can also occur in babies and
children.
 They may develop as a result of injury or
eye disease.
 They may be associated with medical
conditions such as diabetes.
CATARACT
CAUSE
 Both smoking and exposure to sunlight
increase the risk of cataracts.
 Cataracts are not a growth or film over the
eye and are not caused as a result of
overusing the eye or eyestrain.
 You generally can’t see your cataract in the
mirror.
CATARACT
TREATMENT
 In the early stages of cataract, glasses or
contact lenses can help correct minor
visual problems.
 When vision is seriously impaired, the
most effective treatment is to surgically
remove the affected lens and replace it
with an artificial lens.
CATARACT

Most surgery is performed on a day-only basis
under local anaesthesia, with sedation.
 There are many variations in technique, the
most common being phacoemulsification
surgery.
 The cataract is removed through a very small,
secure opening about 3mm in length, with
implantation of an intra-ocular lens
specifically chosen to match your eye.
CATARACT
FOLLOW UP CARE
 Your eye may be covered or protected for
one night.
 A plastic shield at night may be required for
a few extra nights depending on the
surgeon.
 You will have a follow up appointments for
review by your surgeon, usually the next
day and over the following weeks.
CATARACT
You
will be able to function normally from
Day 1, but strenuous activities must be
avoided for some weeks.
You will have eye drops prescribed to use as
instructed by your surgeon.
Your new intra-ocular lens will restore your
distance vision that you had before the
cataract developed.
CATARACT

Over the post-operative review period glasses
will be prescribed for your new eye, particularly
to help with reading vision.
AGE RELATED MACULAR
DEGENERATION
DEFINITION
 Age Related Macular Degeneration causes
loss of central, detailed vision. People may
notice that straight lines appear distorted or
wavy or that reading becomes increasingly
difficult.
AGE RELATED MACULAR
DEGENERATION
AGE RELATED MACULAR
DEGENERATION
SYMPTOMS
 Straight lines appear wavy or distorted.
 Reading and any activity that requires fine
vision becomes increasingly difficult.
 Distinguishing faces becomes a problem.
 Dark patches or empty spaces appearing in
the centre of vision.
AGE RELATED MACULAR
DEGENERATION
EARLY DETECTION IS IMPORTANT
 In its early stages it may go unnoticed.
 Symptoms should never be dismissed as
part of “just getting older”.
 Detecting changes early allows you to take
steps to slow down the progression.
AGE RELATED MACULAR
DEGENERATION
AGE RELATED MACULAR
DEGENERATION
TREATMENT
Dry Macular Degeneration
 There are currently no treatments to reverse
the macular degeneration. However,
supplements, diet and lifestyle changes may
be effective.
AGE RELATED MACULAR
DEGENERATION
TREATMENT
Wet Macular Degeneration.
 There is no cure, however the following
methods are providing a greater
opportunity for many in saving sight and
keeping as much vision for as long as
possible.
AGE RELATED MACULAR
DEGENERATION
TREATMENT
 Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
(VEGF) intravitreal injections – eg.
Lucentis and Avastin.
 Laser photocoagulation.
 Diet, supplements and lifestyle.
AGE RELATED MACULAR
DEGENERATION

Amsler Grid
DIABETIC RETINOPATHY
DEFINITION
 Diabetes causes damage to blood vessels in
the retina, which may lead to loss of vision.
DIABETIC RETINOPATHY
RISK FACTORS
 People who have had diabetes for a long
period.
 Diabetics with high blood pressure.
 People with high sugar levels.
 Poorly managed diabetes.
 Diabetics who become pregnant.
DIABETIC RETINOPATHY
SYMPTOMS
 Blurred, distorted or patchy vision that can’t
be corrected with glasses.
 Problems with balance, reading, watching
television and recognizing people.
 Overly sensitive to glare.
 Difficulty seeing at night.
DIABETIC RETINOPATHY
TREATMENT
 Annual eye checks to pick up early signs of
damage.
 Control blood-glucose levels and make sure
the diet is low in fat.
 Once vision has been affected, seek
treatment to prevent progression.
GLAUCOMA
DEFINITION
 Glaucoma is the name given to a group of
eye diseases in which the optic nerve at the
back of the eye is slowly destroyed.
 In most people this damage is due to
increased pressure inside the eye.
GLAUCOMA

Other damage may be caused by poor blood
supply to the optic nerve, a weakness in the
structure of the nerve and/or a problem in
the health of the nerve.
GLAUCOMA
GLAUCOMA
SYMPTOMS
Chronic glaucoma (primary open-angle)
 Is known as the “sneak thief” of sight and
can result in a slow and painless loss of
vision, with side vision being affected first.
GLAUCOMA
Acute glaucoma (angle-closure).
 Rapid increase of pressure inside the eye
due to a blocked drainage system causing
pain, nausea, blurred vision and redness of
the eye.
GLAUCOMA
Measuring intraocular
pressure
Measuring Intraocular
Pressure
GLAUCOMA
RISK FACTORS
 Family history of glaucoma
 Diabetes
 Migraine
 Short sightedness (myopia)
 Long sightedness (hyperopia)
 Eye injuries
GLAUCOMA
RISK FACTORS
 Blood pressure
 Past or present use of cortisone drugs
(steroids)
GLAUCOMA
TREATMENT
 Regular eye checks from the age of 35
 Medication
 Laser
 Drainage surgery
RETINAL DETACHMENT
DEFINITION
 Retinal detachment is a separation of the
retina from the back of the eye.
RETINAL DETACHMENT
RISK FACTORS
 Severe myopia (short sighted).
 Retinal tears.
 Trauma.
 Family history.
 Complications from cataract surgery.
RETINAL DETACHMENT
SYMPTOMS
 Decreased vision
 Feeling of looking through a veil or curtain
 Flashes and floaters
RETINAL DETACHMENT
TREATMENT
 Photocoagulation (Laser).
 Surgery.
• Vitrectomy.
• Indirect Laser or Cryotherapy.
• Insertion of Gas, Silicone Oil or Heavy Liquids.
CENTRAL COAST DAY HOSPITAL
NURSING AND ADMINISTRATION
REFERRAL AGENCIES

Central Coast Day Hospital
www.ccdhospital.com.au
Telephone: 02 43673880

Sydney Eye Hospital
Telephone: 02 9382 7111
REFERRAL AGENCIES

Glaucoma Australia
www.glaucoma.org.au
Telephone: 02 9906 6640

Guide Dogs NSW/ACT
www.guidedogs.com.au
Telephone: 02 9412 9300
REFERRAL AGENCIES

Macular Degeneration Foundation
www.mdfoundation.com.au
Telephone: 1800 111709

Vision Australia
www.visionaustralia.org
Telephone: 1300 84 7466
QUESTIONS
REFERENCES

Central Coast Day Hospital
 Diabetes Australia
 Glaucoma Australia
 International Journal of Ophthalmic
Practice
 Macular Degeneration Foundation
 “Ophthalmic Care” Janet Marsden

similar documents