VIKTIMOLOGI

Report
THE DEVELOPMENT OF
VICTIMOLOGY IN
INDONESIA
By Fachri Bey, SH. MM.Ph.D
Member of WSV, Former Dean Faculty of Law
University Esa Unggul
Senior Lecturer of Victimology in
University of Indonesia and University of TRISAKTI
Indonesia
VICTIMOLOGY
• Is the scientific study of crime
victims, focuses on the physical,
emotional, and financial harm people
suffer at the hands of criminals.
VICTIMOLOGY
• Is the scientific study of
victimization, including the
relationships between victims and
offenders, the interactions between
victims and the criminal justice
system that is, the police and courts,
and corections officials,
Count.
• And the connections between victims
and other social groups and
institutions, such as the media,
businesses and social movements.
(wikipedia.com)
VICTIM
• RALPH DE SOLA :
• VICTIM IS PERSON WHO HAS
INJURED MENTAL OR PHYSICAL
SUFFERING, LOST OF PROPERTY
OR DEATH RESULTING FROM AN
ACTUAL OR ATTEMTED CRIMINAL
OFFENSE BY ANOTHER.
VICTIM
COHEN :
• VICTIM WHOSE PAIN AND
SUFFERING HAVE BEEN
NECLECTED BY THE STATE WHILE
IT SPENDS IMMENSE RESOURCES
TO HUNT DOWN AND PUNISH
THE OFFENDER WHO
RESPONSIBLE FOR THAT PAIN
AND SUFFERING.
THEORY ABOUT THE
VICTIMOLOGY
• VICTIMS OF CRIME (Hans von
Hentig, Schafer, Fattah
• VICTIMS OF EVERYTHING
(Mendelsohn)
• SPECIAL VICTIMS
• GENERAL VICTIMS
• PENAL VICTIMS
COUNT.
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CONVENTIONAL
UNCONVENTIONAL (Mardjono)
Basic structure (Kirchhoff)
DEALING WITH :
Victims
Victimizations
Reaction to both
History of victimology
• Victimology as an academic terminology contains two elements :
One is the Latin word “Victima” translates into “victim”
• The other is the Greek word “logos” means a system of knowledge,
the direction of something abstract, the direction of teaching,
science, discipline.(Kirchhoff 2005-42)
• Victim means a person harmed by a crime, tort, or other wrongful
act .(Black Law Dictionary:1999)
• Victims are persons threatened, injured or destroy by an act or
omission of another man/structure,organization/institution.
• (Separovic, 1969)
Wellknown victimologist
• Hans von Hentig, Benyamin Mendelshon,
Paul Cornil,W.H. Nagel, Michael O’Connell,
Hidemichi Morosawa, Israel Drapkin, John
P.J. Dussich, Gerd Ferdinand Kirchhoff
,Ezzat Fattah, Zvonimir Paul Separovic,
Paul C. Friday, Elias Neuman, Robert Elias,
Irvin Waller, Sarah Ben David, Kerr, Reif,
Marlene A.Young, Hans Joachim
Schneider, Sahetaphy, Mardjono
Reksodiputro, Arif Gosita and so on.
•
Victim of Crime
• Victims means persons who, individually or
collectively, have suffered harm, including
physical or mental injury, emotional suffering,
economic loss or substantial impairment of their
fundamental rights, through acts or omissions
that are in violation of criminal laws operative
with in member state, including those laws
proscribing criminal abuse of power.
• (UN Declaration 1985 on Basic Principles of
Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power)
• 1764 Cecare Beccaria in Milan introduces
“modern” criminal law.
• 1923 Edwin H. Sutherland : wrote “Criminology”
had the title “The Victims of Crime”.
• 1929 “There is a book on victims” by J.R. Fuguora
& D. Tejera, F.Pla.
• 1937, March 29th, Hans von Hentig & Benyamin
Mendelshon in a paper presented to a meeting of
the Psychiatric Society in Bucharest Rumania,
gave the outline of a new social science which he
called “Victimology”.
• 1941 Hans von Hentig wrote and published a paper
“ Remarks on the Integration of Perpetrator and
Victim”
•1948 Hans von Hentig published his book :
“The criminal and His Victim” The first
textbook published that wrote on crime of
victims.
•1954 Ellenberger made a study about
psychological relationship between the
criminal and his victim
•1958 Mendelshon : Six demands published,
serve as a classical example of the vision of
new science,own journal, own institute, own
international society, own international
simposia, and own victimological clinics.
• 1963 Criminal Compensation Act Compensation
New Zealand
• 1964 United States, UK and Australia. Margaret
Fry fight for a new criminal law system.
• 1966 California State Compensation Act. Japan
Criminal Indemnity Law.
• 1967 Canada Criminal Compensation Injuries Act.
Cuba before Castro, and Swiss.
• 1967 Stephan Schafer introduced the
terminology of compensation.
• 1970 International Congress of Criminology VI established
organisation of victimology.
• 1973 The First Simposia of Victimology in Jerusalem.
Prof.DR.Israel Drapkin wrote a paper ; “Critical Reasoning
alone barren”
• 1974 ISC the first international recommended for
Victimology
• 1975 Criminal Compensation Act in Holland
• 1976 Emilio Viano edited The First Journal of Victimology
and published.
• 1976 The Second Simposia of Victimology in Boston USA.
• 1979 The Third Simposia of Victimology in University of
Wesphalia Germany.
• 1985 UN Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for
Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power.
• The Declaration deals with these basic principles :
• Remedies to assist victims in their need information.
• Participation of the victim in the criminal justice process
• Restitution by the offender
• Compensation by the State
• Acces to victim assistance.
• 1986 Robert Elias published his book and the volume about
The politics of Victimization ; Victims, ; Victimology and
Human Right.
• In symposium WSV 2012 in Den Haag, --- next UN
Convention
Victimology in Indonesia
• 1982 First Lecture of Victimology in
Faculty of Law University of
Indonesia, by Dr. Arif Gosita SH
• MANY FACULTY OF LAW in Jakarta
and others in Indonesia take
Victimology in the curriculum Faculty
of Law.Unpad, Undip, UNAIR
• UI, Trisakti, Atmajaya, Pancasila,
UEU,
Count.
• Seminar of Victimology in University
of Diponegoro Semarang
• Seminar of Victimology in University
of Airlangga Surabaya.
• Many books about Victimology wrote
by Arif Gosita, Sahetapy, Mardjono
Reksodiputro, Topo Santoso and so on
on.
Seminar & Post Graduate
Course
• Socialization Law No. 13/2006 UI,
Minister of Justice. and Human Right
• Seminar Anti Trafficking UI, UKM
• Seminar UI, UKM, Univ. Udayana
• Post Graduate Course LPSK & UI
• Seminar UEU & UKM
• Seminar Anti Coruption UEU
Count.
• Criminology UI and LPSK : Reparation
and Compensation in Restorative
Justice System. Wrote this book in
2011.
• Class of Victimology, Student
participation for Victimology Lecture
• Visited many prisons in Indonesia
Count.
• Indonesia ratifying /adopted the UN
1985 Declaration of Basic Principles
of Justice for Victims of Crime and
Abuse of Power
• Many laws,regulations and acts
published in Indonesia to give the
protections for the victims.
Laws, act, regulation on
victim and witness
• The constitution 1945 and 4th
amandements
• Law no. 7/1984 ratifying CEDAW
• Law no. 39/1999 on Human Right
• Law no. 23/2002 on Child Protection
• Law no. 23/2004 in the Elimination of
Domestic ViolenCE
• Law no. 15/2003 on Anti Terorist
Count.
• Law no. 21/2007on Elimination of
Human Trafficking, no.24/2007
Disaster.
• Law no. 13/2006 on Witness &
Victims Protection.
• Law No. 26/2000 H.Right Court.
• Many Presidential Decrees,
Government Regulations had
published in Indonesia.
THE CONDITION
• In many criminal cases, The attention and
protection of the law enforcement authorities
give only to the offender, however, the victims
get minor attention.
• The victims suffered harm :
• Physical or mental injury
• Emotional suffering
• Economic loss
• Substantial impairment of the fundamental rights.
Formulation of the law, regulation, act,
thinking, are dedicated only to the
offenders, about how to guarantee their
rights, how to educate/ train them properly
in correctional institution, how to protect
their rights before the police officers,
district attorney as well as in trial process
before the judge
• The public prosecutor/district
attorney tend to be extremely
careful in indicting the accused, in as
much they are controlled frequently
by the lawyer of accused.
• The rights of the victims of crime
have never been thinking seriously
nor to provide them the proper and
adequate treatment by the law
enforcement authorities.
example
• A robbery case inside the Cab:
a girl back home from work. She takes an unloaded
cab. However, when the cab is driven along the
street suddenly somebody appears from the front
seat next to the driver. He/ she threat,assault,
and picks up her valuable goods. The driver is his
companion so he also take part in this crime by
raping the girl. At the end, the girl was found
fainted due to the raping and assaulting series.
• People who found her somewhere
along the street side, take her to the
hospital subsequently and she soon
get medical treatment and
psychological trauma treatment
respectively. She bear her own costs
since nobody pay attention or afford
to bear her costs.
The rape trauma of the
victims
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Insomnia, menstruation disorder,headache
Stress, afraid with aids, vd,difficult concentrating, feling out of
control
Self blaming, pscychosomatic
Suicidal impulses, depression
Hate/phobi to male, frigid, no libido
Become lesbian, change sex orientation
Phobi to everything relation with the rape
She suffered physical harm, mentality harm, and material/
financial harm.
So the victims need carring, preventing, protecting, assisting,
reducing suffering and restituting (Sessar 1986 919)
• In criminal justice system victims always abuse and neglect.
• Okamura claims that the official system has used and
abused the victims with out giving proper rights’
• Victims want participation and they are clear about :
• 1. they way a seat in the court room
• 2. they want acces to the files
• 3. they want to have their own interets in criminal
proceedings acknowledged (Kirchhoff 2005 -63)
• Reiff 1979 wrote about a couple
husband and wife, rober and torture
in New York. No one help them. They
suicide in they apartment and leave a
paper : we don’t want to live in fear
anymore.
• The lawyer of the offenders tend to
(always) talk about the human rights
protection of the offender which
render the public prosecutor feel
uncertain.
• The scope of Victimology not only in
criminal law and criminology field but
has been developed to other fields as
well.
• Criminology - offender oriented
• Victimology - victim oriented
Conventional victims
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Victims of robery
Victims of rape
Victims of murder
Victims of deception
Victims of assault/battery
Victims of torture
Inconventional victims
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Victims of technology
Victims of environment pollution
Victims of traffic accident
Victims of apartheid
Victims of slavery
Victims of trafficking
Victims of genocide
Victims of organized crime
Victims of terrorist
Victims of crime against human right
Victims of malpractice
Victims of disaster
• The victimologist in the past and in
the present time come from
different academic or professional
backgrounds – from sociology or from
law, from psychiatry or from
psychology, from social work, and
from management, (Kirchhhoff 200542), also environment/ecology,
nursing, criminology and so on.
• Victimology was born from its
‘mother’, namely Criminology.
• Historically, victimology bloomed in
criminology (Kirchhoff 1995-37)
• In many countries victimology icluded
Indonesia, are treated not only as a new
knowledge , a new emerging field, but also
as a “terra incognita” (undiscovered land)
• After sixty years (from 1940s)
victimology has established itself
both as a perspective and a viable
force in the evaluation of criminal
justice system around the world.
• Through the activities of the World
Society of Victimology, international
symposia, and courses, there has
been considerable information and
idea generated regarding victimology.
SUSJABORMIL XIV
BENTUK BENTUK
VIKTIMISASI DLM
TINDAK PIDANA
19 Maret 2013
SUSJABORMIL XIV
PENGERTIAN
• PP No. 2 thn 2002:
• Korban adalah orang perseorangan atau kelompok
orang yang mengalami penderitaan sebagai akibat
pelanggaran hak asasi manusia yg berat yg memerlukan
perlindungan fisik, dan mental dari ancaman,gangguan,
teror, dan kekerasan dari pihak manapun.
• UU PKDRT , UU no. 23/2004 ps 1/3 :
• Korban adalah orang yang mengalami kekerasan
dan/atau ancaman kekerasan dalam lingkup rumah
tangga.
SUSJABORMIL XIV
UU NO. 13/2006 TTG PERLIN
DUNGAN SAKSI DAN KORBAN
• KORBAN ADALAH SESEORANG YG
MENGALAMI PENDERITAAN FISIK,
MENTAL, DAN/ATAU KERUGIAN
EKONOMI YG DIAKIBATKAN OLEH
SUATU TINDAK PIDANA
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PENGERTIAN KORBAN MENURUT UU 21/2007
TTG PEMBERANTASAN TINDAK PIDANA
PERDAGANGAN ORANG
• KORBAN ADALAH SESEORANG YG
MENGALAMI PENDERITAAN PSIKIS,
MENTAL, FISIK, SEKSUAL, EKONOMI,
DAN /ATAU SOSIAL, YANG DIAKIBAT
KAN TINDAK PIDANA PERDAGANGAN
ORANG.
SUSJABORMIL XIV
UU NO 24/2007 TTG
PENANGGULANGAN BENCACA
• KORBAN BENCANA ADALAH ORANG
ATAU KELOMPOK ORANG YG
MENDERITA ATAU MENINGGAL DUNIA
AKIBAT BENCANA.
SUSJABORMIL XIV
PENGERTIAN
• Victimology terdiri dari kata victim dan logy
• Victim berasal kata viktima yang berarti korban.
Sedangkan logy dari kata logos yang berarti
pengetahuan ilmiah, ilmu, kata atau suatu study.
• Dalam perundang-undangan Indonesia sudah
ada juga dirumuskan tentang pengertian korban
tersebut.
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PENGERTIAN
• PP No. 3 thn 2002 tentang Kompensasi, Restitusi, dan
Rehabilitasi thd korban HAM berat : Korban adalah
orang perse orangan atau kelompok orang yg menga
lami penderitaan baik fisik, mental maupun emosional,
kerugian ekonomi, atau mengalami pengabaian,
pengurangan atau perampasan hak-hak dasar nya,
sebagai akibat pelanggaran hak asasi manusia yg
berat,termasuk korban adalah ahli warisnya.
• UU No. 27 Thn 2004 KOMISI KEBENARAN DAN
REKONSILIASI
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Pengertian dari Deklarasi PBB
• Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for victim of
crime and abuse of power :
• “Victims” means persons who, individually or collectively,
have suffered harm, including physical or mental injury,
emotional suffering, economic loss, or substantial
impairment of their fundamental rights, through acts or
omissions that are violation of criminal laws operative
within Member States, including those laws proscribing
criminal abuse of power.
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Pengertian
• UU 13/2006 tentang perlindungan saksi
dan korban :
• Korban adalah seseorang yg mengalami
penderitaan fisik maupun mental serta
kerugian ekonomi yg diakibatkan oleh
suatu tindak pidana.
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Manfaat mempelajari
Viktimologi
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Viktimologi mempelajari hakekat siapa korban yg memungkinkan muncul
konsep konsep untuk preventif dan represif.
Viktimologi memberikan pengertian yg lebih baik tentang korban akibat
tindakan manusia yg dapat menimbulkan penderitaan mental, fisik,sosial
dan finansial. Bukan menyanjung korban tapi memberikan penjelasan
tentang kedudukan/peran korban dan hubungan antara pelaku dan korban
serta memperhatikan tentang hak-hak korban.
Viktimologi memberikan keyakinan bahwa setiap individu mempunyai hak
dan kewajiban.
Viktimologi memperhatikan viktimisasi oleh korporasi transnasional dengan
effek politik, sosial, ekonomi.
Viktimologi memberikan dasar pemikiran untuk mengatasi masalah
bantuan, kompensasi, restitusi dan rehabilitasi bagi korban.
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FAKTA YG ADA SAAT INI
• Perhatian dan perlindungan yg diberikan
terhadap hak-hak korban korban sangat kecil
dibandingkan dengan perhatian dicurahkan
terhadap perlindungan Hak Asasi para pelaku
kejahatan
• Dapat dikatakan saat ini lebih cenderung:
Offender Oriented, tapi masyarakat
menginginkan lebih Victim Oriented
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• Rumusan KUHP, KUHAP, UU, dan
peraturan pelaksana lainnya dalam proses
penanganan kejahatan mulai dari
penyidikan, penuntutan, pera dilan dan
pelaksanaan hukum sanksi, Hak-hak
korban hampir tidak mendapatkan
perhatian secara proposional
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• Para penyidik sangat hati-hati dalam tindakan terhadap tersangka
pelaku kejahatan dengan adanya external control yang ketat yaitu
dari pembela/ pengacara pelaku.
• Perlindungan hak asasi yg membuat sikap penyidik menjadi raguragu dalam mengantisipasi kejahatan.
• Viktimologi tidak membatasi diri pada ruang lingkup hukum pidana
dan kriminologi saja tapi sudah berkembang jauh ke berbagai arah
sesuai perkembangan dunia, teknologi, ilmu pengetahuan, hukum
dan ilmu hukum serta perkembangan kehajatan itu sendiri.
• Akhirnya viktimologi mencuat keluar dari induknya kriminologi yg
mencurahkan perhatian lebih banyak kepada korban.
• Setelah adanya Undang-undang Saksi dan korban : UU No
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Korban konvensional
• Korban konvensional adalah korban yang
diatur tindak pidana tersebut dalam KUHP
seperti pencurian, pembunuhan, +mutilasi
penganiayaan, perkosaan, penipuan,
pemerasan, , penghinaan, pemalsuan,
pencemaran nama baik, pencabulan, dll.
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Korban Unkonvensional
• Munculnya berbagai bentuk korban baru sebagai akibat
tindak pidana :
• Kejahatan komputer–cybercrime hacker, UU IT
• Kejahatan politik (korbannya lebih besar dari korban
kejahatan konvensional.
• Kejahatan thd lingkungan,rusaknya ekologi polusi,
Bophal, Chernobyl, Cilincing, Buyat UU Lingkungan
• Kejahatan di bursa efek –saham palsu, internal trader
• Kejahatan thd konsumen, barang , kosmetik , obat,
vcd/dvd palsu UU Perlindungan Konsumen UU
Pengadilan HAM
• Kejahatan perdagangan senjata baik senjata
konvensional maupun nuklir.
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Kejahatan perdagangan curang
Kejahatan narkotik, zat adiktif. UU Narkotik dan Zat Adiktif.
Kejahatan pajak dan perbankan UU Pajak, UU Perbankan
Kejahatan terorganisir-organized crime, Triad, Yakuza, Mafia.
Kejahatan penularan HIV/AIDS, penyakit menular. UU Kesehatan
Kejahatan “merokok” PERDA
Kejahatan perdagangan bebas
Kejahatan thd pengguna bantuan, JPS, BBM, bencana. UU Anti Korpsi
Korban yg bertalian dg modernisasi seperti korban lalulintas, korban media
elektronik, UU Lalulintas, UU Penerbangan, Hukum Laut.
Korban globalisasi, kaburnya batas negara, TV global , internet,VCD, DVD
porno yg merusak moral bangsa. UU Pers, Multimedia, UU Anti Pornografi
Korban UU senjata api.
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Korban obat-obatan (thalidomit) zat pewarna, penyedap makan an,
Korban White Collar Crime dan Abuse of Power.Civil Service
Korban Malpraktek, Aborsi, UU Praktek Kedokteran
Korban Military Crime (penjara di Iraq,wartawati Italy) UU Hankam
Korban Police Crime (California) UU Kepolisian
Korban Terorist, Korban perang UU Anti Teorist, UU Humaniter
Korban bencana – Disaster victim UU Penanggulangan
Korban anak – Fedofilia UU Perlindungan Anak, UU KDRT
Korban Trafficking UU Anti Perdagangan manusia
Korban Budaya
Korban Lansia UU Lansia
Mutilasi/sunat untuk perempua UU Kesehatan, UU HAM, UU
Perlindungan anak
• Eutanasia/bunuh diri
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SEJARAH VIKTIMOLOGI
• 1941 Von Hentig menulis makalah “ Remarks on the
Integration of Perpretrator and victim.”
• 1947Mendelson menulis “ New Bio Psycho Sosial
Horizons: Victimology. Istilah victimology mulai dipakai.
• 1948 Von Hentig menulis : “ The criminal and his victim
“ Ia mengata kan bahwa korban berperanan dalam
menimbulkan kejahatan.
• 1954 Ellenberger mempelajari tentang hubungan
penjahat dan korbannya.
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• 1963 di Selandia Baru mulai berlaku UU Criminal injures
compensation act 1963.
• 1964 USA,Australia,Inggris idem
• 1975 Belanda idem
• 1980 Jepang idem
• 1970 Kongres keenam Internatinal Society of Crimino
logy, gagasan lahirnya viktimology
• 1973 Simposium Viktimologi pertama di Jerusalem
• 1976 Simposium kedua di Boston. Penerbitan pertama
majalah ilmiah khusus viktimologi.
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• Cuba sebelum Castro juga sudah mempunyai
compensa tion injures act.
• Swiss juga mulai memberikan ganti rugi baik
dari pelaku maupun dari negara.
• Di Nederland, India, Pakistan, Jerman, Australia,
Norwegia, Finlandia, Selandia baru, jika pelaku
tidak sanggup memberikan ganti rugi, maka
negara yg membayar.
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• 1966 Negara Bagian California mulai memberika
kompensasi
• Di Jepang disebut Criminal Indemnity Law.
• 1985 PBB menerbitkan Deklarasi tentang
korban.
• 1967 Australia, New South Wales membuat
aturan ganti rugi, Queenland 1970, Western
Australia 1970, Tasmania 1974.
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• 1979 Simposium ketiga di univ. Wesphalia
Jerman.
• Kegiatan-kegiatan tersebut diatas merupakan
puncak perjuangan dan perhatian yg sudah
lama untuk perhatian tersendiri lebih besar
kepada korban suatu delik.
• Tokoh-tokoh Viktimologi :
• Hans Von Hentig, Benyamin Mendelshon, Paul
Cornil, W.H.Nagel
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• Dalam kongres PBB ke VIII di Havana
Kuba dirumuskan mengenai : Prevention
of Crime and Treatment of Offenders”
bahwa dalam pembangunan dapat
menjadi bersifat Kriminogen dan
viktimogen apabila pembangunan itu :
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FAKTOR KRIMINOGEN/
VIKTIMOGEN
• Tidak direncanakan secara rasional atau direncanakan
tapi timpang/tidak seimbang.
• Mengabaikan nilai-nilai kultural dan moral masyarakat
• Tidak mencakup Strategi perlindungan masyarakat
secara menyeluruh dan integral
• Aspek kebijakan sosial tentang penggarapan masalah
kesehatan jiwa masyarakat baik individu maupun
keluarga tidak ditangani dengan baik.
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JENIS-JENIS KORBAN
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Korban ganda
Korban murni
Korban semu
Korban lemah mental
Korban lemah ekonomi
Korban lemah fisik
Korban lemah sosial
Korban anak
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Penelitian tentang korban
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Peranan korban dalam terjadi nya delik
Hubungan pelaku dg korban delik
Sifat mudahnya diserang korban
Kemungkinan menjadi “residivis”
Peranan Korban dlm spp
Ketakutan korban thd kejahatan
Sikap korban thd peraturan dan penegakan
hukum.
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Deklarasi PBB
• Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for
Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power :
• Victim of crime
• Acces Justice & Fair Treatment
• Restitution
• Compensation
• Assistance
• Abuse of Power
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Korban bencana
AKIBAT YG DIHADAPI
• MAYAT DIMANA-MANA BERGELETAKAN,PERLU ALAT ANGKUT,
LISTRIK PEMBUNGKUS,KAIN KAFAN DLL.
• MANUSIA YG HIDUP MEMERLU KAN BANTUAN SEGERA,
PERLU PERALATAN UNTUK PENYELA MATAN, MAKANAN
,AIR/MINUMAN TEMPAT BERTEDUH, PAKAIAN, OBAT, DAN
ORANG YG MENDAMPINGI, MENIMBULKAN PENGUNGSI YG
JUMLAHNYA RIBUAN. BANTUAN DATANG TAPI TAK
TERANGKUT. LSM JALAN SENDIRI2
• PENGUNGSI KELAPARAN,SAKIT, MAYAT MEM BUSUK,RIBUAN
ANAK HILANG/DITEMUKAN
• SIAPA YG BERTANGGUNG JAWAB?
• SUDAH 60 TH MERDEKA NEGARA RI KELIHA- TAN BELUM SIAP
UNTUK MENGHADAPI BENCANA SELANJUTNYA.
SUSJABORMIL XIV
Korban Aceh
SUSJABORMIL XIV
KORBAN SAMPIT
SUSJABORMIL XIV
INDONESIA NEGARA RAWAN
BENCANA
• BANJIR,KEBAKARAN HUTAN, ASAP,
KEKERINGAN
• GEMPA,TSUNAMI,GUNUNG
MELETUS,TANAH LONGSOR
• ANGIN PUYUH
• KONFLIK,HURUHARA
• KAPAL TENGGELAM
• PESAWAT TERBANG JATUH
• KECELAKAAN KERETA API
SUSJABORMIL XIV
KESIAPAN NEGARA LAIN
• JEPANG (Disaster Management Act)
• AMERIKA SERIKAT – Federal Emergency
Management Agency
• GUJARAT STATE Disaster Management
Policy
• SOUTH AFRICA Disaster Management Act
• Queensland Disaster Management Act
2003
SUSJABORMIL XIV
BIDANG KERJA
PENANGANAN BENCANA
•
•
•
•
MENGENAL DAN MEMANTAU GEJALA
MENCEGAH GEJALA MENJADI ANCAMAN
MERAMALKAN KEMUNGKINAN KEJADIAN
MENURUNKAN KERENTANAN TERMA- SUK
MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN
• MENINGKATKAN KESIAPAN UNTUK MERESPON
KEMUNGKINAN BENCANA
• MEMBUAT SISTEM PERINGATAN DINI YG EFEKTIF.
SUSJABORMIL XIV
TIDAK TERHINDARKAN :
•
•
•
•
MENYUSUN KONTIJENSI
MENYUSUN RENCANA OPERASI
MELAKSANAKAN RESPON DARURAT
MEMULIHKAN KEADAAN
SECEPATNYA.
SUSJABORMIL XIV
MERESPON KEADAAN
DARURAT
•
•
•
•
MENYUSUN RENCANA PENANGANAN
MENYUSUN RENCANA OPERASI
MELAKSANAKAN RESPON DARURAT
MEMULIHKAN KEADAAN SECEPATNYA
SUSJABORMIL XIV
DI MALAYSIA
• BELUM ADA UU BENCANA NEGARA TETAPI
SUDAH ADA:
• Pelaksana JAWATAN KUASA KESELAMATAN
NEGARA
• TABUNG BENCANA NEGARA
• BADAN PENYELAMAT NEGARA
• NGO – MERCY MALAYSIA UNTUK
PERAWATAN PENGOBATAN, COUNSELING
• DIBAWAH NAUNGAN SULTAN PERAK – DR.
JAMILAH
SUSJABORMIL XIV
KONSEP DASAR BENCANA
• KEHIDUPAN MANUSIA SELALU BERDAMPINGAN DGN
BENCANA
• GEJALA ALAM ADALAH GEJALA ANCAMAN YG BELUM TENTU
MENIMBULKAN KERUGIAN
• GEJALA ALAM BARU MENJADI BENCANA KALAU
MENIMBULKAN KERUGIAN
• MASYARAKAT MEMPUNYAI TKT KERENTANAN YG BERBEDA
• TINGKAT KERENTANAN MENURUN KALAU KEMAMPUAN
MASYARAKAT MENINGKAT
• RESIKO BENCANA ADALAH GABUNGAN ANTARA ANCAMAN,
KERENTANAN, DAN KEMAMPUAN.
SUSJABORMIL XIV
Hak-hak Korban
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Hak untuk perlindungan
Hak u/ pelayanan kesehatan
Hak untuk kerahasiaan pribadi
Hak u/ pendampingan psikologis,sosial dll
Hak u/ pelayanan rohani
Hak u/ bantuan hukum
Hak u/ informasi perkembangan perkara, putusan
pengadilan, dan hal ex terpidana
• Hak u/ identitas & kediaman baru
• Hak atas biaya kehadiran sbg saksi
• Hak atas kompensasi,restitusi,rehabilitasi
SUSJABORMIL XIV
• HAK-HAK KORBAN BENCANA :
• MENDAPATKAN PERLINDUNGAN SOSIAL DAN RASA AMAN
• MENDAPATKAN PENDIDIKAN, PELATIHAN, DAN
KETRAMPILAN MENGHADAPI PENANGGULAN BENCANA
• MENDAPATKAN INFORMASI TENTANG PENANGGULAN
BENCANA
• BERPERAN DALAM PERENCANAAN, PENGOPERASIAN,
PEMELIHARAAN PROGRAM PENYEDIAAN BANTUAN
PELAYANAN KESEHATAN TERMASUK DUKUNGAN
PSIKOSOSIAL
• BERPARTISIPASI DALAM PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN THD
KEGIATAN PENANGGULAN BENCANA
• MELAKUKAN PENGAWASAN SESUAI MEKANISME YG DIATUR
• MENDAPATKAN BANTUAN PEMENUHAN KEBUTUHAN DASAR
• MEMPEROLEH GANTI KERUGIAN KARENA KEGAGALAN
KONSTRUKSI.
SUSJABORMIL XIV
Hak-hak korban di Luar Negeri
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Medical Expenses
Mental health
Lost wages for disabled victims
Lost support for dependents
Funerals
Travel for medical treatment
Rehabilitation
Services for replace work
Legal Aid
Expenses related to injury
Funding : National budget, Insurance.fine,assets
offender.
SUSJABORMIL XIV
BEBERAPA ASPEK
PENANGANAN BENCANA





PERLU ADA KEBIJAKAN : UU
PENYUSUNAN KEBIJAKAN TENTANG
PENANGANAN BENCANA
GOVERNANCE : PENGGUNAAN
STRATEGI PEMERINTAHAN DAN
MANAJEMEN PENANGANAN BENCANA
PENATAAN KELEMBAGAAN,
ORGANISASI, PENGATURAN TUGAS
DAN KEWENANGAN
MEKANISME STANDARD OPERATING
PROCEDURE ANTAR LEMBAGA
PROGRAM KEGIATAN, TINDAKAN
TERPROGRAM PENANGANAN
BENCANA
SUSJABORMIL XIV
DISASTER MANAGEMENT
MANAJEMEN BENCANA






Perlu ada UU (UU no. 24/2007) yg baku untuk
menanggulangi bencana
Ada organisasi yg tetap ditingkat Pusat dan Daerah,
dg standard operating procedure baku
Mengikutsertakan patner baik Dalam&Luar
Negeri,TNI,Polisi,LSM,PMI,SAR,RS.
Sarana/prasarana, peralatan yg di up grade, psw
angkut,heli,kapal, m.boat
SDM dan pelatihan yg kontinyu
Logistik yg di mantenance secara berkala : tenda,
air, makanan, power listrik, alat komunikasi,kantong
mayat,obat,tandu,masker,sarung tangan, topi
keselamatan, heavy equipment,
SUSJABORMIL XIV
HAK-HAK KORBAN ;
UU NO. 13 THN 2006

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PASAL 5
MEMPEROLEH PERLINDUNGAN
IKUT SERTA DALAM MENETAPKAN
BENTUK PERLINDUNGAN
MEMBERIKAN KETERANGAN TANPA
TEKANAN
MENDAPAT PENTERJEMAH
BEBAS DARI PERTANYAAN MENJERAT
MENDAPATKAN INFORMASI TTG
:KASUS, PUTUSAN PENGADILAN
SUSJABORMIL XIV
LANJUTAN





MENGETAHUI DLM HAL
TERPIDANA DIBEBASKAN
MENDAPATKAN IDENTITAS
BARU
MEMPEROLEH BIAYA TRP
MENDAPATKAN NASIHAT
HUKUM
MENDAPATKAN BANTUAN
BIAYA HIDUP
SUSJABORMIL XIV
LANJUTAN





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PASAL 6 :
BANTUAN MEDIS
BANTUAN REHABILITASI
PSIKO SOSIAL
PASAL 7 :
HAK ATAS KOMPENSASI
HAK ATAS RESTITUSI
SUSJABORMIL XIV
LANJUTAN







DIBERIKAN SEJAK PENYIDIKAN
KESAKSIAN TANPA HADIR DI SIDANG
KESAKSIAN TERTULIS
KESAKSIAN MELALUI SARANA
ELEKTRONIK
TIDAK DITUNTUT ATAS LAPORAN
MERINGANKAN UNTUK SAKSI
LPSK

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