Chapter 30

Report
Chapter 30
Terrorism Awareness
Introduction
• There is a potential for terrorism in this
country
• Must remain in the thoughts of
firefighters
• Other incidents are occurring on a
regular basis
• This chapter looks at:
– Terrorism
– Hazardous materials crimes
– Other potentially dangerous criminal situations
30.2
Figure 30-2 A truck bomb caused the devastation in the
Oklahoma City bombing in which 167 people were killed
and 759 injured. The damage extended several blocks in
each direction, and 300 buildings were damaged. Fatalities
occurred in 14 separate buildings. (Courtesy of John
O’Connell)
30.3
Types of Terrorism
• Divided into two distinct areas:
– Foreign based
– Domestic
• FBI defines terrorism as:
– Violent act or an act dangerous to human
life in violation of the criminal laws of the
United States or any segment to intimidate
or coerce a government, the civilian
population, or any segment thereof, in
furtherance of political or social objectives
30.4
Determining if a Threat is Credible
• The thought process for determining if a
threat is credible or not has five elements:
–
–
–
–
–
Terrorist’s educational ability
Ability to obtain the raw materials
Ability to manufacture the devices
Ability to disseminate the agents
Motivation
• If a person has several of these capabilities,
the credibility factor is increased
30.5
Potential Targets
• Exist throughout every community
– Commercial buildings
– High-rise buildings
– Residential homes
• Some buildings that could be targeted:
–
–
–
–
–
FBI buildings
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms
Internal Revenue Service
Military installations
Social Security buildings
30.6
Figure 30-3 Any location is a potential target for a terrorist.
Any location where large numbers of people are present, such
as a mall or sports event, is a prime target.
30.7
Figure 30-4 Other than special events, the most common
location where large numbers of people are together is at
sporting events. At this stadium, if an incident were to occur,
more than 50,000 people could become part of the incident.
30.8
Indicators of Terrorism
• Most common device is the pipe bomb
• Any suspicious package should be
suspected
• Presence of chemicals or lab
equipment in an unusual location
• Intentional release of chemicals into a
building or environment
• Smelling unusual odors or seeing
vapor cloud
30.9
Figure 30-5 The most common explosive device is a pipe
bomb, and it is very effective. It is a very dangerous device,
not only for responders but for the builder as well.
30.10
Hazardous Materials Crimes
• Clandestine labs for illicit production is
on the rise
• One big exposure issue for emergency
responders is drug related
– Chemicals are toxic and flammable
• Most common situation where
responders are directly affected by drug
use is when a person is huffing
– After inhaling the gas from a paper bag, the
vapors remain in the room
30.11
Clandestine Labs
• Biological weapons labs can run unattended
without any major concern
– Can be shut down without major consequences
• Drug, explosives, or chemical labs should
only be shut down by someone qualified to
do so
• Drug labs moving eastward
– Drug labs found in homes, barns, hotels, storage
units
– Shutting down a drug lab is complicated and
dangerous
• Explosives and terrorism agent labs are less
common
30.12
Figure 30-7 Methamphetamine lab seizures across the
United States. Note the high number of labs in the Midwest.
In years past, the largest numbers of lab seizures occurred in
the West. The prevalence of methamphetamine labs is
moving eastward at a fast pace.
30.13
Incident Actions
• A terrorist incident combines four
types of emergency response into a
large incident
• IC will have enormous responsibilities:
– Mass casualties
– Crime, terrorism, or just an emergency?
– Massive response from federal
government
– Who is in charge?
– Evidence preservation
• Cooperative effort is needed
30.14
General Groupings of
Warfare Agents
• Terrorists could use a number of
possible warfare agents:
– Weapons of mass destruction
– Nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC)
– Chemical, biological, radiological,
nuclear, and explosive (CBRNE)
• Military has devised a naming system
for many of these agents
30.15
Nerve Agents
• Related to organophosphorus pesticides:
–
–
–
–
Tabun
Sarin
Soman
V agent
• In order to kill large numbers of people,
dissemination device must function properly
– All military warfare agents have vapor pressure
less than water
– Not a large hazard unless touched
30.16
Incendiary Agents
• Most commonly used chemicals are
flammables and combustible liquids
• Most common is the Molotov
cocktail
• Arsonists use a mixture of
chemicals to create fast, hightemperature fires
– Usually oxidizers
30.17
Blister (Vesicants)
• Commonly called blister agents
• Includes chemical compounds called:
–
–
–
–
Mustard
Distilled mustard
Nitrogen mustard
Lewisite
• Used to incapacitate enemy
• Biggest threat from skin contact
30.18
Blood and Choking Agents
• Blood agents include:
– Hydrogen cyanide
– Cyanogen chloride
• Choking agents include:
– Chlorine
– Phosgene
• Release of chlorine from a 90-ton railcar
would result in several hundred thousand
deaths
• Small amounts of chlorine can be deadly or
cause panic
30.19
Irritants (Riot Control)
• Most commonly used:
– Mace
– Pepper spray
– Tear gas
• Often impacts a large number of
people
• Not extremely toxic
– Symptoms disappear after 15 – 20
minutes of exposure to fresh air
30.20
Biological Agents and Toxins
• Some of the materials:
–
–
–
–
–
–
Anthrax
Mycotoxins
Smallpox
Plague
Tularemia
Ricin
• Easiest for terrorists to make
30.21
Radioactive Agents
• Two types of radiation events:
– Nuclear detonation
– Radiological dispersion devices (RDDs)
• Nuclear detonation is unlikely
• RDD threat is more probable
– Radiological materials attached to conventional
bomb
– Pharmaceutical grade radioactive material
attached to pipe bomb
– Strength of radiation source dictates how
harmful RDD would be
30.22
Other Terrorism Agents
• Many common industrial or household
materials can be just as deadly
– Pipe bomb with ricin
– Moving truck filled with ammonium nitrate
and fuel oil
• About 3,000 small bombings occur
each year
– Kill an average of 32 people
– Injure 277 people each year
30.23
Detection of Terrorism Agents
• Confirmation that terrorist agents have
been used is difficult
• Detection of terrorism agents
addresses three major categories of
hazards:
– Chemical agents
– Radiological materials
– Biological agents
• Many devices detect chemical warfare
agents
30.24
Figure 30-10 This detection device has the capability to
detect chemical warfare agents such as sarin nerve agent
and several toxic industrial chemicals.
30.25
Federal Assistance
• Federal government has established roles
and responsibilities in the event of
terrorism
– PDD 39
– FBI is lead agency during emergency
– FEMA leads when incident is no longer an
emergency
• FBI Hazardous Materials Response Unit
(HMRU)
–
–
–
–
Terrorist incidents
Incidents involving explosives
Drug labs
Environmental crimes
30.26
Lessons Learned
• Within a community, there are multiple
agencies that respond to a terrorist
attack
– Coordination is difficult
• Responders should wear all PPE
• Be aware of potential secondary
devices
• Scenarios involve tremendous loss of
life
• Evidence collection is challenging
30.27

similar documents