Applications of Universal Design for Learning

Report
Applying
Disability Studies in
Disability Services
Wendy S. Harbour, Ed.D.
2013 AHEAD Conference
Baltimore, MD
© 2013
Introductions and Overview
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PowerPoint and handout online
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Purpose of presentation: “Disability Studies 101” for
disability services providers
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Models of disability
Ableism
Disability studies
“Cripping” the curriculum: Infusing disability studies into courses
Foundations of Disability Studies
1.
Disability and disability-related barriers
are socially constructed; disability does not
have to be an inherently negative,
pathological condition.
2.
Ableism and oppression are part of the shared
experience of disability.
The Medical Model of Disability
The Medical Model and
Disability:
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It’s a problem with the person
who has a disability
Disabilities need to be fixed
Professionals are the only hope
for a cure or normality
“Over-coming” and normality
are goals
Socio-Political Models of Disability
The Social Model and
Disability:
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Disability is neutral
Barriers are “socially
constructed” and primarily
exist in the environment
Disability is part of the
human experience
Anyone can create change
Goal is to change
environment to reduce
barriers
Socio-Political Models of Disability
The Cultural Model and
Disability:
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Disability defined by time,
culture, ethnic group, etc.
Disability is part of the
human experience
Attitudes about disability can
teach us about our societies
The goal is changing values
and attitudes, and keeping
“disability” in context
Socio-Political Models of Disability
The Political Model and
Disability:
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Disability is defined by law,
policy, and who has power or
resources
Political and legal definitions
reflect trends in society
The goal is distributing
resources and re-defining
concepts like “deserving”
Summary of the Models
Cultural
Model
Medical
Model
Society and
Values
Social
Model
Legal/Political
Model
Interactions
and
Environment
Individual
Law and
Policy
Models Reveal Ableism
“…[T]he devaluation of disability results
in societal attitudes that uncritically assert
that it is better for a child to walk than roll,
speak than sign, read print than read Braille,
spell independently than use a spell-check,
and hang out with nondisabled kids as opposed
to other disabled kids, etc.
In short, in the eyes of many educators and society,
it is preferable for disabled students to do things
in the same manner as nondisabled kids.”
Hehir, T. (2002). Eliminating ableism in education. Harvard Educational Review, 72(1), 1-33.
Connections…
So how can we connect the
Models of Disability
and
Ableism?
Models of Disability
Ableism
The Traditional Models of Disability
“Bad”/ “Good”
Cultural
Model
Medical
Model
Social
Model
Legal/Political
Model
The Medical Model
is viewed as
“Bad”
and ableist
Other models dealing with the
environment are seen as
progressive, “Good”
and empowering
The Traditional Models of Disability
“Bad”/ “Good”
Cultural
Model
Medical
Model
Social
Model
Legal/Political
Model
What if all the models and aspects of disability can
be “good” OR “bad”? Empowering or ableist?
Examples: Ableism and the Models
Medical Model
Ableism
Empowering
Labels are used
to define and segregate
individuals
Labels and impairments
are viewed in context
and may be empowering
Social Model
Ableism
Focus on environment
overlooks intrapersonal
characteristics, creating oppression
Empowering
Environment is
changed to reduce
disability-related barriers
Ableism and Disability Services
Ways to apply the theory/models and
address ableism:
Universal Design
Disability Studies
Disability in Curriculum
Universal Design in Education
Designing the environment for the
maximum diversity of learners
Courses, Work, and Activities
Services and Policy
Architecture
Technology
Universal Design
Choices & Flexibility

Present information in different accessible formats
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Assume there will be a variety of users/learners
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Use different forms of evaluation or assessment
so people can show what they have learned or
understood
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Allow people to engage or be motivated in different ways
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Plan for possible access needs or services
(e.g., physical accessibility, interpreters, braille) and ask whether
these may work for everyone
What is Disability Studies?
Disability studies is a lens for thinking about the world.
Disability Studies: Interdisciplinary
Art
History
Identity
Disability Studies: Interdisciplinary
Deaf Studies
Pop Culture
Attitude
and
Activism
Disability Studies: Attitude/Language
http://vimeo.com/10023901
Disability Studies: Identity

Having pride in oneself
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Finding a community
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Coming out as “disabled”
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Promoting disability as part of campus diversity
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No apologies for rights and accommodations –
“independence” is what we do with supports and
services (everyone is interdependent anyway)
Beyond UD and Disability Studies:
“Cripping” the Curriculum by Infusing Disability

Avoids disability as just “Disability
Awareness Days” or disability
accommodations issue; disability
becomes part of diversity
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Avoids potential erasure of disability
happening with UD
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Examples:
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“Right to Die” in philosophy class
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Coding of “norms” in statistics
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Disability and the Holocaust in
history
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Inclusion of authors with disabilities
in English/literature courses; finding
disability subtext or including
disability in discussions of
“difference”
So What? Applying Critical Thinking
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AHEAD documentation guidelines
Disability cultural centers and activist student groups
“Disabilities,” “Conditions,” and
“Temporary Disabilities”
Questions about modifications
Professionals as gatekeepers
Faculty concerns about faking
or special privileges
Students who don’t want to use disability services
Additional Resources
Handout online
Bibliography of resources:
Disability studies in
disability services,
universal design,
and first-person accounts of
disability
in higher education
Q and A
Contact information:
Wendy S. Harbour, Ed.D.
Taishoff Center,
Syracuse University
805 South Crouse Avenue, 101 Hoople Building
Syracuse, NY 13244-2280
Phone: 315-443-1288 or VideoPhone: 866-270-1281
[email protected]

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