- GST Boces

Report
THE CRITICAL LENS
You will be reciting this format in your sleep
4 PARAGRAPHS
 1 – Introduction
 2 – Literature example 1 – Use 1 text and 2 lit elements
 3 – Literature example 2 – Use 1 text and 2 lit elements
 4 - Conclusion
PARAGRAPH 1
 Restate the quote and identify the author
 Interpret the quote
 Agree or disagree
 Introduce 2 works of literature you will use to support your
interpretation
PARAGRAPH 2
 Introduce 1st piece of literature
 Use Title, Author, and Genre
 Use 2 literature elements to explain and support your
interpretation of the quote
PARAGRAPH 3
 Introduce second piece of literature
 Use Title, Author, and Genre
 Use 2 literature elements to explain and support your
interpretation
PARAGRAPH 4
1. Restate your opinion about the quote – using different words
from the intro paragraph.
2. Comparison of both literary works – show similarities in how
they support the quote – use different language from the intro
3. Final thought – this can be an interesting, unique opinion or
summary of ideas presented in the essay
BREAKING IT DOWN
PARAGRAPH 1
Example quote
“Literature opens a dark window on the soul, revealing more about what
is bad in human nature than what is good” Author – Unknown
So you will write:
An unknown author once wrote, “Literature opens a
dark window on the soul, revealing more about what
is bad in human nature than what is good.”
That will be your opening sentence in paragraph 1
BREAKING IT DOWN
PARAGRAPH 1 CONTINUED
Reminder – this is the quote: “Literature opens a dark window on the
soul, revealing more about what is bad in human nature than what is
good.”
Interpret the quote like this:
This statement suggests that literature shows more
about the bad aspects of people than the good.
That will be sentence number 2 in 1st paragraph
BREAKING IT DOWN
PARAGRAPH 1 CONTINUED
 Next you need to decide if you agree or disagree
 For example using the quote from this presentation you would
write:
 This critical lens is invalid because literature
shows good and bad sides of human nature
equally, both in terms of people’s personal
qualities and in terms of their actions.
BREAKING IT DOWN
PARAGRAPH 1 CONTINUED
 Next you introduce both works of literature you plan to use to
support your position
 Make sure you introduce the texts using the full title, author,
and genre (i.e. play, short story, poem, novel….)
BREAKING IT DOWN
PARAGRAPH 1 CONTINUED
 Introduce the literature like this:
 To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee, and Of
Mice and Men, by John Steinbeck, are two novels
that illustrate this balance of good and bad.
TO SUM IT UP PARAGRAPH
1 GOES LIKE THIS
 Restate the quote – make sure you name the author, if known.
 Interpret the quote
 Agree or disagree
 Introduce 2 works of literature …be sure to include title, author,
and genre
THIS IS WHAT IT SHOULD
LOOK LIKE
 An unknown author once wrote, “Literature opens a dark
window on the soul, revealing more about what is bad in human
nature than what is good.” This statement suggests that
literature shows more about the bad aspects of people than
the good. This critical lens is invalid because literature
shows good and bad sides of human nature equally, both in
terms of people’s personal qualities and in terms of their
actions. To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee, and Of Mice
and Men, by John Steinbeck, are two novels that illustrate
this balance of good and bad.
YOUR TURN
 “All conflict in literature is, in its simplest
form, a struggle between good and evil.”
Author – Unknown
Literary elements – plot, conflict, irony, characterization, setting,
theme, figurative language , tone, point of view……
EXAMPLE
An unknown author once wrote, “All conflict in literature is, in its simplest form, a
struggle between good and evil.” This is a valid statement because conflict is a
struggle between opposing forces. The two most universal opposing forces are
good and evil. Since evil has so many different facets (hate, jealousy, and so on), it’s
possible to see that all conflict in literature is the struggle between some type of
good and some form of evil. Two works of literature that illustrate this
fundamental conflict are William Golding’s novel Lord of the Flies and William
Shakespeare’s drama Othello.
PARAGRAPH 2
 The topic sentence should support the critical lens
 Example:
The characters in To Kill A Mockingbird , a novel
by Harper Lee, represent a wide range of human
nature.
With the choice of the word characters – we are choosing
characterization as one of our literary elements.
PARAGRAPH 2 CONTINUED
 Now you need a minimum of 2 examples using characterization that supports
your interpretation and whether you agree or disagree.
 Your next sentences should look like this:
For example, Atticus Finch is a character with very positive
qualities. He is a model of courage and integrity, someone
who is willing to take a stand for what he believes in. It
was an easy choice for Atticus to defend Tom Robinson
because he knew it was the right thing to do.
PARAGRAPH 2 CONTINUED
 Now you need a second example of characterization that supports your
interpretation and whether or not you agree or disagree.
 Your next sentence should look like this:
By contrast, the character of Bob Ewell is evil and violent.
He has many of the worst qualities of human nature. Ewell
didn’t send his children to school and was quite abusive to
all of them, especially his daughter Mayella. He forced her
to lie under oath when testifying against Tom Robinson.
PARAGRAPH 2 CONTINUED
 Now you need to introduce the 2nd literary element.
 Your next sentence should look like this:
The plot of To Kill a Mockingbird similarly shows
both good and bad through people’s actions.
Notice that is similar to what we wrote in the introduction.
2 ND LIT ELEMENT CON’T
 Now you need to give 2 specific examples.
 Your 1st one should look like this:
On the negative side, people cruelly and unjustly
accuse Tom Robinson of rape because he is
black.
2 ND LIT ELEMENT CON’T
 Your next example of plot should look like this:
On the positive side, Atticus risks his own safety
to confront a lynch mob outside the jail to ensure
the safety of Tom Robinson until he can get his
day in court.
TO SUM UP PARAGRAPH 2
 You now need to have a clincher sentence for the first text.
 You might write the following:
The actions of Atticus prove that in literature we
see the good side of human nature. In contrast,
through the story line and the actions of Bob
Ewell, we also read about the cruel nature that
resides deep within the human soul.
PARAGRAPH 2 SHOULD
LOOK LIKE THIS:
The characters in To Kill A Mockingbird , a novel by Harper Lee, represent a wide range of human
nature. For example, Atticus Finch is a character with very positive qualities. He is a model of
courage and integrity, someone who is willing to take a stand for what he believes in. It was an
easy choice for Atticus to defend Tom Robinson because he knew it was the right thing to do. By
contrast, the character of Bob Ewell is evil and violent. He has many of the worst qualities of
human nature. Ewell didn’t send his children to school and was quite abusive to all of them.
Especially his daughter, Mayella. He forced her to lie under oath when testifying against Tom
Robinson. The plot of To Kill a Mockingbird similarly shows both good and bad through people’s
actions. On the negative side, people cruelly and unjustly accuse Tom Robinson of rape because
he is black. On the positive side, Atticus risks his own safety to confront a lynch mob outside the
jail to ensure the safety of Tom Robinson until he can get his day in court. The actions of Atticus
prove that in literature we see the good side of human nature. In contrast, through the story line
and the actions of Bob Ewell, we also the cruel nature that resides deep within the human soul.
YOUR TURN
Write paragraph 2 using this quote:
“All conflict in literature is, in its simplest form, a
struggle between good and evil.”
Author – Unknown
Literary elements – plot, conflict, irony, characterization, setting,
theme, figurative language , tone, point of view……
FOR EXAMPLE
In Lord of the Flies, Golding uses the theme of power to dramatize the conflict between good
and evil. In this novel the main characters are adolescent boys seeking to gain the acceptance and
leadership of the group. Because they are stranded on an island, without adult supervision, they
are free to do as they please. As the novel progresses, the true natures of the boys are revealed.
Ralph, the leader, is characterized as a thoughtful and good boy. He uses his reasoning and sense
of civilized behavior to rule over the boys. Jack, on the other hand, resents Ralph’s leadership
and becomes the leader of a separate group. These boys represent more savage behavior,
constantly hunting to kill wild pig and chanting “kill the Beast.” The struggle between good and
evil is symbolized in the way Jack’s group become more and more savage and even tries to kill
Ralph. Golding’s story suggests that once allowed total freedom from rules or society, a basic
savage instinct (evil) will take over these once civilized boys.
PARAGRAPH 3
 This is exactly like paragraph 2 but uses a 2nd piece of literature
 The first sentence should look like this:
Like the characters in To Kill a Mockingbird, The
characters in Of Mice and Men , a novel by John
Steinbeck, also show people’s good traits as well as
their bad.
Notice the word characters…that suggests I will use characterization as
my 1st lit element.
3 CON’T
 Now we need some examples of characterization
In the relationship between George and Lennie,
there are positive qualities of human nature,
such as friendship, loyalty, and trust. Lennie
trusts George to take care of him.
PARAGRAPH 3 CON’T
 A second example:
On the other hand, Curley, a mean troublemaker,
shows just how unpleasant people can be. Curley
is constantly picking fights with the other ranch
hands and accusing them of being with his wife.
3 CON’T
 Now we need the 2nd lit element
 It should begin like this:
The plot Of Mice and Men shows how good or
bad people can be in their actions.
3 RD CON’T
 Next come the examples
George protects Lennie and takes care of him. At
the end, George has to shoot Lennie to save him
from a worst fate.
3 RD CON’T
 Another example
Meanwhile, Curley is a bully. It's he who wants to
shoot Lennie down after Lennie accidentally kills
Curley’s wife.
3 RD CON’T
 Finally the clincher
It’s interesting that George shoots Lennie out of
friendship, while Curley wanted to shoot him for
revenge. These two motives in themselves
suggest the range of human nature.
THIS IT WHAT IT LOOKS
LIKE
Like the characters in To Kill a Mockingbird, The characters in Of Mice and Men ,
a novel by John Steinbeck, also show people’s good traits as well as their bad.
In the relationship between George and Lennie, there are positive qualities of
human nature, such as friendship, loyalty, and trust. Lennie trusts George to
take care of him. Curley, a mean troublemaker, shows just how unpleasant
people can be. On the other hand, Curley, a mean troublemaker, shows just how
unpleasant people can be. Curley is constantly picking fights with the other
ranch hands and accusing them of being with his wife. The plot Of Mice and Men
shows how good or bad people can be in their actions. George protects Lennie
and Takes care of him. At the end, George has to shoot Lennie to save him from
a worst fate. Meanwhile, Curley is a bully. It's he who wants to shoot Lennie
down after Lennie accidentally kills Curley’s wife. It’s interesting that George
shoots Lennie out of friendship, while Curley wanted to shoot him for revenge.
These two motives in themselves suggest the range of human nature.
YOUR TURN
Write paragraph 3 using this quote:
“All conflict in literature is, in its simplest form, a
struggle between good and evil.”
Author – Unknown
Literary elements – plot, conflict, irony, characterization, setting,
theme, figurative language , tone, point of view……
EXAMPLE
Shakespeare suggests a similar theme in his play Othello. Shakespeare introduces the character of
Othello as a brave, loving, and honorable man. He also introduces the complete antithesis of
Othello in the character Iago. Iago is Othello's most trusted officer, yet he is not what he seems.
He secretly resents a lack of promotion and becomes fundamentally driven to destroy the good
Othello. It is the evil in Iago that allows him to take advantage of Othello’s trusting nature and
prey on his good heart. Using Othello's trust in him, Iago persuades Othello that his adored wife,
Desdemona, is unfaithful to him. Provoked by Iago, Othello becomes consumed with hate and
jealousy and kills his innocent wife. In the character Othello, Shakespeare shows us how a
character can cross the threshold between good and evil. Iago’s evil overcomes Othello’s
goodness and destroys him.
CONCLUSION
 Restate the quote like this
As you can see, the quote “Literature opens a dark
window on the soul, revealing more about what is
bad in human nature than what is good” by an
unknown author is not true. Literature shows both
good and bad qualities that reside in humans.
CONCLUSION CON’T
 Restate the works of literature you used
Like this:
Novels such as To Kill a Mockingbird and Of Mice
and Men show the interaction between positive
and negative aspects of human nature.
CONCLUSION CON’T
 Next summarize your main points like this:
Rather than emphasize the bad, these novels
present a more or less balanced view of people’s
good and bad qualities.
IT LOOKS LIKE THIS
As you can see, the quote “Literature opens a dark window
on the soul, revealing more about what is bad in human nature
than what is good” by an unknown author is not true.
Literature shows both good and bad qualities that reside in
humans. Novels such as To Kill a Mockingbird and Of Mice
and Men show the interaction between positive and
negative aspects of human nature. Rather than emphasize
the bad, these novels present a more or less balanced view
of people’s good and bad qualities.
YOUR TURN
 Write a conclusion using the following quote
“All conflict in literature is, in its simplest form, a
struggle between good and evil.”
Author – Unknown
Literary elements – plot, conflict, irony, characterization, setting,
theme, figurative language , tone, point of view……

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