Enactment of Technology Strategy Developing a Firm’s Innovative Capability 1 Questions 2 How a firm’s innovative activities reflect its technology strategy? How the enactment of technology strategy serves to further develop its innovative capabilities? Outline 3 Innovation challenges in established firms Strategic management of corporate research Managing corporate entrepreneurship Conclusion Innovation Challenges in Established Firms Three types of new product and new business development Induced strategic action Incremental & architecture innovation In relation to its familiar external environments Ex: Next generation of aircraft Autonomous strategic action 4 Radical innovation Opens up new environmental niches Firm’s long-term survival and development Ex: Electronic fuel injection A balance act New Product and New Business Development An evolutionary framework of the strategy-making process in established firms Autonomous strategic action Induced strategic action 5 Strategic context Concept of corporative strategy Structural context Strategic Management of Corporate Research 6 The functions of corporate research Managing key interfaces Linking corporate research to corporate development strategy The Functions of Corporate Research Support of existing businesses (induced process) Improvements in existing products and processes New strategic directions (autonomous process) Discover new areas of technology Ex: Du Pont’s nylon, EMI’s CT scanner 7 Effectively using the output of corporate research The Functions of Corporate Research New strategic directions Support of existing businesses Improving and strengthening the understanding of technologies in use Diversifying to new applications and markets Identifying product and process improvements Discovering and developing new technologies Diversifying to entirely new businesses Developing new processes for established products Innovations by: 8 The Functions of Corporate Research Corporate service by: 9 New strategic directions Support of existing businesses Intelligence Opening windows on new science and technology Assessing threats and opportunities Human resources Recruiting new kinds of skills Recruiting talented people with high potential Technology transfer Identifying acquisition candidates with needed technological expertise Recruiting for all divisions, from corporate research to operations Manage Key Interfaces Corporate research - divisional R&D interface (induced process) Attitudes of scientists in divisional R&D Attitudes of corporate research Administrative, geographical, and personal linkages Corporate research - business research interface (autonomous process) Linking new technological solutions to market needs Obtaining additional resources to create a commercially viable new business 10 Manage Key Interfaces Geographical Closed Open Personal Personal Closed Closed Open Closed Open Tight coupling Administrative Open 11 No Coupling Systematic Differences between Business and R&D People R&D people Business research people 1. Structure Well defined: existence of research tradition; clearly described positions Ill defined: no real research tradition; positions less clearly defined 2. Methods Scientific and codified Ad hoc and uncodified 3. Database Systematic and objective Unsystematic and largely subjective 4. Work and time pressures Mostly internal; how long does it take? Mostly external; how long do we have? Work environment 12 Systematic Differences between Business and R&D People R&D people Business research people 5. Operating assumptions Serendipity Planning 6. Goals “New” ideas; can it be improved? “Big” ideas; does it work? Professional orientations 7. Performance criteria Quality of investigation 13 Quantity of results Systematic Differences between Business and R&D People R&D people Business research people 8. Educational background Ph.D. Master’s 9. Experience Deep and focused Broad and diverse Become venture manager? Become venture manager? Quality of personnel Personal interests 10. Career objectives 14 Linking Corporate Research to Corporate Development Strategy Assessing technological opportunity Five dimensions of the fundamental uncertainty Technological innovations’ usefulness cannot be immediately appreciated. Complementary inventions Difficult to conceptualize the new technological systems Attempting to solve very specific problems and leading to unanticipated uses The ability to effectively link them to specific categories of human needs Ex: Laser 15 Linking Corporate Research to Corporate Development Strategy The role of different levels of corporate research management 16 Technicians Bench scientists Group leaders R&D managers Director of corporate R&D Allocating resources to corporate research Managing Corporate Entrepreneurship 17 The managerial challenge posed by autonomous strategic action The use of new venture divisions A framework for assessing internal entrepreneurial initiatives Designing alternatives for corporate entrepreneurship Choosing design alternatives Implementing design alternatives The Managerial Challenge Posed by Autonomous Strategic Action 18 Firms almost continuously bring in new talent that interacts with the firm’s existing resources, competencies, and capabilities in ways that cannot be fully anticipated. Ex: Calculator, Gene machine Top managers should consider the potential implications of the initiative for the firm’s strategic position. Interface Problems Involving Venture Divisions NVD – operating divisions interfaces NVD – corporate management interfaces Domain protection issues Synergy considerations Administrativ Rigidities resulting e/cultural from management frictions system Personnel transfer issues Strategic interferences 19 Lack of diversification strategy Limits to rate of strategic change that can be absorbed Effects on corporate image Circumvention of corporate rules and regulations Inadequate measurement and reward systems Resistance to institutionalization A Framework for Assessing Internal Entrepreneurial Initiatives Assessing strategic importance Considering the implications of an entrepreneurial initiative for the firm’s product-market position Top managers depend on middle-level managers. Assessing operational relatedness The degree to which an entrepreneurial initiative requires competencies and capabilities that differ from the corporation’s core competencies Corporate management needs to rely on substantive interactions with middle level managers. 20 Design Alternatives for Corporate Entrepreneurship Determining administrative linkages The assessment of strategic importance has implications for the degree of control over the new business development If strategic importance is high, strong administrative linkages are in order. Low strategic importance should lead corporate management to examine how the new business can best be spun off. If unclear, relax the structural context and allow the new business some leeway in its strategic management. 21 Design Alternatives for Corporate Entrepreneurship Determining operational linkages The degree of operational relatedness has implications for the efficiency If operational relatedness is judged to be high, tight coupling of the operations of the new and existing businesses is in order. Low operational relatedness may require complete decoupling. If unclear, loose coupling seems most adequate. 22 Internal Entrepreneurship Initiatives Assessment Framework Key dimensions and their implications Dimensions: Strategic importance Implications: Degree of control Administrative Linkages (authority) Operational relatedness Efficiency considerations Operational linkages (networking) 23 Organization Design alternatives Organization Designs for Corporate Entrepreneurship Unrelated Operational relatedness Partly related Strongly related 3 Special 1 4 2 3 Business Direct new Micro Units Venture 6 Independent Business Units 9 Complete Spin-off 2 New product Department 5 New Venture Division 8 Contracting 1 Direct Integration 4 Micro New Venture Division 7 Nurturing and Contracting Very important Uncertain Not important Strategic importance 24 Implementing Design Alternatives 25 First, view the assessment framework as a tool to clarify. Second, establish measurement and reward systems. Third, as the development process unfolds, new information may modify the perceived strategic importance and operational relatedness; the ventures can move dynamically. Conclusion 26 Corporate research : Evaluate the businesses related to the corporate. Managing corporate entrepreneurship : Evaluate the businesses out of the corporate. Large established corporations provide a substratum of discovery and invention that feeds the innovation process. Many start-ups have been built on ideas that originated within large established corporations.