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Dr. Jerry P. Galloway Evaluate 4 Samples as - Good or Bad - Acceptable or Not http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/ Dr. Jerry P. Galloway PROBLEM STATEMENT Evaluate 4 Samples as - Good or Bad - Acceptable or Not SAMPLE #1 I will look at what effect after school programs have on improving math TAKS scores of my low socio-economic students. Acceptable? YES - Good NO - Poor http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/ Dr. Jerry P. Galloway PROBLEM STATEMENT NO - Poor SAMPLE #1 I will look at what effect after school programs have on improving math TAKS scores of my low socio-economic students. This is a Statement of Purpose… … it is what YOU intend to do. I will look at… And, written in FIRST PERSON voice… YES - Good I will look … <<< always wrong. …of my… http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/ Dr. Jerry P. Galloway PROBLEM STATEMENT SAMPLE #2 Why are minorities and low socio-economic students dropping out of school before graduation? Acceptable? YES - Good NO - Poor http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/ Dr. Jerry P. Galloway PROBLEM STATEMENT SAMPLE #2 NO - Poor Why are minorities and low socio-economic students dropping out of school before graduation? This is a QUESTION… >> it’s not a statement of anything. Why are… … besides, when else are students supposed to drop out if not before graduation? http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/ Dr. Jerry P. Galloway PROBLEM STATEMENT SAMPLE #3 Students fall behind in math and have to repeat their grade level because their parents are not involved in their school work. Acceptable? YES - Good NO - Poor http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/ Dr. Jerry P. Galloway PROBLEM STATEMENT NO - Poor SAMPLE #3 Students fall behind in math and have to repeat their grade level because their parents are not involved in their school work. Students fall behind in math Because… have to repeat their grade level parents are not involved in their school work. Compound Problem >> just pick one problem. Pure Speculation >> no need to explain why even if you can support it. Research is about finding answers not suggesting them in advance. http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/ Dr. Jerry P. Galloway PROBLEM STATEMENT SAMPLE #4 Students are not passing TAKS tests in math and need remedial instruction. This puts too much stress on teachers. Acceptable? YES - Good NO - Poor http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/ Dr. Jerry P. Galloway PROBLEM STATEMENT NO - Poor SAMPLE #4 Students are not passing TAKS tests in math and need remedial instruction. This puts too much stress on teachers. Convoluted… What EXACTLY is the problem? Not Passing - or - needing remediation? Stress? … Too much stress? … or - the fact that the stress is experienced BY TEACHERS? http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/ Dr. Jerry P. Galloway PROBLEM STATEMENT … from Preceding Samples … YES - Good Each one is Acceptable • Students are not passing TAKS tests in math. • Students fall behind in math achievement. • Students are not learning math well-enough for adulthood. • • • • Students need excessive remedial instruction. Students have to repeat their grade level. Minority students tend to drop out of school. Many low socio-economic students do not finish school. • Teachers experience unreasonable stress. • Parents are not sufficiently involved in their child’s school work. … simple, direct, short, - states what is wrong. http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/ Dr. Jerry P. Galloway PROBLEM STATEMENT … What does it NOT say ? … • Students are not passing TAKS tests in math. • Students fall behind in math achievement. • Students are not learning math well-enough for adulthood. Not about learning more. Not about grade-level “fit.” • Students need excessive remedial instruction. Not about prep. for life’s needs. • Students have to repeat their grade level. advancement in grade. Not about • Minority students tend to dropNot out about of school. learning better. • Many low socio-economic students do about not finish school.score. > Only a passing • Teachers experience unreasonable stress. • Parents are not sufficiently involved in their child’s school work. http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/ Dr. Jerry P. Galloway PROBLEM STATEMENT … What does it NOT say ? … • Students are not passing TAKS tests in math. • Students fall behind in math achievement. • Students are not learning math well-enough for adulthood. • • • • • • Not about passing TAKS tests. Students need excessive remedial Notinstruction. about understanding math. Students have to repeat their grade level. math problem solving. Not about Minority students tend to dropIndirectly out of school. about life’s needs. Many low socio-economic students do not finishadvancement. school. Indirectly about > About learning more/better/too little. Teachers experience unreasonable-stress. Parents are not sufficiently involved in their child’s school work. http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/ Dr. Jerry P. Galloway PROBLEM STATEMENT … What does it NOT say ? … • Students are not passing TAKS tests in math. • Students fall behind in math achievement. • Students are not learning math well-enough for adulthood. • • • • Students need excessive remedial Notinstruction. about passing TAKS tests. Not about Students have to repeat their grade level. test scores. math performance. Minority students tend to dropNot out about of school. Not about Many low socio-economic students do notremediation. finish school. Not about teaching methods. Indirectly • Teachers experience unreasonable stress.about math understanding. Indirectly about math problem solving. • Parents are not sufficiently involved in their child’s school work. > About life’s demands in adulthood. http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/ Dr. Jerry P. Galloway PROBLEM STATEMENT … What does it NOT say ? … • Students are not passing TAKS tests in math. • Students fall behind in math achievement. • Students are not learning math well-enough for adulthood. • • • • Students need excessive remedial instruction. Students have to repeat their grade level. Not about policy. Minority students tend to drop outschool of school. Notstudents about demands on teachers. Many low socio-economic do not finish school. Not about methods of remediation. Not about test scores. • Teachers experience unreasonable stress. Notinvolved about teaching methods. • Parents are not sufficiently in their child’s school work. Not about students needing special attention. > About students’ deficiencies. – pervasive & extreme http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/ Dr. Jerry P. Galloway PROBLEM STATEMENT … What does it NOT say ? … Not about TAKS tests. • Students are not passing TAKS testspassing in math. Not about learning more for life. • Students fall behind in math achievement. May be about inadequate learning for • Students are not learning math well-enough for adulthood. grade level demands - quantity / quality. • • • • Students need excessive remedial instruction. Students have to repeat their grade level. Minority students tend to drop out of school. Many low socio-economic students do not finish school. Not about demands on teachers. Not about demands on schools. • Teachers experience unreasonable stress. Not about implications for curriculum. • Parents are not sufficiently involved in their child’s school work. Not about becoming drop-outs. May be about policy & options for managing students’ remediation. http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/ Dr. Jerry P. Galloway PROBLEM STATEMENT … What does it NOT say ? … • Students are not passing TAKS inpassing math. TAKS tests. Nottests about • Students fall behind in math achievement. Not about test scores. • Students are not learning math well-enough for adulthood. Not about learning. Not about urban or low socio-econ. Not about African American students. • Students need excessive remedial instruction. • Students have to repeat their grade level. • Minority students tend to drop out of school. • Many low socio-economic students do not finish school. About students’ educational opportunity. • Teachers experience unreasonable stress. About influences that contribute directly. • Parents are not sufficiently involved in their child’s school work. About direct & real consequences. http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/ Dr. Jerry P. Galloway PROBLEM STATEMENT … What does it NOT say ? … • Students are not passing TAKS inpassing math. TAKS tests. Nottests about • Students fall behind in math achievement. Not about test scores. • Students are not learning math well-enough for adulthood. Not about learning. Not about minorities. May beinstruction. about home-environment, family or • Students need excessive remedial survival outside of school. • Students have to repeat their gradeconditions level. • Minority students tend to drop out of school. • Many low socio-economic students do not finish school. • Teachers experience unreasonable stress. About students’ educational opportunity. • Parents are not sufficiently involved in their child’s school work. About influences that contribute directly. About direct & real consequences. http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/ Dr. Jerry P. Galloway PROBLEM STATEMENT … What does it NOT say ? … • Students are not passing TAKS tests in math. • Students fall behind in math Not achievement. about standardized tests or scores. • Students are not learningNot math well-enough for adulthood. about school policy. • • • • Not about quality of students. Students need excessive Not remedial aboutinstruction. teaching methods. Students have to repeat Indirectly their gradeabout level.policy. social perspectives. Minority students tend toIndirectly drop outabout of school. Many low socio-economic students do not finish school. • Teachers experience unreasonable stress. • Parents are not sufficiently involved in their child’s school work. About goals/expectations/assessment of teachers & job consequences. About the physiological & affective consequences of experiencing stress. http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/ Dr. Jerry P. Galloway PROBLEM STATEMENT … What does it NOT say ? … • Students are not passing TAKS tests in math. about test scores. • Students fall behind in mathNot achievement. Not about studentfor progress. • Students are not learning math well-enough adulthood. Not about student learning. Not about teaching. • Students need excessive remedial instruction. Not school policy or environment. • Students have to repeat their grade level. > About parents directly in student • Minority students tend to droplearning out of school. in school & homework. • Many low socio-economic students do not finish school. • Teachers experience unreasonable stress. • Parents are not sufficiently involved in their child’s school work. http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/ Dr. Jerry P. Galloway Summary Conclusions… A research study addresses a Problem… a need – not a curiosity. • • • • Everything is related. Lots of things are problems. Lots of things influence lots of other things. Everything has implications for everything else. A Problem Statement must isolate, within the endless hierarchy of relationships, a specific problem (bad thing) and reduce or narrow the scope of the study to only the most immediate and directly related issues. A Problem Statement defines what is and is not the primary concern of the study. Answering a research question is your study’s contribute to problem solution. It does not solve the problem. http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/