### PPT: Problem Statement - Dr. Jerry Galloway`s Tech

```Dr. Jerry P. Galloway
Evaluate 4 Samples as
- Good or Bad
- Acceptable or Not
http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/
Dr. Jerry P. Galloway
PROBLEM STATEMENT
Evaluate 4 Samples as
- Good or Bad
- Acceptable or Not
SAMPLE #1
I will look at what effect after school programs have on improving
math TAKS scores of my low socio-economic students.
Acceptable?
YES - Good
NO - Poor
http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/
Dr. Jerry P. Galloway
PROBLEM STATEMENT
NO - Poor
SAMPLE #1
I will look at what effect after school programs have on improving
math TAKS scores of my low socio-economic students.
This is a Statement of Purpose…
… it is what YOU intend to do.
I will look at…
And, written in FIRST PERSON voice…
YES - Good
I will look …
<<< always wrong.
…of my…
http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/
Dr. Jerry P. Galloway
PROBLEM STATEMENT
SAMPLE #2
Why are minorities and low socio-economic students dropping out
of school before graduation?
Acceptable?
YES - Good
NO - Poor
http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/
Dr. Jerry P. Galloway
PROBLEM STATEMENT
SAMPLE #2
NO - Poor
Why are minorities and low socio-economic students dropping out
of school before graduation?
This is a QUESTION…
>> it’s not a statement of anything.
Why are…
… besides, when else are students supposed to drop out if not before graduation?
http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/
Dr. Jerry P. Galloway
PROBLEM STATEMENT
SAMPLE #3
Students fall behind in math and have to repeat their grade level
because their parents are not involved in their school work.
Acceptable?
YES - Good
NO - Poor
http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/
Dr. Jerry P. Galloway
PROBLEM STATEMENT
NO - Poor
SAMPLE #3
Students fall behind in math and have to repeat their grade level
because their parents are not involved in their school work.
Students fall behind in math
Because…
have to repeat their grade level
parents are not involved in their school work.
Compound Problem >> just pick one problem.
Pure Speculation >> no need to explain why even if you can support it.
Research is about finding answers not suggesting them in advance.
http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/
Dr. Jerry P. Galloway
PROBLEM STATEMENT
SAMPLE #4
Students are not passing TAKS tests in math and need
remedial instruction. This puts too much stress on teachers.
Acceptable?
YES - Good
NO - Poor
http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/
Dr. Jerry P. Galloway
PROBLEM STATEMENT
NO - Poor
SAMPLE #4
Students are not passing TAKS tests in math and need
remedial instruction. This puts too much stress on teachers.
Convoluted…
What EXACTLY is the problem?
Not Passing - or - needing remediation?
Stress?
…
Too much stress?
… or - the fact that the stress is experienced BY TEACHERS?
http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/
Dr. Jerry P. Galloway
PROBLEM STATEMENT
… from Preceding Samples …
YES - Good
Each one is Acceptable
• Students are not passing TAKS tests in math.
• Students fall behind in math achievement.
• Students are not learning math well-enough for adulthood.
•
•
•
•
Students need excessive remedial instruction.
Students have to repeat their grade level.
Minority students tend to drop out of school.
Many low socio-economic students do not finish school.
• Teachers experience unreasonable stress.
• Parents are not sufficiently involved in their child’s school work.
… simple, direct, short, - states what is wrong.
http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/
Dr. Jerry P. Galloway
PROBLEM STATEMENT
… What does it NOT say ? …
• Students are not passing TAKS tests in math.
• Students fall behind in math achievement.
• Students are not learning math well-enough for adulthood.
Not about learning more.
• Students need excessive remedial instruction.
Not about prep. for life’s needs.
• Students have to repeat their grade
• Minority students tend to dropNot
of school.
learning better.
• Many low socio-economic students
not finish
school.score.
> Only
a passing
• Teachers experience unreasonable stress.
• Parents are not sufficiently involved in their child’s school work.
http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/
Dr. Jerry P. Galloway
PROBLEM STATEMENT
… What does it NOT say ? …
• Students are not passing TAKS tests in math.
• Students fall behind in math achievement.
• Students are not learning math well-enough for adulthood.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Not about passing TAKS tests.
Students need excessive remedial
Notinstruction.
Students have to repeat their grade
level. math problem solving.
Minority students tend to dropIndirectly
out of school.
Many low socio-economic students
do not
school.
Indirectly
more/better/too little.
Teachers experience unreasonable-stress.
Parents are not sufficiently involved in their child’s school work.
http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/
Dr. Jerry P. Galloway
PROBLEM STATEMENT
… What does it NOT say ? …
• Students are not passing TAKS tests in math.
• Students fall behind in math achievement.
• Students are not learning math well-enough for adulthood.
•
•
•
•
Students need excessive remedial
Notinstruction.
about passing TAKS tests.
Students have to repeat their grade
level. test scores.
math performance.
Minority students tend to dropNot
of school.
Many low socio-economic students
do notremediation.
finish school.
Not about teaching methods.
Indirectly
• Teachers experience unreasonable
Indirectly about math problem solving.
• Parents are not sufficiently involved in their child’s school work.
http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/
Dr. Jerry P. Galloway
PROBLEM STATEMENT
… What does it NOT say ? …
• Students are not passing TAKS tests in math.
• Students fall behind in math achievement.
• Students are not learning math well-enough for adulthood.
•
•
•
•
Students need excessive remedial instruction.
Students have to repeat their grade level.
Not
policy.
Minority students tend to
drop
outschool
of school.
Notstudents
on teachers.
Many low socio-economic
do not finish
school.
Not about methods of remediation.
scores.
• Teachers experience unreasonable
stress.
Notinvolved
methods.
• Parents are not sufficiently
in their child’s
school work.
Not about students needing special attention.
> About students’ deficiencies.
– pervasive & extreme
http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/
Dr. Jerry P. Galloway
PROBLEM STATEMENT
… What does it NOT say ? …
Not
TAKS tests.
• Students are not passing
TAKS
testspassing
in math.
learning more for life.
• Students fall behind in math
achievement.
May
learning for
• Students are not learning
math
well-enough
grade level demands - quantity / quality.
•
•
•
•
Students need excessive remedial instruction.
Students have to repeat their grade level.
Minority students tend to drop out of school.
Many low socio-economic students do not finish school.
Not about demands on teachers.
Not about demands on schools.
• Teachers experience unreasonable stress.
Not about implications for curriculum.
• Parents are not sufficiently involved in their child’s school work.
Not about becoming drop-outs.
May be about policy & options for
managing students’ remediation.
http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/
Dr. Jerry P. Galloway
PROBLEM STATEMENT
… What does it NOT say ? …
• Students are not passing TAKS
inpassing
math. TAKS tests.
Nottests
• Students fall behind in math
achievement.
Not
• Students are not learning math
well-enough
learning.
Not about urban or low socio-econ.
African American students.
• Students need excessive remedial
instruction.
• Students have to repeat their grade level.
• Minority students tend to drop out of school.
• Many low socio-economic students do not finish school.
 About students’ educational opportunity.
• Teachers experience unreasonable stress.
 About influences that contribute directly.
• Parents are not sufficiently
involved
in their
child’s
school work.
direct
& real
consequences.
http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/
Dr. Jerry P. Galloway
PROBLEM STATEMENT
… What does it NOT say ? …
• Students are not passing TAKS
inpassing
math. TAKS tests.
Nottests
• Students fall behind in math
achievement.
Not
• Students are not learning math
well-enough
learning.
May beinstruction.
about home-environment, family or
• Students need excessive remedial
survival
outside of school.
• Students have to repeat their
level.
• Minority students tend to drop out of school.
• Many low socio-economic students do not finish school.
• Teachers experience unreasonable stress.
 About students’ educational opportunity.
• Parents are not sufficiently involved in their child’s school work.
 About influences that contribute directly.
 About direct & real consequences.
http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/
Dr. Jerry P. Galloway
PROBLEM STATEMENT
… What does it NOT say ? …
• Students are not passing TAKS tests in math.
• Students fall behind in math
Not achievement.
about standardized tests or scores.
• Students are not learningNot
math
well-enough
school policy.
•
•
•
•
Not about quality of students.
Students need excessive Not
remedial
teaching methods.
Students have to repeat Indirectly
level.policy.
social perspectives.
Minority students tend toIndirectly
of school.
Many low socio-economic students do not finish school.
• Teachers experience unreasonable stress.
• Parents are not sufficiently involved in their child’s school work.
 About goals/expectations/assessment of teachers & job consequences.
 About the physiological & affective consequences of experiencing stress.
http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/
Dr. Jerry P. Galloway
PROBLEM STATEMENT
… What does it NOT say ? …
• Students are not passing TAKS tests in math.
• Students fall behind in mathNot
achievement.
studentfor
progress.
• Students are not learning math
well-enough
Not about student learning.
teaching.
• Students need excessive remedial
instruction.
Not school policy or environment.
• Students have to repeat their grade level.
> About parents directly in student
• Minority students tend to droplearning
out of school.
in school & homework.
• Many low socio-economic students do not finish school.
• Teachers experience unreasonable stress.
• Parents are not sufficiently involved in their child’s school work.
http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/
Dr. Jerry P. Galloway
Summary Conclusions…
A research study addresses a Problem… a need – not a curiosity.
•
•
•
•
Everything is related.
Lots of things are problems.
Lots of things influence lots of other things.
Everything has implications for everything else.
A Problem Statement must isolate, within the endless hierarchy of
relationships, a specific problem (bad thing) and reduce or narrow the
scope of the study to only the most immediate and directly related issues.
A Problem Statement defines what is and is not the primary concern of
the study. Answering a research question is your study’s contribute to
problem solution. It does not solve the problem.
http://tech.jerrygalloway.com/
```