Where can we find bacteria? What are bacteria? • Unicellular microorganisms • Different shapes – sphere (coccus), rod (bacillus), spiral • Don’t have a membrane bound nucleus – genetic material is typically in a single circular chromosome What are bacteria? • Found in every habitat on Earth • Approximately 10 times as many bacterial cells as human cells in the human body • First discovered in 1676 using a microscope • First antibiotic developed in 1910 What diseases are caused by bacteria? • Necrotizing faciitis – flesh eating bacteria – Caused by different types of bacteria What diseases are caused by bacteria? • Anthrax – caused by Bacillus anthracis – Unusual because it can form long-lived spores – Has been used as a biological warfare agent and in bioterrorism What diseases are caused by bacteria? • • • • Plague Leprosy Tuberculosis Food poisoning Salmonella Salmonella enterica • Rod–shaped flagellated bacterium • Discovered by American scientist named Daniel Salmon • Infects cattle and poultry (chicken and eggs) • Disease Salmonellosis – included diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps • 40,000 cases reported a year, about 400 people a year die of Salmonellosis • Avoid by not eating raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs Peanut Butter and Salmonella • Salmonella enterica typhimurium recently found in peanut butter products that came from a peanut processing facility • Hundreds have become sick, possibly 6 died as a result E. coli E. coli • Commonly found in lower intestines of warmblooded animals • Most strains are harmless but some cause food poisoning • Harmless strains are part of the normal flora of the gut – they benefit the host by producing vitamin K or by preventing the establishment of harmful bacteria E. coli • Harmful strains produce toxins that cause illness • Illness is associated with eating unwashed vegetables or contaminated meat • Fecal-oral transmission • The illness can be fatal • In 2006, E. coli strain O157:H7 found in spinach • Prevent illness by washing hands, cooking food thoroughly, washing veggies, avoid unpasteurized dairy Is all bacteria bad? • Who likes cheese? Yogurt? – Bacteria is used in dairy processing -Lactobacillus Is all bacteria bad? • Bacteria to clean up oil spills – Bacteria feed on the toxin and break it down – Pseudomonas putida Is all bacteria bad? • Nitrogen fixing bacteria – plants Is all bacteria bad? • Useful in science – molecular biology, genetics, biochemistry • Grow quickly and have simple DNA • Can insert DNA into them and get many copies of it – cloning • Or insert DNA and determine function of a gene or what effect a mutation has What are fungi? • Eukaryotic organisms • Heterotrophs – get their energy from organic materials (do not photosynthesize) • Most are multicellular, some unicellular • Includes yeasts, molds, mushrooms Diseases caused by fungi • Ringworm • Athelete’s foot Are all fungi bad? Fungus Penicillium chrysogenum produces the antibiotic Penicillin Practices to avoid bacteria and fungi • Hand washing • Cooking food properly • Washing fruits and vegetables Practices to avoid bacteria and fungi • What else? Photo Credits • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Slide 1 (Title): http://www.norcalblogs.com/ and http://biology.clc.uc.edu/Fankhauser/Labs/Microbiology/Coliform_assays/Plates_with_Colonies/Ohio_River_0.2m L_MaC_P8011311.jpg Slide 2: http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/shape/shape.html Slide 4: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Necrotizing_fasciitis_left_leg.JPEG Slide 5: http://www.earlham.edu/%7Eyoungsy/anthrax.htm and http://www.semp.us/publications/biot_reader.php?BiotID=324 and http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/anthrax-images/cutaneous.asp Slide 6: http://assets.aarp.org/external_sites/adam/graphics/images/en/19099.jpg Slide 7: http://healthmap.files.wordpress.com/2008/07/siod_salmonella_04.jpg Slide 9: http://www.epicurean.com/articles/images/peanut-butter-sandwich.gif Slide 10: http://www.universityofcalifornia.edu/everyday/agriculture/images/e_coli.jpg Slide 13: http://www.foodmall.org/entry/yogurt-drink-strengthens-nutritional-profile-with-green-tea-extracts/ and http://www.raw-milk-facts.com/images/lactobacillus-brevisMED.jpg Slide 14: http://biologybiozine.com/images/beachCleanup.jpg and http://xoiler.com/image/users/93211/ftp/my_files/OilSpillBeach.jpg Slide 15: http://www.uwsp.edu/geO/faculty/ritter/geog101/textbook/earth_system/nitrogen_cycle_EPA.jpg Slide 18: http://www.theplaceofbeauty.com/pedicurerisks/athletes_foot_danger_smelly.jpg and http://www.microbiologybytes.com/iandi/ipics/Ringworm.JPEG Slide 19: http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/images/pen1.jpg and http://www.sci.muni.cz/mikrob/Miniatlas/images/plisne/kolonie/Penicillium%20chrysogenum%20CCF%202878%2 0CYA%2010-25.jpg Slide 20 and 21: http://scrapetv.com/News/News%20Pages/Specials/Swine-flu-2009/images/washing-hands.jpg and http://www.curebum.com/images/washing_vegetables_fruits.jpg and ??