Body Mechanics Unit 103 Objectives • Recognize principles of appropriate body mechanics, including safety, precautions, body alignment, and body mechanics. 103.1 Body Mechanics • efficient use of body as a machine 103.1 Body Mechanics • Efficient use of body as a machine • Purpose of good mechanics – promotes good musculoskeletal function – reduces required energy – promotes balance – promotes safety of patient and healthcare worker Terms • Alignment – having parts in proper relationship to each other Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Sacrococcygeal Terms • Balance – steady position Terms • Base of Support – area on which object rests Terms • Gravity – force that pulls object toward center of the earth • Center of gravity – area on which mass of object is centered • Line of Gravity vertical line that passes through center of gravity Terms • Center of gravity and balance – for an object/person to be in a stable position, the center of gravity must be above the base of support Posture • position of body • keep feet parallel, flat on the floor, shoulder width apart • bend knees slightly to avoid strain – act as shock absorbers GOOD BAD Proper Posture • pull buttocks in and hold abdomen in, helps keep straight back • hold chest up and slightly forward • hold head erect with face forward and chin slightly in GOOD BAD Body at Work • use longest & strongest muscles (legs)to provide energy • use internal girdle and make a long midriff to protect abdominal muscles • keep feet apart for a wide base of support • push, pull or roll objects when possible Body at Work • Bend at knees and hips, use leg muscles, and keep back straight when lifting Body at Work • Avoid twisting and stretching muscles • Rest between periods of exertion Concepts of Moving a Patient or Object • Friction – force that opposes motion • Force – energy required to accomplish movement • Inertia – tendency of an object at rest to stay at rest and an object in motion to remain in motion Ouch! Concepts of Moving a Patient or Object • Muscle – produce forces that move levers • Fulcrum – a fixed point about which a lever moves • example: elbow Concepts of Moving a Patient or Object • Lever – any one bone or associated joint that acts as simple machine so that force applied to one end tends to rotate the bone in opposite direction Lever Principles of Body Mechanics • USE MIND THEN YOUR MUSCLES – muscles act in groups to perform a function – large muscles fatigue less quickly – muscles are always slightly contracted – stability is greater with a wide base of support, and low center of gravity – adjust work area (beds) to waist level when possible Principles of Body Mechanics – – – – it is easier to push or pull than to lift friction increases work, work on a smooth surface changes in activity or position decrease fatigue use body weight and mechanical devices to decrease effort to include rocking or leaning forward or back – work close to object you are moving – avoid twisting your body Principles of body mechanics • If lifting a heavy object ask for help. • Keep feet 12” apart when lifting. • Rules of good body mechanics apply to moving objects and tranfering patients. Knowledge Assessment • • • • Define alignment and gravity. Discuss center of gravity. List considerations for a body at work. List concepts of moving a patient or an object.