Lang exam Reading Q4

Report
Section A - Reading
Question 4: Language Comparison
Approaching and answering
Question 4
Question 4: Language Comparison
•16 marks
•25 minutes
•You need to COMPARE OR CONTRAST 3 or 4 devices
(techniques, or features) used in two texts
•Analyse the effect of some of these devices; comment on
similarities and differences of the two texts
Language devices used
by non-fiction writers.
Which can we recall? In
a different colour,
suggest a typical effect
of these devices.
Hint: Think about Question 2
Common linguistic devices
• 1st, 2nd or 3rd person
(narrative viewpoint)
• Directly addressing the
reader
• Imperatives
• Rhetorical questions
• Register - Formal/Informal
language
• Diction - Simple/Complex
vocabulary
• Figurative Language &
Imagery: Similes/Metaphor/
Personification etc.
• Word play & puns
• Alliteration
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Rhyme & Rhythm
Anecdote & Allusion
Slogan & Catchphrase
Statistics & Facts
Exaggeration & Hyperbole
Repetition
Humour
Lists
Emotive language
Punctuation type
Expert advice
Short sentences
Superlatives
How is language used for effect?
Language is always used for some kind of effect or other. Often, without commenting
on specific linguistic devices, you can talk about the kind of language a writer uses,
noticing what kind of words are used, or what kind of tone or style is created by
language and structure. Look at these examples…
The writer uses dramatic and violent language in order to describe the
horror of the attack at the end of the extract. Phrases like “chill horror”,
“sudden fear” and “thunderous crack” portray the fear and terror
experienced by the Indians who are attacked.
Powerful words such as “war”, “huge” and “ruining” emphasise and
perhaps exaggerate the seriousness of the issue.
The writer uses a chatty, informal tone, using contractions like “I’m”
“don’t” and “can’t”.
Language is highly descriptive, with adjectives such as “golden” and
“spectacular” conveying the writer’s appreciation for his surroundings.
Some common linguistic devices. What are they?
Example
“According to UK government calculations, 214 of
the most senior eurocrats get paid more than
David Cameron's £178,000 a year.”
“Human lives are nothing but a series of
unfortunate upgrades. Yes, even yours.”
“Starbucks wakes up and smells the stench of tax
avoidance controversy”
“Who's opposing the benefit cap? Who's calling for
a ringfence of council tax benefits for families in
need? Who's arguing to maintain the child tax
credit threshold? Who's fighting against families
being rehoused miles away from their children's
school? Who's calling for more social housing?”
“The ferry was packed with buses, petrol tanks,
vans, land cruisers, jeeps, fuel tankers, cars – and
people.”
Name of Language
Device(s)
Some common linguistic devices. What are they?
Example
Name of Language
Device(s)
“According to UK government calculations, 214 of
the most senior eurocrats get paid more than
David Cameron's £178,000 a year.”
“Human lives are nothing but a series of
unfortunate upgrades. Yes, even yours.”
“Starbucks wakes up and smells the stench of tax
avoidance controversy”
“Who's opposing the benefit cap? Who's calling for
a ringfence of council tax benefits for families in
need? Who's arguing to maintain the child tax
credit threshold? Who's fighting against families
being rehoused miles away from their children's
school? Who's calling for more social housing?”
“The ferry was packed with buses, petrol tanks,
vans, land cruisers, jeeps, fuel tankers, cars – and
people.”
Look out for: statistics and figures, directly addressing the reader, repetition,
alliteration, personification, sibilance, lists, rhetorical questions, humour, exaggeration…
2.
Compare the different ways in which language is used for
effect in the two texts.
Give some examples and analyse what the effects are.
•Actively read the text: You are looking for particular parts of
the text where language creates a certain effect, and serves the purpose of
the article (e.g. to inform, persuade or describe).
•The language question is always the same: It will ask you to compare Text 3
(or ‘Source 3’) with either Text 1 or Text 2.
•Highlight words, phrases, passages, statistics
etc. that will help you answer the question.
•You might like to annotate the texts very briefly with ideas that will
help you answer the question.
3.
Writing up ideas
•Now you’re ready to write up your ideas
•Compare how language is used for effect in
one of the texts, and then the other in each paragraph. Conclude by giving
reasons for similarities / differences.
•Pepper your points with short quotes which give examples of
how language is used for effect. They need to be analysed, as you need to
suggest how these effects are created by the writers.
IN PAIRS
3.
Connective
Firstly
Secondly
Thirdly
As well as this
Furthermore
Moreover
Finally
Lastly
Likewise
Similarly
Unlike
As well as
In contrast to
The author / language in the
text…
advises
argues
builds
connotes
contrasts
conveys
creates
demonstrates
describes
depicts
emphasises
evokes
exaggerates
gives the impression
gives a sense
highlights
informs
Implies
Indicates
Juxtaposes
Narrates
Persuades
Realises
Recognises
Refers to
Reflects
Represents
Reveals
Signifies
Suggests
Symbolises
Shows
Tells
The reader…
(or ‘we’…)
Is made aware
Is informed
Is told
Is shocked /
fascinated /
persuaded /
made to
sympathise etc.
Learns
Discovers
Realises
USEFUL WORDS & PHRASES
Compare the different ways in which
language is used for effect in Everest
the Hard Way and Rafting on the
Grand Canyon.
Give some examples and analyse
what the effects are.
ON YOUR OWN
Question 4: Language Comparison – Sample Mark Scheme

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