Figurative Language

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Figurative Language
Words or expressions that have a meaning that is
different from their literal meaning (what the words
actually say).
Also called “figures of speech”.
6 Types of Figurative Language
Simile
Metaphor
Personification
Hyperbole
Alliteration
Onomatopoeia
1. Simile
A comparison of two UNLIKE things
using the words “like” or “as”.
Example:
Uncle Edgar and Aunt
Agatha ate like hungry
bears.
2. Metaphor
A comparison of two unlike things, this time
WITHOUT using the words “like” or “as”.
A metaphor says one thing IS another.
Look for linking verbs, such as
am
is
was
were
Example:
Uncle Edgar and Aunt
Agatha were hungry bears.
3. Personification
A figure of speech that gives human qualities,
characteristics, or actions to non-living things.
Example:
A cozy fire called to Uncle Edgar
and Aunt Agatha from the living room.
A fire cannot “call” to anyone.
4. Hyperbole
A deliberate exaggeration that is used to for
emphasis or to be humorous, and cannot possibly
be true.
Example:
Uncle Edgar and Aunt Agatha
nearly laughed their heads
off!
5. Alliteration
An repetition of an initial consonant sound
in neighboring words.
REMINDER: consonants are all letters except a, e, i, o, u, and y.
Uncle Edgar and Aunt Agatha
add cheerful chatter to the
conversation.
Why isn’t “Aunt Agatha add”
considered to be alliteration?
Can you figure out WHY NOT?
cheerful chatter is an example
of alliteration because the ch
sound is repeated.
6. Onomatopoeia
Words that imitate the
sound they refer to.
Example:
A blaring Beep! Beep! from the driveway announced that
Uncle Edgar and Aunt Agatha had arrived.
Beep! Beep! imitates the sound of
the car’s horn.
PRACTICE
Can you tell which type of figurative
language is being used?
1. Everyone bustled around like a well-coached team, helping
to clear the dining room table and put away the leftovers.
a. alliteration
b. metaphor
c. simile
d. hyperbole
e. personification
The kitchen was a symphony hall of clanking
and banging eating utensils and dishes being
placed in the dishwasher.
2. What two figures of speech are underlined above?
a. Alliteration and simile
b. Metaphor and hyperbole
c. Personification and alliteration
d. Metaphor and onomatopoeia
e. Alliteration and hyperbole
Leftovers, placed in containers, rested on
refrigerator shelves awaiting a second call to
action later in the evening.
3. Which type of figurative language is used above?
a. simile
b. metaphor
c. personification
d. hyperbole
e. onomatopoeia
After dinner, it was game time and the men sat
on the couch, tilted forward like bits of metal
being pulled like a magnet.
4. What type of figurative language is used?
a. simile
b. metaphor
c. personification
d. alliteration
5. What does the figure of speech suggest?
a.
b.
c.
d.
The men couldn’t see the screen
The men were eager for the game to begin
The men were uncomfortable
The men had poor posture
At half-time, Jenny went to her room,
grabbed her purple plastic
pom-poms, and proceeded to prance
around the room.
6. What figure of speech is used in the sentence above?
a. Onomatopoeia
b. Simile
c. Metaphor
d. Alliteration
e. Personification
“You,” Mom said to Jackson as she
handed him the last piece of pie,
“are a human vacuum cleaner!”
7. Mom’s characterization of Jackson’s appetite is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
a simile
a metaphor
a hyperbole
personification

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