Unit 1: Foundations 8000 B.C.E. – 600 C.E. Development of Agriculture and Early Agricultural Communities Foundations Understanding these things will make your life easier Vocabulary You Need • • • • • • • • Cultural diffusion Demography Intervening obstacles “Marker events” Migrations Periodization Perspective Push and pull factors B.C.E, C.E.? What? • B.C.E. = Before Common Era, replaced B.C. • C.E. = Common Era, replaced A.D. • In B.C.E, the bigger the numbers, the longer ago is happened • In CE, the bigger the numbers, the sooner it happened 8000 B.C.E 7000 B.C.E. 100 B.C.E 1000 C.E. • Example: 8000 B.C.E. happened before 100 C.E. • 2000 C.E. happened AFTER 100 C.E. 2000 C.E. Centuries • When is the 17th century? • 1601-1699 • To figure out what years a century is talking about: • 1. Take the century subtract 1 • Ex: 17th century • 17-1 = 16 • So 17th century = 1600’s • 2. Take the year and add 100 (ignore anything past the first two numbers) • Ex: 1810 • 1810+100 = 1910 • So, 1800s = 19th century Primary Sources vs. Secondary Sources • Primary sources – original evidence from a time period • ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS (excerpts or translations acceptable): Diaries, speeches, manuscripts, letters, interviews, news film footage, autobiographies, official records • CREATIVE WORKS: Poetry, drama, novels, music, art • RELICS OR ARTIFACTS: Pottery, furniture, clothing, buildings • Ex: Diary of Anne Frank, Constitution of the US, weavings and pottery, journal article reporting NEW research and findings Primary Sources vs. Secondary Sources • A secondary source interprets and analyzes primary sources. • Secondary sources may have pictures, quotes or graphics of primary sources in them. • Some types of secondary sources include: PUBLICATIONS: Textbooks, magazine articles, histories, criticisms, commentaries, encyclopedias • Ex: • A journal/magazine article which interprets or reviews previous findings • A history textbook • A book about the effects of WWI Geography, The Physical Environment, and You • Change in borers and civilizations are constant • Physically, world of 4000 B.C.E. looks similar to our world today • Geographical history moves slower than political • Before we began transforming landscapes, physical geography shaped and limited activities Geography, The Physical Environment, and You • Perspective or point of view • We all see our surroundings through the lens of our own time period and culture • People have been making cultural distinctions for years, we have to adjust our cultural perspectives as we go through time, realizing cultural meanings from one era impact those of later eras and that change has been continual Demography • Demography = study of population • Changes in population are important part of how the human story has shape • Population increases and decreases have caused people to move, bringing other ways of life and causing political, social, and economic changes Migrations • Permanent moves to new locations • Occur on local, regional, and global levels • Push factor = encourages people to move from the region they live in • Ex: persecution • Pull factor = attracts people to a new region • Ex: better jobs, more democratic govt • Environmental factors: • Intervening obstacles or physical features that halt or slow migration • Over time, they may have different meanings • Ex: Ocean no longer prevents migration once new technology to cross is develops Cultural Diffusion • When people move, bring culture with them • Cultural diffusion • Includes innovations, technology, religion, language food, clothing styles, disease • Diseases have spread as human interactions have increased • 14th century plague, contagious diseases with the Native Americans • Cannot pin historical migrations to a single “marker event” because they took place gradually over long period of times • Without them, humans might not have survived the early years Agricultural Development and Early Agricultural Communities Vocabulary You Need • • • • • • • • Agriculture Bipedalism Catal Hayuk Cultural diffusion Division of labor Horticulture Independent invention Jericho • Lucy • “Marker events” of pre-history • Neolithic craft industries • Neolithic Revolution • Paleolithic Age • Pastoralism • Polytheism • Specialization • Surplus When is history? • History usually defined as study of past beginning with first systematic written records in the 4th millennium (4000-3000 B.C.E.) • Important developments before this that influenced course of world history • “Marker Event” – development of agriculture and agricultural communities Human Life Before 8000 B.C.E. • Humans existed for millions of years by 8000 B.C.E. • Archaeologists (scientists who study prehistoric and ancient peoples) believe the decisive differentiation between humans and apes occurred between 6-8 million yeas ago • Bipedalism (preference for walking erect on two limbs other than four) make us distinct from other mammals Human Life Before 8000 B.C.E. • Earliest bipedal creature – Ardepithecus ramidus found in Ethiopia in 2001 • All other human species died out except homo sapiens • Surviving human species between 50,000-10,000 years ago Human Life Before 8000 B.C.E. • Primary sources during this period are objects, artifacts, and skeletal remains • Hominids used refined tools 70,000 years ago during the Paleolithic Age (Old Stone Age) • Lasted until about 8000 B.C.E. • Humans inhabited all continents except Antarctica Human Life Before 8000 B.C.E. • Homo sapiens had many advantages • Forelimbs free from walking • Opposable thumbs • A large brain • Not as strong as other species but figured out how to survive Hunting and Gathering • During Paleolithic Age, humans survived by foraging for food – • Hunting for animals • Gathering edible plants • Traveled in small groups (30-50) • Nomadic – constantly moving to follow animals and find new edible plants • Kept people from accumulating possessions or claiming property ownership Hunting and Gathering • Division of labor based on sex • Men hunt • Women gather • No evidence one was considered more important than the other • Survival depended on understanding of environment • Older women had extensive knowledge of plants and passed skills to younger women • Hunters had to make clever traps and figure out ways to hunt animals larger than them Importance Of Tools • Early tools made of: • Wood • Bone • Stone • Few survive today • Tools used to help build huts and eventually to weave cloth. • Allowed them to invent and sustain agriculture Paleolithic Culture • Little is known because of few surviving artifacts • Cave paintings in North Africa, oldest from 32,000 years ago • Some paintings indicate they had well-developed religion • Careful, ritualistic burials • In areas with abundant resources, humans probably only spent 3-5 hours tending to their survival • Rest of time used to make tools, create art, and socialize Neolithic Revolution • Marker event – 8000 B.C.E. (roughly) • Neolithic (New Stone Age) Revolution • Agricultural Revolution • Not a single event, occurred at different times in different parts of the world • Took several generations to truly take hold • Agriculture • Deliberate tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber • Adopted originally to supplement needs Early Horticulture and Pastoralism • Horticulture used only hand tools such as hoes and digging sticks • Pastoralists first domestication of animals but remained seminomadic • Horticulturists first to settle in one place and eventually integrated domestication of animals • Agriculturalists could cultivate larger fields and plows turned soil to increase fertility • Communities grew larger as surpluses grew Domestication of Grains • Middle East has earliest evidence of agriculture • Development of agriculture dependent on availability of grains and animals that could be domesticated in the area • Availability of food may have sped up the process • Food scarce, develop agriculture as an alternative • Plants in Middle East spread through cultural diffusion • People learned from those already farming • Agriculture developed as an independent invention • (No cultural diffusion) • Domesticated rice in China, maize in Mesoamerica, potatoes, squash, tomatoes, and peppers in Peru Domestication of Animals • As people settled down, trained animals to stay put, too • Some more easily domesticated than others • Dogs were probably first • More directly related to development of agriculture: • • • • • • • Domestication of sheep and goats in SW Asia Cows in Eurasia and N. Africa Water buffalo and chickens in China Camels in Arabia and central Asia Horses and pigs in Eurasa Llamas in the Andes Mesoamerica, Sub-Saharan Africa, New Guinea, and Andes had few good animal candidates Neolithic Revolution as a Marker Event • Changes to the way human beings lived: • • • • • • People settled down Division of labor Social inequality Gender inequality Importance of surplus Religious changes People Settled Down • To be near crops, humans settled into villages • Didn’t have to worry about carrying possessions, so started to accumulate goods • Began to claim land as their own • Private property began to define human society Division of Labor • Basic division in hunter/gatherer: • Men hunt • Women gather • People started to see advantages of “specialization” • All work could be done more efficiently Social Inequality • Hunter/gatherer groups usually had relative social equality • Agricultural societies had social distinctions, eventually evolving into social classes • People with more land than others passed it to their children • Some families more “distinguished” than others • Some specializations awarded more respect or material awards • Social inequality increased Gender Inequality • Neolithic Revolution beginning of status distinctions between men and women • Women lost economic power in agricultural societies • Men took over animals and crops, women sent to domestic chores no longer needed for survival Importance of Surplus • Not everyone a farmer anymore • Farmer had to produce a surplus to support him and his family and others in village • Food could be put away for bad periods • Health improved, population increased, more specialization occurred, villages grew • Eventually grew to cities that needed specialized jobs in government Religious Changes • Most agricultural societies developed polytheism • Belief in many gods • “gods” with human characteristics presided over areas important to farmers • Sun gods, rain gods, gods of the harvest, female fertility gods Three Craft Industries • Three craft industries developed as result of Neolithic Revolution: • Pottery • Containers for sharing foods, waterproof • Made by fire-hardening clay • Metallurgy • Copper probably first metal humans shaped into tools and jewelry • By 6000 B.C.E. discovered they could heat to high temperatures and fashioned knives, farm tools, and weapons • Textiles • People wove fibers as early as 6000 B.C.E. • Eventually spun spread and wove into cloth Growth of Towns and Cities • By 4000 B.C.E., villages had grown into towns, and towns into small cities • Jericho on the Jordan River • Catal Huyuk in southern Turkey • Both heavily fortified for protection • Jericho’s houses were surrounded by a ditch and wall almost 12 ft high • Catal Huyuk’s houses were joined together so outside entrances were barricaded and houses could not be invaded • Both relied on trade • Foreshadowing of great civilizations and cities of 4th millennium B.C.E.