Chapter 4 Study Guide

World History
 Chapter
4: First Age of Empires
◦ Section 1: The Egyptian and Nubian Empires
◦ Section2: The Assyrian Empire
◦ Section 3: The Persian Empire
◦ Section 4: The Unification of China
SSWH1: The student will analyze the origins,
structures, and interactions of complex societies in the
ancient Eastern Mediterranean from 3500 BCE to 500
BCE. (Elements b & c)
SSWH2: The student will identify the major
achievements of Chinese and Indian societies from 1100
BCE to 500 CE. (Elements a, b, & d)
Let’s Preview the Chapter…..
Empire Building: Groups from Africa to
China sought to conquer other groups and
spread their influence across vast regions.
These societies built the world’s first great
Question: Use the map on page 87 to locate
the Nile, Tigris, and Euphrates rivers, where
many of early empires arose. Why do you think
the empire builders fought over these regions?
Answer to Question…..
 The
river valleys were fertile
areas and the rivers fostered
transportation and trade.
Let’s Preview the Chapter….
Cultural Interaction: For a long period,
Egypt ruled Kush and the two cultures
interacted. When the Kush Empire conquered
Egypt, therefore, the Kushites adopted many
Egyptian cultural values and ideas.
Question: Study the map and timeline
to tell what other cultures might have
adopted Egyptian values?
Answer to Question…..
Egyptian culture might have influenced
Assyrian, Persian, Mycenaean, Minoan,
Greek, and Roman cultures.
Let’s Preview the Chapter……
Religious and Ethical Systems: After
the warring states period, Chinese
philosophers developed different ethical
systems to restore China’s social order.
 Question: How might China’s location
have affected the spread of the ethical
systems that began there?
Answer to Question……
Chinese ethical systems probably didn’t
spread to empires in Africa or Southwest
Asia because of the distance and natural
barriers separating China and these other
Timeline Discussion
Use the timeline on pages 86 and 87 to
answer the following questions.
 1. How many years passed between
the establishment of the New
Kingdom in Egypt and the conquest
of Egypt by Kush?
 819 Years
Timeline Discussion
 In
what year did the Qin
Dynasty collapse?
 202 B.C.
Timeline Discussion
During this time in history, events in
Persia and Greece were occurring
that would bring the two cultures
into conflict. What was happening in
 In 750 B.C., Greek city-states were
beginning to establish colonies. In
334 B.C., Alexander was starting to
build an empire.
Timeline Discussion
Persia eventually ruled all of the land
controlled by the Assyrian Empire.
Approximately how long after the
rise of the Assyrian Empire did the
Persian Empire flourish?
 300 years
Timeline Discussion
 When
the Minoan civilization on
the Mediterranean island of
Crete ended, what empire
existed nearby?
 Egypt
Section 1 Study Questions and Vocabulary
 Hyksos
Asiatic invaders who swept across the
Isthmus of Suez in chariots.
 They ruled Egypt from about 1640 to
1570 B.C.
 The invasion by the Hyksos shook the
Egyptians’ confidence in the desert
barriers that had protected their
Section 1 Study Questions and Vocabulary
How were the Hyksos driven out of
Around 1600 B.C. a series of warlike
rulers began to restore Egypt’s power.
Among those who helped drive the
Hyksos out was Queen Ahhotep.
There was also Kamose, a pharoah
who won a great victory over the
hated Hyksos. His successors drove
the Hyksos completely out of Egypt
across the Sinai Peninsula into
The Hyksos
Section 1 Study Questions and Vocabulary
Why was the New Kingdom of
Egypt considered the most
wealthiest and powerful?
 This Kingdom was equipped with
bronze weapons and two-wheeled
chariots. This helped the Egyptians
become conquerors. The pharaohs
of this kingdom set up an army
including archers, charioteers, and
infantry or foot soldiers.
New Kingdom of Egypt
Who was Hatshepsut? Why was she considered
one of the most prosperous Egyptian rulers?
An Egyptian woman who declared
herself pharaoh around 1472 B.C.
She took over after her stepson, the
male heir, was a young child at the
time he inherited the throne.
She spent her time as a pharaoh
encouraging trade rather than waging
Her trading expeditions brought things
to Egypt such as ivory, gold, and
unusual plants and animals.
Who was Thutmose III and why was he a
more warlike ruler than Hatshepsut?
Thutmose III
 Hatshepsut’s stepson.
 In his eagerness to ascend to the
throne, he may have murdered his
 He led a number of victorious
invasions eastward into Palestine
and Syria and he also pushed into
Thutmose III
Who was Ramses II?
Ramses II
 Reigned over Egypt’s New Kingdom
from 1290 to 1224 B.C.
 He stood out among the great
builders of the New Kingdom.
 He had a temple built into the red
sandstone cliffs above the Nile River
and had them decorated with
enormous statues of himself.
Ramses II
What were some of the political and
economic effects of Egypt’s conquest?
 Conquest
brought Egypt
riches and cultural
influences. It also brought
conflict with conquered
How did Thutmose III’s and
Ramses II’s empire decline?
 Other strong civilizations
rose to challenge Egypt’s
power. Shortly after Ramses’
death, the entire eastern
Mediterranean suffered a
wave of invasions.
Where is Nubia?
This is a region of Africa that
straddled the upper Nile River.
 Egypt had traded with Nubia and
influenced the region since the time
of the Middle Kingdom.
What are some characteristics
of Nubians?
The Nubians were the people of the
Nubian kingdom of Kush.
 These people lived in southern Egypt
between the first cataract of the Nile and
the division of the river into the Blue and
White Nile.
 These people were great traders.
 Nubians were influenced by Egyptian
priests, soldiers, governors and artists.
What is the relationship
between Nubia and Kush?
The kingdom of the Nubian people
is Kush. Some are called Nubians
and some are called Kushites.
 The Kushites learned Egyptian
language and worshipped Egyptian
 Kushites adopted the customs and
clothing styles of the upper class.
Nubians and Kushites
Why might Kushites have viewed
themselves as guardians of Egyptian
 Nubian
royals and nobles
received their education in
Egypt. When they returned
home, they carried back
Egyptian styles and ideas.
Who is Piankhi?
A Kushite king who overthrew the Libyan
dynasty in 751 BC that had ruled over
Egypt for over 200 years. He united the
entire Nile Valley from the delta in the
north to Napata in the south.
 He and his descendants became Egypt’s
25th dynasty.
 His dynasty was short-lived and
conquered by the Assyrians in 671 BC.
What was the significance of
Meroe? Why did it decline?
After the Assyrians defeated the Kushites
the royal family moved south to Meroe.
 Meroe was located closer to the Red Sea
and became active in trade in Africa and
India. It became a major center for the
manufacture of weapons and tools.
 Meroe declined when it was dominated
by Askum around 350 BC.
Who were the Assyrians?
The people of Assyria acquired a large
empire by means of a highly advanced
military organization and state of the art
 The Assyrians came from the northern
part of Mesopotamia.
 An Assyrian King Sennacherib often
bragged about his conquests and
especially the burning of Babylon.
Who were the Assyrians?
Why did the Assyrians become
so powerful?
Assyria was a society that prided themselves
on military strength. The soldiers were well
equipped making use of the ironworking
Soldiers covered themselves with stiff
leather and metal armor. They wore
copper or iron helmets, padded
loincloths, and leather skirts layered
with metal scales.
Their weapons were iron swords and
iron-pointed spears.
Why did Assyrians become so
 They
used advanced planning and
technological skill to lay siege to
 The Assyrians used techniques such
as pontoons to fight in water, digging
under city walls to weaken their
enemies, and marching soldiers in
shoulder to shoulder formations.(Read
pg. 95-96)
Some of Assyria’s most fearsome warriors
earned reputations as great builders.
 An example – King Sennacherib who had
burned Babylon also established Assyria’s
capital – Nineveh along the Tigris River.
 Nineveh was a great walled city about
three miles long and a mile wide and the
largest city of its day.
Ashurbanipal was one of the last of the
mighty Assyrian kings, famous for creating
one of the world’s largest libraries in
 What caused the decline of the
Assyrian Empire?
 Shortly after his death, Ninevah fell.
 In 612 B.C. a combined army of Medes
and Chaldeans burned and leveled
Who was Nebuchadnezzar and how did he
contribute to the rebirth of Babylon?
After they defeated the Assyrians, the
Chaldeans made Babylon their capital.
 Chaldean king given credit for restoring
the city of Babylon.
 His most famous restoration was the
Hanging Gardens of Babylon.
 His empire fell shortly after his death.
Who was Cyrus? Why was he
called the “Great”?
Persian king who was a military genius
who led his army from victory to victory
between 550 and 539 BC.
 Cyrus’ most enduring legacy was his
method of governing. His kindness
toward conquered peoples revealed a
wise and tolerant king.
 Cyrus was called the great because he
demonstrated compassion in the
conquest and organization of his empire.
Who was Cyrus?
Who was Cambyses? Explain
his rule of Persia.
Cyrus’ son who succeeded to the Persian
throne after his father’s death in 530 BC.
 He expanded the Persian Empire by
conquering Egypt.
 He was not as wise as his father and
scorned Egyptian religion by having all
images of Egyptian gods burned.
 He died after ruling for only 8 years.
Who was Cambyses?
Who is Darius? Why was he an
effective king?
Cambyses’ successor who ruled from 521
to 486 BC. A member of the noble ruling
dynasty who began his career as a
member of the kings bodyguard.
 He was a great warrior, although his real
genius lay in administration.
 He brought peace and stability to the
 He divided his empire into 20 provinces,
called satrapies.
Who is Darius? Why was he an
effective king?
 Each
satrapy was governed by a
satrap or governor who was also
known as the “protector of the
 The satrap had the responsibility of
collecting taxes, providing justice, and
recruiting soldiers.
What was the Royal Road?
The Royal Road was a system of wellmaintained roads dotted with way
stations that provided food, shelter, and
fresh horses that allowed Darius to
communicate quickly with the most
distant parts of the empire.
 The road stretched from Lydia to Susa.
 In this system the Persian king had
exalted power. (pg. 102)
Who is Zoroaster? What did
he teach?
A Persian prophet who offered an answer
to the question of why so much suffering
and chaos existed in the world.
 His religion taught a belief in one god
Ahura Mazda. It was a monotheistic
 Ahura Mazda gave humans the freedom
to choose between right and wrong.
Who is Confucius? What were
his teachings?
Confucius was known to the Chinese as
the “First Teacher”. He was the most
influential Chinese philosopher and scholar
who developed Confucianism or the
system that showed how Confucius was
upset with the violence and moral decay of
his era.
He believed that social order, harmony, and
good government could be restored in
China if society was organized around five
basic relationships.
What were Confucius’
The five basic relationships were:
 Ruler and subject
 Father and son
 Husband and wife
 Older sibling and younger sibling
 Older friend and younger friend
 Three of these relationships were based
on family which was an important part of
Chinese culture.
What is Filial Piety?
Filial Piety is the belief of Confucius
that children should always show
respect for their parents and
 Bureaucracy is a trained civil
service, or those who run the
government, based on Confucius’
belief that education could
transform a humble born person
into a gentlemen.
What is Daoism?
*Daoism was a system of ideas based on
the teachings of Laozi.
*According to tradition, Laozi or the Old
Master lived around the same time as
Confucius. Scholars do not know if Laozi
actually existed, however people associate
him with Daoism. (pg. 105)
The chief ideas of Daoism are
straightforward by not concerning itself with
the meaning of the universe. It sets forth
proper forms of human behavior.
Unlike Confucianism, Daoism
believes that the way to follow the
will of Heaven is not through
action but inaction.
What is Legalism?
Unlike Confucianism and Daoism,
Legalism proposed that human beings
were evil by nature.
 Legalists were referred to as the “School
of Law” because they rejected the
Confucian view that government by
“superior men” could solve society’s
problems. Instead they argued for a
system of impersonal laws.
What is Legalism?
 Legalists
believed in harsh laws
and stiff punishment.
 Legalists always believed that all
people were bad and not capable
of being good.
What is I Ching?
Also spelled Yi Jing is a book (The Book of
Changes) of oracles that solved ethical or
practical problems.
 The book was used by throwing a set of
coins, interpreting the results, and then
reading the appropriate oracle or
 The book helped people lead happy lives
by offering good advice.
What is the concept of Yin and
The concept that two powers together
represented the natural rhythms of life.
 Yin represents all that is cold, dark, soft,
and mysterious.
 Yang represents all that is warm, bright,
hard, and clear.
 The symbol of Yin and Yang is a circle
divided into halves.
 The circle represents the harmony of yin
and yang.
Yin and Yang
What is the Qin (chinh) Dynasty?
 Qin
Dynasty 221 BC to 206 BC.
 Replaced the Zhou Dynasty.
 Short lived dynasty.
 Dynasty created by Qin
Shihaungdi or “The First Ruler”.
Who is Shi Haungdi?
Shi Haungdi or “First Ruler or Emperor”
 Emperor who united China during his
reign. He created a monetary system and
an extensive road system of more than
4000 miles.
 He created irrigation projects that
increased farm production.
 His most elaborate project was the Great
Wall of China.
How did Shi Haungdi crush
political opposition at home?
 To
destroy the power of rival
warlords at home, he introduced a
policy called “strengthening the trunk
and weakening the branches.” He
commanded all the noble families to
live in the capital city under his
suspicious gaze. This policy uprooted
120,000 noble families.
What type of government did
Shi Haungdi create?
 He
created an autocratic
government or a government
that has unlimited power and
uses it in an arbitrary manner.
What were Shi Haungdi’s
major accomplishments?
He created a monetary system and an
extensive road system of more than 4000
 He set the same system of writing, law,
weights and measures.
 He created irrigation projects that
increased farm production.
 His most elaborate project was the Great
Wall of China.
Great Wall of China

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