Agenda • • • • • Bell ringer Go over class work Review Alexander the Great Rome (to Principate) Closure Review • How did Alexander the Great promote Hellenistic culture throughout his empire? Unit 2: Organization and Reorganization of Human Societies (600 B.C.E. – 600 C.E.) ESSENTIAL LEARNING: ROME’S CREATION OF A MEDITERRANEAN EMPIRE (753 BCE-600 CE) Objectives • Assess how Rome’s geographic features contributed to its rise to empire. • Describe the structure of Rome’s government during the Republic. • Assess the reasons for Rome’s expansion. • Describe the social changes that took place throughout Rome’s expansion. • Describe government during the Principate. Essential Questions • How did Rome’s geographic features contribute to its rise to empire? • What was the structure of Rome’s government during the Republic? • What were the reasons for Rome’s expansion? • What social changes took place throughout Rome’s expansion? • What kind of government existed in Rome during the Principate? Where is Italy? Target: Geography • Central location in the Mediterranean Sea – Began in central Italy. – Fertile farmland. • Low mountains – few natural barriers to expansion – Well forested, northwest rich in metals. – Navigable rivers. Target: The Republic (753-31 BCE) • 507 BCE – Senate instituted a republic • Government – Assembly • Male citizens, wealthy votes counted more • Two consuls presided, commanded army, chosen annually – Senate – real center of power, life terms • Advised kings and Consuls, then made policy and governed – Dictator – up to 6 months • Society – Conflict of Orders • Inequalities between patricians (landowning upper class) and plebeians (farmers, merchants, traders) • Twelve Tables (450 BCE) – written laws prevented arbitrary judicial decisions • Creation of tribunes – officials drawn from non-elite classes, could veto actions of the Assembly Twelve Tables • Table I mandates that when a person is accused of something, both accused and accuser must be present at a hearing or trial on the matter. • Table III gives debtors 30 days to pay off a debt. • Table IV makes a man's will binding. • Table VIII lists specific punishments for certain crimes. Most importantly, it says that a person shown to have lied in court will be put to death. • Table IX specifies capital punishment for judges who have taken bribes and for people who have committed treason. • Table XI prohibits a plebeian from marrying a patrician • (http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/articles/worldhistory/twelvetables.htm) – Family – several living generations, domestic slaves • Paterfamilias had absolute authority – Patron/client relationships – Women played no public role • Could not own property or represent herself legally • Eventually more personal protection and economic freedom – Polytheistic religion • • • • Numina – invisible forces Other gods more important (Jupiter, Mars) Pax deorum (“peace of the gods”) Took over the myths attached to Greek gods Target: Expansion in Italy and the Mediterranean • Potential reasons for expansion – Greed and aggressiveness – Consuls – one year to gain military glory – Defense • Well-disciplined, well-trained army – Male citizens with specified amount of land • Treated conquered people fairly – Often granted some or all privileges of Roman citizenship – Conquered lands supplied soldiers and taxes • Cooperative groups given more autonomy • Punic Wars – Rome vs. Carthage – Hannibal – Third Punic War – Rome destroyed Carthage, took slaves • Senators sent as governor to each province annually – defended, oversaw tax collection, decided legal cases. Target: Failure of the Republic and Transition to Empire • Wealth – upper classes • Farmers replaced by latifundia (“broad estates”) • Cheap slave labor = peasants lived in poverty in cities • Fewer peasant farmers = fewer military men, propertyless men began to serve • 88-31 BCE – series of ambitious men commanded armies loyal to them – Julius Caesar took control • Reforms made him popular • Assassinated by members of the Senate Target: The Roman Principate (31 BCE330 CE) • Octavian (63 BCE-14 CE) – Fundamentally changed realities of power – Expanded territory – Allied himself with the equites, well-to-do Italian merchants and landowners • After Augustus, the Senate confirmed emperors, but in reality chosen by armies – By 100 CE, emperors hand-picked a successor – Future emperors exercised authority more blatantly • Law – Emperors were major source – Class of legal experts studied and organized – Property and rights of individuals – Foundation of European law • Rural Rome – 80% farmed – Little contact with government – Tenant farmers cultivated land in return for portion of crops • Urban Rome – Wealthy in elegant townhouses, poor in crowded slums • Commerce – Some urban Romans rich – Helped by the pax romana (“Roman peace”), increased trade • Romanization and citizenship – Spread of Latin language and Roman culture – Citizenship gradually granted to those outside Italy Essential Questions • How did Rome’s geographic features contribute to its rise to empire? • What was the structure of Rome’s government during the Republic? • What were the reasons for Rome’s expansion? • What social changes took place throughout Rome’s expansion? • What kind of government existed in Rome during the Principate? Agenda Review • How did Rome’s geographic features contribute to its rise to empire? • What was the structure of Rome’s government during the Republic? • What were the reasons for Rome’s expansion? • What social changes took place throughout Rome’s expansion? • What kind of government existed in Rome during the Principate? Objectives • Describe the rise of and major beliefs of Christianity. • Describe the achievements attained by Rome during the Pax Romana. • Evaluate the causes of the fall of the Roman Empire. Essential Questions • What are the major beliefs of Christianity and how did it expand under the Roman Empire? • What achievements did Rome attain during the Pax Romana? • Why did the Roman Empire fall? Target: The Rise of Christianity • Romans conquered Jewish homeland of Judea in 6 CE – Roman governors caused resentment – Jews waited for the Messiah • Jesus – Called himself the son of God – Believed in the Jewish idea of one god, accepted 10 Commandments – Claimed he was "Christ” – Caught the attention of the Jewish authorities • Crucified. • His followers, Apostles, spread teachings. • Christianity grew for more than 200 years – Many women, slaves, and urban poor were first converts • Monotheistic – refusal to worship the emperor seen as disloyalty, persecuted by Roman officials • Holy book – The Bible Target: Pax Romana (27 BCE- 180 CE) • Expansion of Roman Empire resulted in blending of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman cultures (Greco-Roman civilization) Examples of Roman Achievements • Adapted the realistic Hellenistic style of statues • Architecture • Over 250,000 miles of road • Also had bridges, harbors, and aqueducts • Influenced laws in Europe and America. The Pantheon aqueducts Roman Mosaics Why is Windsor a good district? What if… • All districts in the surrounding area join the district, but only Mr. Andrews is the superintendent? • What issues do you foresee becoming a problem? • How do you solve these problems? Target: Fall of the Roman Empire • Causes of the fall of Rome – Taxes too high – Many corrupt people in government – Poor farmers left land for protection of stronger landowners – People become lazy – Roman army lacks discipline, Romans forced to hire foreign soldiers to defend borders – Barbarian invasions • Third-Century Crisis (235-284 CE) – Offensive to defensive strategy – Frequent leadership change – Buying army loyalty drained treasury, high taxes, coins disappeared into emperors’ pockets – Population shifted to countryside • Bread and circuses • Diocletian gained power in 284 – Divided empire into two parts – Set maximum prices – Froze people into “essential” professions • Constantine (r. 306-337 CE) – Edict of Milan (313) – ended persecution of Christians, granted freedom of religion • Christianity later became the official religion – Transferred capital from Rome to Byzantium (324) • Renamed Constantinople • End of Rome – Two halves of the empire followed different pathways after the transfer of the capital – Western Empire ended in 476 when Romulus Augustulus abdicated • Eastern Empire, Byzantine, could continue to flourish for 1000 years Essential Questions • What are the major beliefs of Christianity and how did it expand under the Roman Empire? • What achievements did Rome attain during the Pax Romana? • Why did the Roman Empire fall?