Part 2: The Formation of Classical Societies, 500 B.C.E. to 500 C.E.

Part 2: The Formation of Classical
Societies, 500 B.C.E. to 500 C.E.
1. During the time of the Aryans the Indians political
landscape had been characterized by
• a series of small kingdoms
2. In 124 B.C.E. Han Wudi transformed
China by
• establishing an imperial university
3. The Han philosophy of rule was
• a continuation of Qin policies with a return of
Confucian values
4. The dividing line between the Early
Han and the later Han is marked by
• the rule of Wang Mang
5. All of the following were policies of
Qin Shihuangdi’s rule EXCEPT
• support of traditional learning
6. The first ruler to unite all of China
• Shihuangdi
7. Shang Yang and Han Feizi hoped to
control China’s subjects by
• clear and strict laws
8. The Chinese concept filial piety, which was central to
the family structure, was best expressed by the concept
• xiao
9. The Daoist thinkers spoke of wuwei,
which stood for
• disengagement from the affairs of the world
10. Which group posed the greatest
military threat to the Han?
• Xiongu
11. The philosophy of Confucious
• formed a thoroughly practical and secular
approach to life
12. The Qin and Han dynasties
• went further than the Persian emperors in
their efforts to foster cultural unity
13. The major early turning point in
the rise of the Persian empire was the
• victory of Cyrus over Lydia
14. Which of the following lists of Persian
empires is correct chronologically?
• Achaemenids, Seleucids, Parthians, Sasanids
15. The Medes and Persian were
• Indo-European tribes
16. Darius adopted the idea of a standardized
government-issued coinage from the
• Lydians
17. In 325 C.E., the Council of Nicaea
• decided that Jesus possessed both human and
divine natures
18. St. Augustine made Christian thought more
appealing to the educated classes by
harmonizing it with _____ philosophy.
• Greek
19. In 380 C.E., Christianity was proclaimed
the official religion of the Roman Empire by
the emperor
• Theodosius
20. Chaos threatened the western portion of the Roman Empire
in the mid fifth century when Germanic tribes poured into the
Roman Empire for protection from the
• Huns
21. The Roman Empire was divided into
two parts by
22. The term “sinicization” refers to the
spread of Chinese culture.
23.With the collapse in political order after the fall of the
Han empire,
Daoism and Buddhism became much more popular.
24. All of the following are causes for the
decline of classical societies in East Asia and
the Mediterranean EXCEPT the
spread of Christianity and Buddhism.
25. The prophet who promoted a syncretic blend
of Zoroastrian, Christian, and Buddhist elements
into a religious faith that would serve the needs
of a cosmopolitan world was
26. The fact that by the first century C.E.
Southeast Asian kings called themselves
rajas shows how they were influenced by
27. Buddhism was spread to China by
merchants and nomads.
28. The land route of the Silk Roads ran
from the Han capital of _________ to the
Mediterranean port of __________.
Chang'an; Antioch
29. One of the most dangerous spots along
the Silk Roads was the __________ desert,
which means “he who enters does not come
back out.”
30. A key element in establishing trade across
the Indian Ocean was
mastering the monsoon system.
31. The information that Zhang Qian brought
back encouraged Han Wudi to destroy the
Xiongnu and
take control of the Silk Roads.
32. The Buddha believed that
salvation came from
leading a balanced and moderate life.
33. The greatest social implication of Jainist
thought was
their rejection of social hierarchies based on
34. One of the biggest transformations of
the caste system during this period was the
elimination of the brahmins as a caste.
35. One of the most pronounced examples of
patriarchal dominance in ancient India was
the common practice of child marriage.
36. Politically the Guptas
left local government and administration in the
hands of their allies.
37. One of the biggest financial problems that
plagued the later Mauryan period was their
decision to
B) debase their currency.
38. The rock and pillar edicts were
issued by
E) Ashoka.
39. The first ruler to unify India was
C) Chandragupta Maurya.
40. The classic Persian approach to governing a
large empire was
E) All of the above.
41. For his decision to allow them to return to
their capital city and rebuild their temple, the
Persian king, Darius, received high praise from
D) Jews.
42. Which of the successors to the Persians
claimed direct descent from the Persians
and recreated much of the culture and
splendor of the Achaemenid empire?
D) Sasanids
43. The social structure of the Medes,
early Persians, and Parthians was very
similar to
C) the Aryans.
44. What development was most critical in
undermining the warrior elite and the clan-based social
structure of early Persian society?
A)the growth of an administrative bureaucracy
45. All of the following tenets of Zoroastrian
influenced later religions EXCEPT
C) the view of the material world as a place of
temptation that had to be ignored.
46. The words “good words,
good thoughts, good deeds”
were used to sum up the view
of morality of the
B) Zoroastrians.
47. The belief in a day of judgment,
which will determine whether
individuals go to a paradise or
punishment in hell, was originally
developed in which of the
following religions?
48. The Mycenaeans received
early indirect influence from
the Egyptians and Phoenicians
through their contact with the
49. All of the following events occurred during
the time of Pericles EXCEPT
E) Greeks established colonies throughout the
50. Which of the Hellenistic
philosophers considered all
human beings to be members
of a single, universal family?
C) Stoics
51. In which polis did
women have the most
B) Sparta
52. Later Christian scholastic
philosophers referred to this
man as “the master of those
who know.”
C) Aristotle
53. The most important
port in the Hellenistic
world was
A) Alexandria.
54. The political structure of the ancient
E) usually consisted of independent,
autonomous city-states.
55. During its early history, Rome
was dominated by the
D) Etruscans.
56. The period known as the
pax romana started with the
rule of
C) Augustus.
57. In regards to level of toleration
and respect for conquered parts of
the empire, the Romans were most
similar to the
C) Persians.
58. The turning point in Roman
history was the Roman victory in
the Punic Wars against the
A) Carthaginians.
59. The leading figure in
the expansion of
Christianity beyond
Judaism was
B) Paul of Tarsus.
60. All of the following were foundations of Roman
law EXCEPT the principle that
C) conquered peoples had the right to administer
their own laws.
61. “Many of us are dying in this epidemic—that is many of us are being
liberated from the world. The epidemic is a pestilence for the Jews and
pagans and the enemies of Christ, but for the servants of God it is a
welcome event. True, without any discrimination, the just are dying
alongside the unjust, but you should not imagine that the evil and the
good face a common destruction. The just are called to refreshment,
while the unjust are herded off to punishment: the faithful receive
protection, while the faithless receive retribution.”
St Cyprian, 3rd century C.E.
The author of the passage above believes
A)that Christians have nothing to fear from the epidemic.
62. “Of these Twin Spirits, the Evil One chose to do the worst;
While the bountiful Holy Spirit of Goodness,
Clothing itself with the mossy heavens for a garment, chose the Truth;
And so will those who [seek to] please Ahura Mazda with
Righteous deeds, performed with faith in Truth…
And when there cometh Divine Retribution for the Evil One,
Then at Thy command shall the Good Mind establish
The Kingdom of Heaven, O Mazda,
For those who will deliver Untruth into the hands of Righteousness and
The Gathas
The quote above represents beliefs and gods from which major religion?
“You, sir, look at the caste and not the
inherent qualities of monks. Haughty,
deluded, and obsessed with caste, you
harm yourself and others.”
The social values expressed in the quote
above are consistent with which of the
following religions?
I. Jainism
II. Buddhism
III. Hinduism
D)I and II only
64. When Krishna tells Arjuna in the
Bhagavad Gita, “Having regards to your
own duty, you ought not to falter, for there
is nothing better for a kshatriya than a
righteous battle,” he is referring to what
Hindu principle?
B) Dharma
65. “The Master said, ‘He who exercises government by means
of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star which
keeps its place, while all the stars turn toward it’ . . . ‘If the
people be led by laws, and uniformity be imposed on them by
punishments, they will try to avoid punishment, but will have
no sense of shame’ . . . ‘If they be led by virtue, and uniformity
be provided for them by the rules of propriety, they will have
the sense of shame, and moreover will become good’ . . .
‘When a prince’s personal conduct is correct, his government is
effective without the issuing of orders. If his personal conduct is
not correct, he may issue orders, but they will not be
The quotation above represents which philosopher’s ideology
on the proper way of ruling a state?
66.“Ye have heard that it hath been said, ‘An eye for an eye, and a tooth
for a tooth.’ But I say unto you that ye resist not evil: but whosoever
shall smite thee on the right cheek, turn to him the other also. And if
any man will sue thee at the law, and take away thy coat, let him have
thy cloak also. And whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with
him two. Give to him that asketh thee, and from him that would borrow
of thee turn not thou away.”
Jesus Christ
Sermon on the Mount
The moral philosophy expressed in the above passage is most consistent
with that expressed in
67. The army of terracotta figures
shown above was found in the
tomb of
C)Emperor Shihuangdi.
68. The temple complex shown
atop the hill in the picture above is
located in
69. Which region was NOT ruled by the Mauryan Empire?
70. The existence of such a sophisticated network of roads, as seen
in the map above, suggests that the Roman Empire
D)used roads to integrate distant territories and frontier regions
into their empire.
The map above depicts
D)Major overland and maritime trade routes during the Classical
72. Define Hellenism, identify its
geographical, social, and cultural
boundaries, and describe its influence
on societies beyond its frontiers.
73. Discuss the role played by large
infrastructure projects such as roads,
aqueducts, flood control and irrigation
projects, defensive walls and fortifications,
etc. on the formation of states and empires.
74. Describe two major routes of the Classical
World and list the products exchanged by the
various regions they served.
75. Compare and contrast the philosophies and
cultural legacies of Confucious and Socrates in
their respective societies.
76. Compare and contrast the state-building
policies of two of the following sets of classical
empires and assess their effectiveness.
Persia and Gupta India (or)
Han China and Rome
77. Compare and contrast the causes and
consequences of the collapse of the two of
the following empires.
Han China, Gupta India, Rome
78. Describe and explain the emergence and
spread of religious of salvation in the Roman
Empire and India during the Classical Era.
79. Compare the unification of India with the
unification of China under the Qin and Han
dynasties, and in the southwest Asia under
the Assyrians and Persians.
80. Describe and analyze the expansion of longdistance trade routes during the classical era,
and assess the economic, cultural, and
biological impact of this expansion in trade on
two of the following societies.
Han China
Roman Empire
81. To what extent and in what ways did the
Mediterranean Basin become economically
and culturally integrated during the Hellenistic
82. Analyze the following documents. Compare and contrast the
authors’ assumptions about human nature and the moral percepts
their philosophies have for individuals and their relationships with
others in their societies.
Document A
“O ye Mortals, mark these commandments –
The commandments which the Wise Lord has given,
for happiness and for pain.
Long punishment for the evil-doer, and bliss for the follower of truth
The joy of salvation for the righteousness ever afterwards!”
The Divine Songs of Zarathustra
Document B
“The Master said, ‘If the people be led by laws, and uniformity be imposed on
them by punishments, they will try and avoid the punishment, but will have no
sense of shame… If they be led by virtue, and uniformity be provided for them
by rules of propriety, they will have a sense of shame, and moreover will
become good… When a prince’s personal conduct is correct, his government is
effective without the issuing of orders. If his personal conduct is not correct,
he may issue orders, but they will not be followed.”
The Analects
Document C
“The highest goodness is like water, for water is excellent in benefitting all
things. And it does not strive. It occupies the lowest place. Which men
abhor. And therefore it is also akin to the dao… The greater the number of
laws and enactments. The more thieves and robbers there will be.
Therefore the Sage [Laozi] says: ‘So long as I do nothing, the people will
work out their own reformations. So long as I love calm, the people will
right themselves. If only I am free from desire, the people will come
naturally back to simplicity….”
Document D
“As a man casting off old clothes, puts on others and new ones, so the
embodied self, casting off old bodies, goes to others and new ones… Your
business is with action alone, not by any means with the fruit of the
action. Let not your attachment be fixed on inaction. Having recourse to
devotion, perform actions, casting off all attachment, and being equable is
success of ill success.”
Bhagavad Gita
Document E
“Yet I have one request to make them [his judges]. When my sons grow up,
visit them with punishment, my friends, and vex them in the same way
that I have vexed you if they seem to you to care more for riches or for
anything other than virtue: and if they think that they are something when
they are nothing at all, reproach them as I have reproached you for not
caring for what they should and for thinking that they are great men when
in fact they are worthless. And if you will do this, I myself and my sons will
have received our deserts at your hands.”
Plato, The Apology
Document F
“Ye have heard that it hath been said, ‘Thou shalt love thy neighbor, and hate
thine enemy.’ But I say unto you, love your enemies, bless them that curse
you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully
use you and persecute you, that ye may be the children of your Father
which is in heaven, for he maketh this sun to rise on evil and on the good,
and sendth rain on the just and on the unjust…”
Matthew 5:3-13, 5:38-45, 7:7-12

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