here

Report
Meanwhile…
Greek theology
Zoroastrianism
c
Taoism and Confucianism
Judaism
Hinduism and Buddhism
c. 2200 BCE
Yellow River
Shang and Xia dynasties
(ancient China)
c. 3000 BCE
Indus River Valley
Harappan/Vedic
(ancient India)
Indus River Valley and Ancient “India”
Ancient India in relation to China
Ancient India in relation to Mesopotamia
Ancient India
Indus River Valley and Ancient “India”
Earliest major settlements and cities
Indus River Valley and Ancient “India” – Bronze Age
Rigveda composed
c. 15oo bce
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro emerge
c. 26oo bce
3300 bce
Early Harappan
1300 bce
Mature Harappan
Late Harappan
c. 3300 bce – 2600 bce
c. 2600 – 1900 bce
c. 1900 – 1300 bce
Old Kingdom [Egypt]
c. 2700 – 2181 bce
Akkadian Empire
c. 2300 – 2100 bce
Middle Kingdom [Egypt]
c. 2134 – 1690 bce
New Kingdom [Egypt]
c. 1549 – 1069 bce
Babylonian Empire
c. 2000 - 1750
 Assyrian Empire
c. 930 – 600 bce
 Persian/Achaemenid
c. 549 – 330 bce
Indus River Valley and Ancient “India” – Bronze Age
Mohenjo-Daro
“Pashupati” seal
“Horned-God” Seal
“Bison Seal”
Indus River Valley and Ancient “India” – Bronze Age
Mohenjo-Daro
“Priest-King” figure
Indus River Valley and Ancient “India” – Bronze Age
Mohenjo-Daro
“Dancing Girl”
Harappa
Female Figures
Indus River Valley and Ancient “India” – Bronze Age
Mohenjo-Daro
Urban Planning and Architecture
Indus River Valley and Ancient “India” – Bronze Age
Mohenjo-Daro
Urban Planning and Architecture
Indus River Valley and Ancient “India”
Vedic Period – 1500 – 500bce
(the period during which the Vedas were
composed)
3300 bce
1500bce__
__________________500bce___
Late Harappan
c. 1900 – 1300 bce
Rigveda composed
c. 15oo bce
The Vedas
Would become the
sacred texts of Hinduism
c. 1500 BCE- 500 BCE.
 written in SANSKRIT.
Religious breakdown in India, 2011
Hinduism, at least
3500 years old by
2011, still
dominates the
religious
perspectives of
Indians in the 21st
century
But thought
dominant,
Hinduism is
certainly not the
only religion
practiced. The
relationship
between Hindus,
Muslims,
Christians, Sikhs,
Jains, and
Buddhists in India
has greatly affected
the history of the
region.
The long history of religious difference as a source of conflict in India—here are some images
of twentieth-century conflicts
Anti-Sikh riots, 1984
Aftermath of “Direct Action Day”
conflict between Hindus and Muslims,
1947
Noted penned by Mahatma Gandhi, 1927
Although written in 1927, how do Gandhi’s sentiments that “God is truth,” that
truth exists, and that it can be approached through “ahimsa” or non-violence,
relate to the Axial Age?
Rituals and traditions of Hinduism still practiced today
Indus River Valley and Ancient “India” – Iron Age
Maurya Empire begins
c. 321 bce
Nanda Empire begins
c. 424 bce
1300 bce
1bce
Kurukshetra War [Kauravas vs.Pandavas]
c. 900 bce
Portrayal of Kurukshetra War, c. 1820
Nanda Empire ends
c. 321bce
Maurya Empire
ends
c. 185 bce
Map of Kuru
The conflict between the Kauravas and Pandavas serves as a central myth in Hindu literature.
Indus River Valley and Ancient “India” – Iron Age
Mahajanapadas were
16 politically distinct
regions in ancient
India. They were a
middle ground
between isolated citystates and an
integrated empire.
They are similar to
what we call
“kingdoms” in other
regions of the world.
Indus River Valley and Ancient “India”
Social Distinctions and The Vedas
Indus River Valley and Ancient “India” – Iron Age
Indian Iron Age, c. 1300 – 1 bce
Nanda Empire begins Maurya Empire begins
c. 321 bce
c. 424 bce
1300 bce
1 bce
Kurukshetra War [Kauravas vs.Pandavas]
c. 900 bce
Nanda Empire ends
c. 321bce
Maurya Empire
ends
c. 185 bce
Nanda Empire
right before it
ends, 323 bce
Indus River Valley and Ancient “India” – Iron Age
Mauryan Empire
•Founded in 320 by Chandragupta Maurya
•Capital city: Pataliputra
•Chandragupta overthrew the Nanda Empire
•Key Rulers:
-Chandragupta
-Bindusara
-Ashoka (ruled: c. 269 – 232)
Indus River Valley and Ancient “India”
– Iron Age
Spread of Maurya Empire under Chandragupta Maurya
The Nanda Empire, 323 bce
The Maurya Empire conquers parts of Persia, 305 bce
The Maurya Empire, 321 bce
The Maurya Empire spreads south, 300 bce
Indus River Valley and Ancient “India” – Iron Age
Religion and Politics in the Mauryan Empire
Ashokan Edicts by location
After ruling ruthlessly for 9 years,
Ashoka had a crisis in 260 bce. In
that year, he waged a war against the
Indian state of Kalinga, a war that
was particularly brutal. Though he
won the war, Ashoka was filled with
guilt and horror after realizing the
atrocities he and his armies
committed. He then decided to
convert to Buddhism, and then
developed a campaign for
promoting Buddhism within the
empire. Part of this campaign was
his issuing of the “Ashokan Edicts,”
which he had carved in various
stones and placed throughout the
empire.
How might these edicts apply to
Ashoka himself ? Or, in other
words, in what ways is Ashoka
willingly limiting his political
power as a result of his religious
beliefs?
Worth noting that the conflict of the battle of Kalinga led to Ashoka’s conversion
Indus River Valley and Ancient “India” – Iron Age
Religion and Politics in the Mauryan Empire
Hinduism:
The last “Vedic” text
composed c. 500 bce
Ashoka becomes emperor, c. 269
Mauryan Empire begins
c. 321 bce, under Chandragupta
Ashoka issues his Buddhist “Edicts”
600 bce
185 bce
Buddhism:
Siddharta Gautama (the Buddha)
born sometime between
563 bce and 483 bce
Battle of Kalinga, c. 260
Mauryan
Empire ends
185 bce
Ashoka dies, 232 bce
Nanda Empire ends
c. 321bce
Key:
In blue = religious event
In black = political event
In red = both political and religious
Buddhism:
Ashoka, ashamed of the violence caused
by waging the war, converts to Buddhism.
Buddhism adopted as state religion

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