Applying Music to Earth Literacy Studies Health Sense of place Understanding the natural world will help us achieve sustainability But knowledge is not enough; we need to change behavior We need a personal connection The body of skills and knowledge that fosters sustainable, peaceful, and thriving communities . It includes the following: Knowledge of science (scientific principles and the scientific method ) coupled with knowledge of nature’s signs and symbols gained through first-hand experience Awareness of interdependence on multiple scales, including ecological, societal, and global Understanding that biological diversity is tied to ecological resilience and the processes that sustain all life (including human) Understanding that ecological integrity nourishes social equity and environmental justice Recognizing that all life is intimately connected to, and emerges from, Earth and ultimately the Universe itself Respecting the integrity, resilience, and beauty of human and natural communities while incorporating reflection and reverence into one’s way of life Prominent thinkers believed that music is a fundamental element of nature, linked to the functioning of the cosmos, while also providing a connection between humans and the natural world. The Greek mathematician Pythagoras (circa 560-circa 480 BCE) Mathematical relationships http://www.myastrologybook.com/Pythagoras-music-of-the-spheres.htm express qualities or ‘tones' of energy which manifest in numbers, visual angles, shapes and sounds – all connected within a pattern of proportion (Wikipedia). Plato (427-347 BCE) described music as something that establishes and perfects the inherent connection between the human soul and that of the cosmos Wrote that music helps to "bring order to any orbit in our souls that has become unharmonized" . http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/plato/index.htm The Chinese philosopher, Confucius (551-479 BCE), thought that music was http://www.toomanymornings.com/?attachment_id=9291 necessary to maintain order in both human society and the cosmos. http://humanexperience.stanford.edu/supere Some historians feel that, particularly during the 18th-century Enlightenment, there was an increasing "disenchantment" of nature associated with the rise of "objective" scientific study. This may have lessened the degree to which music was seen as a fundamental part of nature. Also around this time, the critical interpretation of music shifted into divergent paradigms: a subject to be scrutinized by scientific methods, an artistic form of expression The philosophical separation of artistic and scientific interpretations of music persist in modified form today. http://sangaycholdenduba.blogspot.com/2012/04/duality.html The dualistic interpretation of music can be compared to the general shift in attitude about the relationship between humans and the natural world. The Scientific Revolution (circa 1500-1800) is often considered a time of increasing disenchantment of humans with nature one result has been our exploitative relationships with the nature The plea by modern environmentalists to re-establish a deep connection between humans and the natural world is echoed by some musicians, who seek a re-enchantment of music and nature. Lyrics can be informative Can stimulate interest Enhance perceptions of the value of the natural world, especially when nature itself is recognized as being musical. A point of connection between humans and the natural world. Inspire environmental action and advocacy while also helping to foster empathy for the natural world. educational songs Rosie Emory, “Recycling Boogie” Dana Lyons and John Seed, “Expanding universe” Dana Lyons and John Seed, “Have to Have a Habitat “ Dana Lyons and John Seed “The Tree” songs of place Grant Livingston, “Melaleuca” Grant Livingston, “The Voice of the River” Woody Guthrie, “This Land is Your land” historical songs Woody Guthrie, “Dusty Old Dust (So Long It’s Been Good to Know You)” Woody Guthrie, “Oregon Trail” Natural sounds may be considered music too Acknowledgement of nature as a musical entity helps to raise its standing, providing additional justification of its intrinsic value, and reasons for its preservation. http://www.impactlab.net/2012/04/19/top-10-photos-of-the-week-225/ Some animals have aural displays that are rhythmic, melodious, integral to their behavior and social system, and also pleasing to the human ear. Examples include: many birds, such as the American robin cetaceans, such as the humpback whale primates, including gibbons and the howler monkey the howling of wolves and coyotes the croaks, trills, and rhythmic phrases of frogs and toads insects, such as crickets and cicadas http://www.warble.com/BahaiArtGallery/HTML/CarolynGillies/EarthMusic13.html Many abiotic sounds might also be considered musical the rhythmic splashing of waves the pattering of rain the thunder of lightning the rustling of wind in foliage. Beethoven's Symphony Number 6, the Pastoral, was partly inspired by walks in the countryside. Its five movements relate to natural themes "Scene by the Brook" (2nd movement) "Thunderstorm" (4th movement). Both have melodies inspired by natural sound, including birds, running water, raindrops, and thunder. http://enjoylife.mx/wordpress2/beethoven-maennerchor&page=4 "New Age" music involves a fusion of natural sound and the music of humans. Dan Gibson accompanies bird song and other natural sounds with classical and modern music. “Into the sun” Such a fusion of natural and anthropogenic music represents a connection between humans and nature perhaps making it more difficult for the former to justify exploiting the latter. http://www.mp3mixx.com/artists/view/dan_gibsons_solit udes-254965 The natural world, even the universe itself, may be viewed as music Music helps us connect to nature on a personal level The sounds of nature are also music Music may be used in nature teaching as a learning tool Now, let’s write a song! Turner, Kate and Freedman, Bill. Music and Environmental Studies. Journal of Environmental Education 36.1 (Fall 2004).