Buddhism 430 BCE- 1800 CE Haley Fica- Ms. Jolle Sarah Dotson- Coach Floyd Buddhist art also includes swastikas. Tibetan Art Dharma Wheel in Architecture Feet of Buddha The Four Noble Truths This map shows the spread of Buddhism to 600 CE. This is a statue heard of King Asoka of India. This is a statue of the Buddha that is located in Nepal, where he was born. These are modern day Buddhist monks. Below you will find different Buddhist symbols. Buddhist Temple in India. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Chronology 563 BCE: Siddhartha Guatama, Buddha, is born 528 BCE: Buddha’s enlightenment 543-479 BCE: 1st Buddhist Council gathers to recite all of Buddha’s teachings 483 BCE: Buddha dies 433-379 BCE: 2nd Buddhist Council gathers to discuss controversial points in Vinaya, Buddhist teachings. Mahayana Buddhism begins to separate from original teachings. 399 BCE: Buddhism enters Korea 322-185 BCE: Buddhism enters North India 268 BCE: Emperor Ashoka builds rock pillars with the first written words of Buddhism 247 BCE: Buddhism enters Sri Lanka, 3rd Buddhist Council Meeting 200 BCE- 200 CE: Mahayana Buddhism begins to form 100’s BCE: Mahayana Buddhism establishes its own school 94 BCE: 4th Buddhist Council 1st century CE: Theravada Buddhism established in Thailand and Burma by monks from Sri Lanka 538 CE: Buddhism enters Japan 641 CE: Buddhism enters Tibet 11-13th Centuries: Buddhism declines due to Islam 1196 CE: Invaders burn Buddhist manuscripts and study center at Nalanda, killing thousands of monks. 1210-1526 CE: Attacks on Buddhist centers/ monasteries 1300 CE: Buddhism enters Thailand 1360 CE: Buddhism enters Laos Pirates- Eurasia (Tibet) Politics: Buddhism in Eurasia did not directly effect politics. Technology: Technology in Eurasia was not directly effected by Buddhism. Intellectual Innovations:Atisha-di-Pankhara presented the Buddhist philosophy in a very clear and condensed manner, which became the basis for philosophical teachings in most Tibetan traditions. Economy: In the 8th century AD, the first of many missionary monks arrived, and the country's first monastery was established in 787AD. During this time the population grew from the missionaries, affecting their economy. Religion: The successors of Songtsän Gampo were less enthusiastic about the propagation of Buddhism but in the 8th century, King Trisong Detson(755-797) established it as the official religion of the state. Tibetans specify two criteria for being Buddhist - a) having taken refuge and b) acceptance of the four marks of existence. Society: The 33rd King of Tibet, Song Tsen Gampo (born 617) had the book translated and married two Buddhist princesses. This is a sign that in Eurasian Buddhist society, polygamy was okay. Art and Architecture: An ordained spiritual community was established in the first Buddhist monastery; Samye, which was built by Padmasambhava. Many places of worship were built around this time. Pirates- India Politics: Buddhism failed to adapt to changing social and political circumstances, and apparently lacked a wide base of support. Technology: In India, the archaeological impact Buddhism had on the people also helped them to become more technologically advanced with their building. Intellectual Innovations: With Buddhism came the four truths that were knew ideas to the people. The first truth is that life is imperfect and sorrowful, and misery permeates all experience., The second truth is that the cause of sorrow is desire, the emotional involvement with existence that led from rebirth to rebirth through the operation of karma.The third truth is that the sorrow can be ended by eliminating desire. The fourth truth sets forth the Eightfold Path leading to elimination of desire, rebirth, and sorrow, and to the attainment of nirvana or nibbana,a state of bliss and selfless enlightnment. Economy: The expansion in the scope and authority of caste regulations shifted political and economic power to the local arena, reversing the trend of centralization. Brahmans came to regulate more and more aspects of public life, and collected fees for the performance of their rituals.Caste law, administered by Brahmans, was built up to control all local economic production and much of its distribution Religion: Around third century BC, the still young Buddhist religion began to spread across Southeast Asia and India. Society: The caste system gradually expanded into secular life as a regulative code of social and economic transactions. Indian social structure developed in a manner opposite to that of China or Rome, where administration of law was dominated by government officials. Instead, Brahmans became hereditary monopolists of the law in a series of weak, ephemeral states. Arts and Architecture: For centuries Indian royalty and merchants patronized Buddhist monasteries and raised stone structures called stupas over the relics of the Buddha in remembrance of his memory. Since the 1840s, archaeology has revealed the huge impact of Buddhist art, iconography, and architecture in India. Pirates- East Asia Politics: After the fall of the Han Dynasty in the early part of the third century, China faced a period of political disunity. Despite the war and unrest, the translation of Buddhist texts continued. During this time, Buddhism gained popularity with the Chinese people. Both foreign and Chinese monks were actively involved in establishing monasteries and lecturing on the Buddhist teachings. Technology: Buddhism affected a lot of the archaelogy in East Asia, and with this was an impact on technology. Intellectual Innovations: As a result, a number of schools of Buddhism arose, with each school concentrating on certain texts for their study and practice. The Tian-tai School, for instance, developed a system of teaching and practice based on the Lotus Sutra. It also arranged all the Buddhist texts into graded categories to suit the varying aptitudes of the followers. Economy: Buddhism did not directly affect the economy in Japan. Religion: In the sixth century, the king of Packche, anxious to establish peaceful relations with Japan, sent gifts of images of the Buddha and copies of Buddhist texts to the Japanese imperial court. Buddhism was recommended as a means of bringing great benefit to the country. The Japanese people soon accommodated Buddhism along with their indigenous Shinto beliefs. Being a religion of universal appeal, Buddhism helped to foster harmony within the country. When the merchants of Central Asia came into this region for trade, they learnt about Buddhism and accepted it as their religion. Society: In northern China, except for two short periods of persecution, Buddhism flourished under the lavish royal patronage of rulers who favoured the religion. By the latter half of the sixth century, monks were even employed in government posts. Art and Architecture: During this period, Buddhist arts flourished, especially in the caves at Dun-huang, Yun-gang and Long-men. In the thousand caves at Dun-huang, Buddhist paintings covered the walls and there were thousands of Buddha statues in these caves. At Yungang and Long-men, many Buddha images of varying sizes were carved out of the rocks. All these activities were a sign of the firm establishment of Buddhism in China by the end of this period. Pirates- Southeast Asia Politics: Even when Cambodia came under French colonial rule in the mid-nineteenth century, Buddhism was still being patronised by the kings, though on a reduced scale. After Cambodia had gained independence, some progress was made in Buddhist education and the publication of texts. Currently, however, owing to political unrest, the future of Buddhism in Cambodia is uncertain. Technology: Buddhism did not directly effect the technology in Southeast Asia. Intellectual Innovations: In every village, schools were set up in the monasteries. Here monks taught the children basic Buddhist teachings as well as reading and writing. Economy: Buddhism did not directly effect the economy in Southeast Asia. Religion: It is said that late in the fifth century, a Buddhist monk from India landed in a kingdom in central Java and converted its queen to Buddhism. She in turn converted her son and made Mahayana Buddhism the official religion of the kingdom. In later centuries, Vajrayana Buddhism was introduced to the people in northern Burma. They practiced it together with Hinduism and local folk beliefs. In the middle of the eleventh century, a powerful king, Anawratha, brought northern and southern Burma under his rule. As he was a strong supporter of Theravada Buddhism he made it the national religion. Society: The traditional structure of the Buddhist community suffered when Burma came under British colonial rule in the nineteenth century. Arts and Architecture: Anawrathabegan the construction of monasteries and stupas in the capital city of Pagan, and this was continued by his successors. Pagan soon developed into a centre of Buddhist culture. Comparisons • In both East and Southeast Asia, Buddhism contributed to the addition of schools across Asia where children would learn about Buddhist practices and other beliefs. • A caste system was evident in India and East Asia, where some social classes approved more of Buddhism than others. • The nobles in Eurasia were more tentative to adopting the Buddhist religion. • Buddhism affected the artistic and architectural aspects of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and India. In these places, temples were built, adding to their architectural accomplishments. • In India, unlike in the other regions of Buddhism, Buddhism lacked support and failed to adapt to the changing social status. • In India, the gradual expansion in the scope and authority of caste regulations shifted political and economic power to the local arena, reversing the trend of centralization, unlike in Southeast Asia. Change Over Time • Buddhism eventually split into many different types: including Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism. • Buddhism went from a major religion in India to a minor religion because of Islam and Hinduism, as well as the change of empire rule. • Buddhism also adopted the deities of northwestern China. • Buddhism also developed into different branches based on the region. China believed in the idea of soul, while India did not. Current Events • In 1989, the Dalai Lama received the Noble Peace Prize. • Throughout 2008 in Tibet, a highly Buddhist area, riots developed between Tibet and the Chinese government. • The Chinese government tried to make Tibet wealthier by moving Chinese workers into the area. • Buddhism is also trying to regain followers throughout China and India. • It is trying to return to its previous state of popularity throughout Asia. Everyone’s Jobs • Sarah: PIRATES Notes, Comparisons, Pictures, Overall PowerPoint Presentation • Haley: Chronology, Change Over Time, Pictures, Overall PowerPoint Presentation, Current Events Bibliography "Comparing Buddhism in China and India." HyperHistory.net. Web. 06 Oct. 2010. http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/comp/cw07indiabuddhismchina.htm "Timeline of Buddhist History." View on Buddhism: (Tibetan) Buddhist Practice and Philosophy. Web. 06 Oct. 2010. http://viewonbuddhism.org/time-line.html "Bridging World History: Unit 7: The Spread of Religions: Unit Content Overview." Teacher Professional Development and Teacher Resources by Annenberg Media. Web. 06 Oct. 2010. http://www.learner.org/courses/worldhistory/unit_overview_7.html Jacobs, By Andrew. "Tibet News - Breaking World Tibet News - The New York Times." Times Topics. 05 Oct. 2010. Web. 06 Oct. 2010. <http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/china/tibet/in dex.html>. Hodus, By Lewis. "Buddhism and Buddhists in China - IX. Present-Day Buddhism (by Lewis Hodus)." Authorama - Public Domain Books. Web. 07 Oct. 2010. <http://www.authorama.com/buddhism-and-buddhists-in-china-10.html>.