Conrad-Demarest Model of Empires

Report
Wednesday, January
rd
23
Bell-Ringer: Please log-on to your computer
and visit studystack.com. Log in to your
account and open up your previous study
stack. Take the first 15 minutes of class to
begin adding terms from Unit 2 to the stack
(you received the list last Friday).
Daily Agenda:
• Bell-Ringer: Vocabulary Acquisition
• Word of the Day  circuitous
• The Problem with Periodization… (Group
Collaboration)
• Lecture: Transitional Empires
• The Conrad-Demarest Model of Empire
• Lecture: The Persian Empire
Homework: Complete TRF and finish reading and
taking notes on Chapter 7.
Circuitous: Circular and therefore indirect in language, behavior
or action, roundabout; wingding
circuitous pronunciation
• In the movie, National Treasure: Book of Secrets, Benjamin
Franklin Gates’ great-great grandfather is suddenly
implicated as a key conspirator in Abraham Lincoln’s death.
Determined to prove his ancestor’s innocence, Ben follows
a chain of clues that leads him on a CIRCUITOUS chase that
begins in Paris and takes him to Buckingham Palace in
London, the White House, a secret tunnel under Mount
Vernon, the Library of Congress, and finally Mount
Rushmore. On this CIRCUITOUS journey Ben and his crew
uncover a number of startling revelations and secrets.
“Read-Aloud“
Wed. Jan 23
Day 2, Period 1
Circuitous: Circular and therefore indirect in language,
behavior or action, roundabout; wingding
• What would CIRCUITOUS mean to:
 a politician
 teenager
 lawyer
“Words across context“
Day 2, Period 2
Possible answers
• What would CIRCUITOUS mean to:
 a politician- a politician may be indirect when answering
questions, they may circle around the question being asked and
indirect in language
 teenager – when in conversation with their parents about
weekend plans, a teenager may be indirect or circle around
what they are actually planning to do
 lawyer – when questioning a witness, a lawyer would AVOID
being CIRCUITOUS because they are seeking the truth and want
direct responses
“Words across context“
Day 2, Period 2
Problems of Periodization:
Take 3 minutes to answer the following
question on a scrap sheet of paper: If you were
asked to divide your life story (to this point) up
into 3 volumes, how would you do it? What
would be the dividing points between sections?
Historical Periodization:
• The College Board has divided up the course
into 6 sections.
• The next unit has been defined as going from
600 BCE – 600 CE.
• So what might the relevance of these dates
represent?
• 600 BCE – Decline of Ancient Empires and Rise
of Classical Civilization
• 600 CE – Collapse of all Classical Empires
Transitional Empires:
Not Foundational… Not Classical..
What are they?
The Hebrews
• Founded by Abraham of
Ur
• Pastoralists
• Migration to Egypt and
Enslavement
• 12 Tribes (Israelites/
Canaanites)
• MONOTHEISTIC (Judaism)
– Covenants
– Prophets
The Assyrians
Key Concepts:
• Divine Kingship
– Propaganda and Spies
• Conquest
– Mass Deportations
– Fierce Military
– Technology (chariots, iron,
etc.)
• Society
– Landowners, farmers, slaves
– “Human Beings”
The Phoenicians
Key Concepts:
• Canaanites
• Confederation of CityStates
– Trade based
– Colonies
• Culture
–
–
–
–
Alphabet
Trade Products
Religion (Tophets)
Senate and Judges
The Persians
Key Concepts:
• Persian = Medes +
Achaemenids
• Satraps
• Persian Kingship
• Paradayadam
• Administration
• Royal Road
• Zoroastrianism
Other Historical Contributors:
• The Hittites: Between 1900
and 1200 BCE, the Hittites
dominated the Fertile
Crescent due to their iron
metallurgy and war chariots
• The Lydians: A small
empire in Anatolia (Turkey),
the Lydians were credited
as the first to use coined
money (around 600 BCE)
Conrad-Demarest Model of Empires
How can historians explain the rise and fall
of empire?
AP World History
Unit 2
Using Models
• What is a model?
• Noun. A standard or
example for imitation or
comparison.
• What types of things do
we build models of?
• Why would historians
want a model for
empires?
Empire Models
• Questions to consider:
– What is the Conrad-Demarest Model of Empire?
– What are the limits of using models to understand
history?
The Conrad-Demarest Model
• The term “empire” was first used in 1297 to
describe territory made up of formerly
independent states.
• Today, it refers to a politically unified state in
which one people dominate their neighbors.
• Usually this occurs militarily, but can also happen
through diplomacy, religion or trade.
• In 1984, Historians Geoffrey Conrad and Arthur
Demarest created a model to understanding
empire in their book Religion and Empire: The
Dynamics of Aztec and Inca Expansionism.
Pre-Conditions for Empire
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
State level government.
High agricultural potential.
Environmental diversity.
Several small states with no dominate power.
Mutual hostility between small states.
Adequate military resources.
Pre-Conditions for Empire
1. State level government.
– 4 empires ruled 558 BCE to 651CE.
2. High agricultural potential.
– Alfalfa fed to horses made them stronger.
3. Environmental diversity.
– Environmental mosaic: mountains, valley plateaus, jungles,
deserts, arable lands, bordered many seas.
4. Several small states with no dominate power.
– Mesopotamian states ripe for conquest.
5. Mutual hostility between small states.
6. Adequate military resources.
– Equestrian skills and horses.
Persian Imperial Government
•
•
•
•
Capital at Persepolis.
23 regional satrapies appointed by emperor.
Locals appointed to serve as satraps.
Audits by roving bands of government spies.
– Military officers to keep regions honest.
• Regulated taxes and standardized laws.
• Built good roads for communication and control.
– Courier service with horses, could travel one week from
one end of the empire to the other.
• Policy of toleration of local beliefs.
State Ideology
•
Supports:
– Personal identification with the state.
– Belief in the empire.
– Military conquest to expand empire.
– Militarism:
•
•
•
Glorification of the ideals of a professional military class.
Predominance of the armed forces in the administration or
policy of the state.
A policy in which military preparedness is of primary importance
to a state.
State Ideology
•
Supports:
– Personal identification with the state.
– Belief in the empire.
•
–
Zoroastrianism and Darius.
Military conquest to expand empire.
• Continual expansion by conquest:
– Egypt, Anatolia, Thrace, Macedonia, Indus River Valley.
–
Militarism:
•
Glorification of the ideals of a professional military class.
–
•
•
Warrior class most important.
Predominance of the armed forces in the administration or policy of
the state.
A policy in which military preparedness is of primary importance to
a state.
Characteristics of an Empire
1.
2.
3.
4.
Building roads and transportation networks.
Trade increases.
Cosmopolitan cities, art, and education.
Bureaucracy, taxes, coinage, and imperial
laws enforced.
5. Official language.
6. Law and justice.
7. Standards over conquered people.
Characteristics of an Empire
1.
Building roads and transportation networks.
– Royal road and canals.
2.
Trade increases.
– Largest empire of its time period, expanded from East Asia to Europe to
Northern Africa. Protected trade internally.
3.
Cosmopolitan cities, art, and education.
– Persepolis was home to a variety of international neighborhoods
4.
5.
Bureaucracy, taxes, coinage, and imperial laws enforced.
Official language.
– Persian language was the official language.
6.
7.
Law and justice.
Standards over conquered people.
– Equal treatment of the people they conquered.
• Freeing the Jews.
• Hated Greeks, but respected their knowledge.
Results of Empires
1. Economic rewards.
– Regular taxes from satraps replaced intermittent
tributes.
2. Stability and prosperity.
– Royal roads, peace, standardized coins fostered
increased trade.
3. Population increase.
– Governed 35 million subjects.
Reasons for Downfall
1. Failure of leadership.
2. Overextension.
3. Failure to continue expansion undermines
government support.
4. Rebellions.
Reasons for Downfall
1.
Failure of leadership.
– Xerxes harshly crushed rebellions in Mesopotamia leading to a
reputation for cruelty
2.
3.
Overextension.
Failure to continue expansion undermines government support.
– Persian Wars vs. Greek city-states.
4.
Rebellions.
–
–
–
–
Parthians rebelled against Seleucids.
Alexander the Great of Macedonia.
Rome in 280 CE.
Rise of Islam in 651 CE.
Project: The Conrad-Demarest
Model
Now that you have seen an example, do
you feel that the model works as an
explanation for the rise and fall of
empire?
To further test the model, you will be researching the
characteristics of Classical Greece, Rome, and China. In
each case, you will examine how closely the empire
matches the Conrad-Demarest Model. Ultimately, you
will use your research to write an essay evaluating the
model.
Homework:
• Complete Tutorial Request Form and finish
reading and taking notes on Chapter 7. You
will have a quiz during class tomorrow on
Chapters 6, 7, and what we covered in class
today.

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