Wednesday, January rd 23 Bell-Ringer: Please log-on to your computer and visit studystack.com. Log in to your account and open up your previous study stack. Take the first 15 minutes of class to begin adding terms from Unit 2 to the stack (you received the list last Friday). Daily Agenda: • Bell-Ringer: Vocabulary Acquisition • Word of the Day circuitous • The Problem with Periodization… (Group Collaboration) • Lecture: Transitional Empires • The Conrad-Demarest Model of Empire • Lecture: The Persian Empire Homework: Complete TRF and finish reading and taking notes on Chapter 7. Circuitous: Circular and therefore indirect in language, behavior or action, roundabout; wingding circuitous pronunciation • In the movie, National Treasure: Book of Secrets, Benjamin Franklin Gates’ great-great grandfather is suddenly implicated as a key conspirator in Abraham Lincoln’s death. Determined to prove his ancestor’s innocence, Ben follows a chain of clues that leads him on a CIRCUITOUS chase that begins in Paris and takes him to Buckingham Palace in London, the White House, a secret tunnel under Mount Vernon, the Library of Congress, and finally Mount Rushmore. On this CIRCUITOUS journey Ben and his crew uncover a number of startling revelations and secrets. “Read-Aloud“ Wed. Jan 23 Day 2, Period 1 Circuitous: Circular and therefore indirect in language, behavior or action, roundabout; wingding • What would CIRCUITOUS mean to: a politician teenager lawyer “Words across context“ Day 2, Period 2 Possible answers • What would CIRCUITOUS mean to: a politician- a politician may be indirect when answering questions, they may circle around the question being asked and indirect in language teenager – when in conversation with their parents about weekend plans, a teenager may be indirect or circle around what they are actually planning to do lawyer – when questioning a witness, a lawyer would AVOID being CIRCUITOUS because they are seeking the truth and want direct responses “Words across context“ Day 2, Period 2 Problems of Periodization: Take 3 minutes to answer the following question on a scrap sheet of paper: If you were asked to divide your life story (to this point) up into 3 volumes, how would you do it? What would be the dividing points between sections? Historical Periodization: • The College Board has divided up the course into 6 sections. • The next unit has been defined as going from 600 BCE – 600 CE. • So what might the relevance of these dates represent? • 600 BCE – Decline of Ancient Empires and Rise of Classical Civilization • 600 CE – Collapse of all Classical Empires Transitional Empires: Not Foundational… Not Classical.. What are they? The Hebrews • Founded by Abraham of Ur • Pastoralists • Migration to Egypt and Enslavement • 12 Tribes (Israelites/ Canaanites) • MONOTHEISTIC (Judaism) – Covenants – Prophets The Assyrians Key Concepts: • Divine Kingship – Propaganda and Spies • Conquest – Mass Deportations – Fierce Military – Technology (chariots, iron, etc.) • Society – Landowners, farmers, slaves – “Human Beings” The Phoenicians Key Concepts: • Canaanites • Confederation of CityStates – Trade based – Colonies • Culture – – – – Alphabet Trade Products Religion (Tophets) Senate and Judges The Persians Key Concepts: • Persian = Medes + Achaemenids • Satraps • Persian Kingship • Paradayadam • Administration • Royal Road • Zoroastrianism Other Historical Contributors: • The Hittites: Between 1900 and 1200 BCE, the Hittites dominated the Fertile Crescent due to their iron metallurgy and war chariots • The Lydians: A small empire in Anatolia (Turkey), the Lydians were credited as the first to use coined money (around 600 BCE) Conrad-Demarest Model of Empires How can historians explain the rise and fall of empire? AP World History Unit 2 Using Models • What is a model? • Noun. A standard or example for imitation or comparison. • What types of things do we build models of? • Why would historians want a model for empires? Empire Models • Questions to consider: – What is the Conrad-Demarest Model of Empire? – What are the limits of using models to understand history? The Conrad-Demarest Model • The term “empire” was first used in 1297 to describe territory made up of formerly independent states. • Today, it refers to a politically unified state in which one people dominate their neighbors. • Usually this occurs militarily, but can also happen through diplomacy, religion or trade. • In 1984, Historians Geoffrey Conrad and Arthur Demarest created a model to understanding empire in their book Religion and Empire: The Dynamics of Aztec and Inca Expansionism. Pre-Conditions for Empire 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. State level government. High agricultural potential. Environmental diversity. Several small states with no dominate power. Mutual hostility between small states. Adequate military resources. Pre-Conditions for Empire 1. State level government. – 4 empires ruled 558 BCE to 651CE. 2. High agricultural potential. – Alfalfa fed to horses made them stronger. 3. Environmental diversity. – Environmental mosaic: mountains, valley plateaus, jungles, deserts, arable lands, bordered many seas. 4. Several small states with no dominate power. – Mesopotamian states ripe for conquest. 5. Mutual hostility between small states. 6. Adequate military resources. – Equestrian skills and horses. Persian Imperial Government • • • • Capital at Persepolis. 23 regional satrapies appointed by emperor. Locals appointed to serve as satraps. Audits by roving bands of government spies. – Military officers to keep regions honest. • Regulated taxes and standardized laws. • Built good roads for communication and control. – Courier service with horses, could travel one week from one end of the empire to the other. • Policy of toleration of local beliefs. State Ideology • Supports: – Personal identification with the state. – Belief in the empire. – Military conquest to expand empire. – Militarism: • • • Glorification of the ideals of a professional military class. Predominance of the armed forces in the administration or policy of the state. A policy in which military preparedness is of primary importance to a state. State Ideology • Supports: – Personal identification with the state. – Belief in the empire. • – Zoroastrianism and Darius. Military conquest to expand empire. • Continual expansion by conquest: – Egypt, Anatolia, Thrace, Macedonia, Indus River Valley. – Militarism: • Glorification of the ideals of a professional military class. – • • Warrior class most important. Predominance of the armed forces in the administration or policy of the state. A policy in which military preparedness is of primary importance to a state. Characteristics of an Empire 1. 2. 3. 4. Building roads and transportation networks. Trade increases. Cosmopolitan cities, art, and education. Bureaucracy, taxes, coinage, and imperial laws enforced. 5. Official language. 6. Law and justice. 7. Standards over conquered people. Characteristics of an Empire 1. Building roads and transportation networks. – Royal road and canals. 2. Trade increases. – Largest empire of its time period, expanded from East Asia to Europe to Northern Africa. Protected trade internally. 3. Cosmopolitan cities, art, and education. – Persepolis was home to a variety of international neighborhoods 4. 5. Bureaucracy, taxes, coinage, and imperial laws enforced. Official language. – Persian language was the official language. 6. 7. Law and justice. Standards over conquered people. – Equal treatment of the people they conquered. • Freeing the Jews. • Hated Greeks, but respected their knowledge. Results of Empires 1. Economic rewards. – Regular taxes from satraps replaced intermittent tributes. 2. Stability and prosperity. – Royal roads, peace, standardized coins fostered increased trade. 3. Population increase. – Governed 35 million subjects. Reasons for Downfall 1. Failure of leadership. 2. Overextension. 3. Failure to continue expansion undermines government support. 4. Rebellions. Reasons for Downfall 1. Failure of leadership. – Xerxes harshly crushed rebellions in Mesopotamia leading to a reputation for cruelty 2. 3. Overextension. Failure to continue expansion undermines government support. – Persian Wars vs. Greek city-states. 4. Rebellions. – – – – Parthians rebelled against Seleucids. Alexander the Great of Macedonia. Rome in 280 CE. Rise of Islam in 651 CE. Project: The Conrad-Demarest Model Now that you have seen an example, do you feel that the model works as an explanation for the rise and fall of empire? To further test the model, you will be researching the characteristics of Classical Greece, Rome, and China. In each case, you will examine how closely the empire matches the Conrad-Demarest Model. Ultimately, you will use your research to write an essay evaluating the model. Homework: • Complete Tutorial Request Form and finish reading and taking notes on Chapter 7. You will have a quiz during class tomorrow on Chapters 6, 7, and what we covered in class today.