ANCIENT ROME - WMLGalaxy

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ANCIENT ROME
ROME’S BEGINNINGS
The Capitoline Wolf sculpture depicts a she-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus,
Rome's legendary founders. Now a symbol of Rome.
Legends
Much of Rome’s
early history comes
from legends. The
legends may not be
totally accurate but
are useful in giving
the qualities and
values the early
Romans admired.
Romulus
Founder of Rome in
753 BCE
First of seven kings
Started Rome’s first
army and government
Numa Pompilius
Rome’s second king
Brought peace to Rome
Founded Rome’s religion
Etruscans
Rome’s powerful
neighbors to the north
from Etruria
Were wealthy traders
Controlled Rome from
575 – 509 BCE
Gave the Romans their
alphabet and the “arch”
Rome becomes a walled
city with paved roads
Built Circus Maximus,
Temple of Jupiter,
Cloaca Maxima
Tarquin the Proud
Seventh and last king
Was cruel and terrorized
his people
Ignored the Senate
509 BCE Romans rebel
and send him into exile
GEOGRAPHY of ROME
1)Rome was a city-state
in Italy
2)Rome’s climate is a
Mediterranean climate
with summers being
hot and dry and
winters being wet and
mild
3) known as Latins, spoke Latin, were herders and
farmers, harvested wheat, grapes, and olives
4) Etruscan city-states
were to the north of
Rome and south of
Rome were Greek
colonies
5) Built on hills – made
it hard to attack
On Tiber River –
transportation route,
resources
15 miles from the
sea – safe from
others’ navies and
storms
Center of Italy –
could easily get to
other places in Italy
and in the
Mediterranean
Mare Nostrum means “our sea” – eventually Rome
controls all of the lands around the Mediterranean Sea
THE ROMAN REPUBLIC
•
•
•
•
PATRICIANS
The upper class –
wealthy landowners
Very small group – 5%
of the population
Chose the king’s
advisors
Controlled the most
valuable land, held the
key military and
religious offices
•
•
•
•
PLEBEIANS
The lower class –
peasants, laborers,
artisans, shopkeepers
Very large group – 95%
of the population
Very few privileges and
say
Paid most of the taxes
and served in the army.
A Republic form of government’s purpose is to
serve the people. It was established in Rome
when the Patricians overthrew the last
monarch/king Tarquin the Proud because King
Tarquin wanted more power and was cruel.
The Conflict of the Orders is when the Plebeians
demanded more political rights because the
Patricians were controlling almost everything since
Tarquin’s removal.
Some Major Differences Between the
Patricians and the Plebeians
• Patricians could only be consuls or
senators, they made and
interpreted the laws, small group,
wealthy, etc.
• Plebeians paid the heavy taxes,
were the soldiers, had no political
powers, were the labor force,
large group
The conflict between the Plebeians and the
Patricians was resolved over time by the
Plebeians would leave Rome and refuse to work
or serve in the military and the Patricians would
compromise with the Plebeians by giving them
some power and say in the government each time
this happened.
Rights gained by the Plebeians over the
years:
• Tribunes of the Plebs to represent their
interests to the Senate
• Council of Plebs that could make laws
only about themselves
• All laws were written down – The
Twelve Tables
• One consul had to be a plebeian – in
this way it was possible for a plebeian
to become a senator
• Eventually could make laws that
everyone (patricians and plebeians)
must obey/follow
The Roman Republic
CONSULS
• One patrician and one
plebeian
• Head/leaders of the
Republic
• Run the day to day
affairs of Rome and
command its army
SENATORS
• Three hundred patricians and ex-plebeian
consuls
• They can make and veto laws about everyone
• Advised the consuls
Tribunes of the Plebs
• Ten plebeians who represent
plebeian interests to the senate
• Advised the consuls
• They can make and veto laws
about everyone
Citizens Assemblies
• Made up of all adult male Roman citizens
• Nominated people to be the consuls, to be
members of the senate, and to be a Tribunes of
the Plebs
• Approved or rejected all new laws
ROME’S EXPANSION
The Punic Wars
Conquest Goes Well
1) took great pride in their Republic and
defended it
2) treated conquered groups as allies
3) the Roman army was disciplined and
experienced
4) military success was greatly valued and
admired by Romans
5) winning wars was a great source of wealth
to the Romans – land, valuables, slaves, etc.
Trouble at Home
1) farmers would be gone a long time fighting
2) wealthy were controlling all of the land
3) there were many poor and unemployed people
in Rome
4) Roman leaders quarreled and, at times, killed
one another
5) the slaves rebelled
Fall of the Roman Republic
CAUSE
Rapid expansion of the
Roman Empire
EFFECT
Gap between the rich and
poor grows
CAUSE
Greedy, dishonest leaders
EFFECT
The poor felt no loyalty to
the Roman government
who was keeping them
poor
CAUSE
The poor felt no loyalty to
the Roman government
who was keeping them
poor
EFFECT
Conflicts between rich and
poor people grow
CAUSE
Professional soldiers who
were poor citizens and
only made money if
they won a battle
EFFECT
Soldiers only loyal to the
generals who paid them
CAUSE
Power hungry generals
fight one another for
control of government
EFFECT
Caesar’s rivals fear he is
becoming too powerful
and declare him a
public enemy
CAUSE
Caesar crosses
the Rubicon
River and
brings his army
with him to
Rome
EFFECT
Civil War breaks
out for three
years
CAUSE
Caesar defeats Pompey
and declares himself
dictator
EFFECT
This ends the Republican
system of government
in Rome

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