NowRuz The Celeberation of Life

Persian Calendars
Zoroastrian Calendar :
Jalili Calendar :
The Zarathushtrian Religious Era (ZRE) calendar was adopted
in 1737 Before Christian Era (BCE).
We are in 3750 (1737+2013) of ZRE.
The Jalili calendar was adopted in 1079 Christian Era (CE)
by Sultan Jalal al-Din, based on the recommendation of a
committee of astronomers, including Omar Khayyam.
We are in 1391 (2013-622) of Jalili calendar.
Both calendars are solar and begin on the first day of
Spring (March 21 or 22)
Gregorian and Islamic Calendars
 Gregorian Calendar (Solar):
 Named after Pope Gregory who introduced it in 1582 CE.
 It begins from the year Jesus was born.
Islamic Calendar (Lunar):
 Begins from the year Muhammad’ migrated from Mecca
to Medina (Hijra), in 622 CE.
Differences in Calendars
 Gregorian and Islamic calendars are based on religious
 Gregorian: Birth of Jesus;
 Islamic: Mohammed’s migration;
 Zoroastrian and Jalili calendars are based on seasons:
 Both begin on the first day of Spring (March 21 or 22);
 When the lengths of night and day are equal;
Months in Zarastrian/Jalili Calendars
1-Farvardin (Guardian of spirits) 7-Mehr (Sun)
2-Ordibehesht (Truth)
8-Aban (Water)
3-Khordad (Perfection)
9-Azar (Fire)
4- Tir (Sirius)
5-Mordad (Immortality)
6-Shahrivar (Self-Control)
10-Dey (The Creator, Ahura Mazda)
11-Bahman (Good Mind)
12-Esfand (Holy Devotion)
 “Nowruz” , “Norouz”, “Norooz”, “Noruz” is the first-day of
the new year;
 Begins on the first day of Spring (first day of Farvardin);
 Most joyful festival of Persians;
 Celebration of life, Spring over Winter, light over darkness,
good over bad, and health over illness;
 Two weeks of celebrations;
Countries Celebrating Nowruz
 Celebrated in many former territories of the Great
Persia: Afghanistan, Albania, Azerbaijan, Georgia,
Iraqi Kurdistan, Kazakhstan, Kashmir, Kyrgyzstan,
Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan;
 By Zoroastrians in Pakistan and India, by Parsis in
Indian subcontinent, and by Aryans in China, Balkans;
 The Jewish festival of Purim appears to be
adopted from the Persian New Year.
Nowruz in Persepolis Complex
 The famous Persepolis complex, Palace of Apadana and the
Hundred Columns Hall were built for the specific purpose
of celebrating Nowruz.
 In 487 BCE, Darius the Great celebrated Nowruz at his
newly built Persepolis complex.
Persepolis complex (487 BCE)
Haji Firuz
 Herald of Nowruz;
 A black-faced person with bright red clothing and
a felt hat, plays a tambourine and announces the
coming of the New Year;
 Is based on the “Mir-Nowruzi” tradition, a comical
figure chosen as king for the last five
days of the year.
 The five-day king paraded
the city with a group of singers and
dancers for the Nowruz Celebrations.
Chaharshanbeh Souri
 Jumping over bonfire:
Celebration of fire on last Wednesday night before the
 “Give me your beautiful red color
And take back my sickly pallor!”
Khane Takani
 Deep house cleaning before arrival of Nowruz;
 The Zoroastrian idea of purifying the house to keep
Evil away from the kingdom of Good;
Nowruz Shopping “Kharid Eid”
Purchase of new clothing to wear for the new year as well
as sweets, fruits, …, for the celebrations;
Haft Sin
 Symbol of new year;
 Seven items with names beginning with the letter S:
The Haft Sin Items
Sabzeh: Wheat sprouts growing a few inches tall, symbolizing
Samanoo: A sweet wheat pudding, symbolizing affluence and
happiness; associated with Anahita, prepared by women who
wished to have children;
Senjed: Dried fruit of oleaster tree, symbolizing love;
Sir: Garlic, symbolizing medicine, and warding off demonic
powers and bad omens;
Sib: Apple, symbolizing beauty and health;
Somaq: Symbolizing the color of sunrise;
Serkeh: Vinegar, symbolizing age and patience;
Sonbol: Hyacinth flower, symbolizing the coming of spring;
Sekkeh: Coin, symbolizing prosperity and wealth.
Haft Sin
Didd and Bazdid
 Visitation: On New Year’s Day families dress in their
new clothing and begin a two-week celebration by
visiting relatives and friends (Didd va Bazdid);
 Each visit is reciprocated. Elders give gifts (Eydi) to
younger members;
 Friendships are renewed;
 Old animosities are forgiven;
 On the thirteenth day, families go for an outdoor
 They sing, dance, play, and eat “Ashe Reshte”.
 Traditionally, girls of marriageable age tie wild grass
tops into knots and make a wish that the following
Nowruz may find them married and carrying their
Nowruz as Cultural Heritage
 International Nowruz Day was proclaimed by the
United Nations General Assembly, in its resolution
A/RES/64/253 of 2010.
 "At a time of global change and uncertainty, including
in many regions where Nowruz is celebrated, the
message of peace that lies at the core of this
observance is especially important. My thoughts are
with those communities observing Nowruz under
difficult circumstances. This holiday is a reminder that
we share a common fate and must work for a better
future for all. "
Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon
President Obama’s Nowrooz Message
Pictures of the Festival

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