HSS-Ancient Rome-Julius Caesar

Today’s Agenda!!
The Rise of Julius
 Videos
 Julius Caesar Comic
 Eulogy
Do Now
 In
June in 1938, the first
Superman comic was published.
Superman had a number of
“superpowers.” If you could have
just one superpower, what would
it be and why?
Chinese Lanterns
New years celebration last for 15 days
 At the end, they celebrate with the
Lantern Festival
 Welcome spring
 Ancient China- held to celebrate the end
of a cold winter and beginning of a warm
Steps to follow
Counting to ten in Mandarin Chinese
 Color each number
 Cut the numbers and glue to
construction paper if time
 Punch a hole at the top
 Connect each lantern with red yarn
 Thread the lanterns one at a time
 Make a loose knot to hold the lanterns in
Who Is Julius Caesar??
Julius Caesar’s full name was
Gaius Julius Caesar. ( He dropped
the Gaius later in life.)
 He was born on either July 12 or
13, in the year 100 or 102 BCE
(Different sources cite different
QuickTime™ and a
are needed to see this picture.
 He was born into a Patrician family
that had lost most of their wealth.
 He became the head of his family
at 16 when his father died.
 He was always very ambitious and
wanted wealth and status.
 His first wife, Cornelia, was from a
wealthy and high ranking family.
Caesar’s Love Life
Caesar had three wives (and
many girlfriends on the side.)
He married wealthy women
from high status families,
usually in an attempt to raise
his own status and make
connections. He was married
Pompeia, then Calpurnia. He
only had one child, a
daughter Julia, with his first
He married his
daughter off to Pompey
(when she was just a young
girl of 14 or so) before they
became great rivals.
What did Julius Caesar look like?
The Roman historian Seutonius describes Julius Caesar:
"He was tall, of a fair complexion, round limbed, rather full faced, with eyes
black and piercing; he enjoyed excellent health except toward the close of his
life when he was subject to sudden fainting fits and disturbances in his sleep.
He was likewise twice seized with the 'falling sickness,' while engaged in
active service.
“He was extremely nice in the care of his person, and kept the hair of his
head closely cut and had his face smoothly shaved. His baldness gave him
much uneasiness, having often found himself on that score exposed to the
jibes of his enemies. He used therefore to brush forward the hair from the
crown of his head, and of all the honors conferred on him by the Senate and
People, there was none which he either accepted or used with greater
pleasure than the right of wearing constantly a laurel crown.”
Vultus est index animi - The face is the index of the soul
Caesar’s Education
Caesar received education in
oration and rhetoric.
Oration is public speaking, and
rhetoric is the art of using
language to communicate
He became an excellent
speaker, and was very
persuasive with his words.
He was also an accomplished
writer who wrote very eloquently
about his own achievements.
After his first marriage, Caesar joined
the Roman Legions (the Military) as the
assistant to a Provincial Governor in
Asia Minor.
Then in 75 BCEE he was kidnapped
by pirates! Caesar was offended that
they only asked 1000 pounds of silver
for his ransom, and he told them to ask
for more!
He told the kidnappers that he would
hunt them down and crucify them as
soon as he was freed.
After his ransom was paid and he was
freed, he got a fleet of ships together
and pursued, captured and crucified the
What can you infer about Caesar’s personality
from this info?
Timeline of Caesar’s Political life to 49BCEE
73-65 BCE: Caesar is involved in
Roman politics by serving as a priest
and manager of public buildings,
ceremonies and festivals.
63 BCE: He is appointed Pontifex
Maximus (High Priest)
60/59 BCE: He becomes consul and
allies himself with Pompey and
Crassus, 2 very powerful men in
Roman politics.
58 BCE: He is appointed Governor of
the Province of Gaul (part of France
He spent 9 years there, conquering
more lands for the Roman Empire, and
becoming very rich and powerful.
His Military Success!!
While he was governor of Further Gaul, he
directed great military victories but also
personally killed or had killed a great many
people who stood in his way.
He and his legions conquered many Barbarian
tribes, and brought more lands under Roman
control, including parts of France, Belgium,
Holland, Germany and most of Switzerland.
He accomplished this by his strong military skill
and ruthless behaviors. Even after villages
surrendered, Caesar and his soldiers would
plunder and kill, taking everything of value.
Caesar…the risk taker…
Caesar knew that he was now very powerful and
popular with the Roman people. He also knew that his
enemies wanted him to lose that power. He wanted to
take the chance to return to Rome and challenge his
There was an ancient Roman law stating that no
military leader could enter the city of Rome with his
army. (This was to prevent Generals from taking control
of the city by force.)
However, Caesar was willing to risk breaking this law
and being arrested or killed and starting a civil war in
order to become the ultimate power in Rome.
He took the chance…
Caesar the Dictator
The Rubicon River was
the border of Rome. Once
Caesar crossed that river,
he’d be breaking the law.
It was a huge risk, but the
temptation of unlimited
power was too great.
After Crossing the
Rubicon, Caesar marched
into Rome and had a new
Senate installed. This
group of his supporters
had him named dictator.
He now had unlimited
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Some Changes Caesar Made
Caesar established order and
began making plans and
He drained marshy lands to
create livable lands to give to
some Romans.
He increased voting rights for
the people in some provinces.
He changed the tax laws.
He gave many Romans new
homes in the provinces.
He changed the calendar.
He granted citizenship to many
He let more people become
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are needed to see this picture.
Caesar: Power-hungry
Caesar had unlimited power, but still
wanted more. He set out to conquer his
former friend, now his greatest rival (and son
in law) Pompey- another great and powerful
Roman General.
Caesar went East across the Mediterranean to
follow Pompey and his army.
In Pharsalus, Greece, Caesar’s and Pompey’s
armies engaged in a great battle. The Egyptians
were helping Caesar. Pompey was killed, and
his head was brought to Caesar.
Veni, vidi, vici! - I came, I saw, I
47 BCE: Under Caesar, Rome’s control
spread farther than ever before. Rome now
controlled Italy, most of Europe, North Africa,
Greece, Egypt and parts of Asia.
Caesar returned to his city victorious and
more confident than ever of his grip on
absolute power…
Caesar: Powerful and Unpopular
Caesar continued to have unlimited
power, and in February 44 BCE, his
supporters in the senate declared him
“dictator perpetuo”, dictator for life.
Caesar was becoming as powerful as
a king, and the Romans had disliked
the idea of kings, ever since the
overthrow of the Etruscans 500 years
Because of this, many other members
of the Senate turned against him, and
decided that the resolution to the
problem was to assassinate Caesar.
Caesar Is Warned
Like the ancient Greeks, the Romans were polytheistic,
and believed in omens from the gods about the future.
Roman politicians and leaders used these religious
omens to guide them in their daily business.
The historian Plutarch writes that Caesar’s priests saw
bad fortune in the offerings that morning, and Caesar
decided not to do any business of great importance that
Shakespeare added that Caesar’s wife had a bad dream
of his death the night before and begged him not to go to
the senate and that a fortune teller told Caesar to
“Beware the Ides of March” on his way to the senate
fortune teller was called a
soothsayer in Ancient Rome.
The Ides was the Roman way of
saying the 13th of the month.
Et tu, Brute? - And you, Brutus?
And when Brutus, Caesar’s friend,
heard of the dreams and omens,
he convinced Caesar to ignore them
and to come to the senate as
5 Main Ideas on Julius Caesar:
Julius Caesar is born to a patrician family.
The young Julius is captured by pirates
and kills them when he is freed.
After crossing the Rubicon, Caesar
becomes dictator of Rome!
Married 3 times and had one
daughter. Fell in love with Cleopatra
In 44 BCE Julius Caesar is assassinated
on the Ides of March.
Julius Caesar Comic Strips!
You will create a comic strip for Julius
Caesar’s life
 Fold the paper like I show you and create
your comic
 It needs to be colored!!
◦ When finished, you will come up to pick up
your early finisher…
A Eulogy is a speech or writing in praise
of a person after they have died.
 A Eulogy is read aloud at a funeral
honoring the person that has died
 For your early finisher, you will write a
Eulogy for Julius Caesar and we will have
a funeral for him
 Let me show you an example
1 page essay DUE TOMORROW
You will write one page essay on respect in
the classroom.
How is your behavior in the classroom
What are some things you can do in the
classroom to behave?
How does your talking and refusal to follow
directions affect other students?
(1 page due tomorrow)

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