vi - Doctrine and Aid - Dollar Imperialism

Report
INSTRUCTIONS FOR STAFF
ENSURE THAT YOU HAVE PRINTED OFF ENOUGH
COPIES OF THE CARTOON SLIDES (18-23) AT THE
END OF THIS POWERPOINT FOR ONE BETWEEN
TWO OF YOUR STUDENTS
AND THAT YOU HAVE THE DOUBLE SIDED
LAMINATED CARTOONS FOR DISTRIBUTION
Realistically this lesson will take two lessons to go through if
you want to use all the cartoons, or at quite a pace, which
ever you prefer
If you are in a computer room they could go to this website
http://sunnycv.com/steve/20th/truman47.html
Where they can look through lots of the news of the time to
see events unfolding – this is good for the second batch of
cartoons.
Thought for you:
Have you ever bought a birthday present
for someone ONLY because you know
you’ll get one back from them, rather
than buying it just because you care?
CONTROLLED ASSESSMENT:
Cold War Relations 1941-1965
Doctrine and Aid: Dollar Imperialism
What caused the Cold War?
WHAT CAUSED THE COLD WAR?
VI – Doctrine and Aid: Dollar Imperialism
• Explain why the USA wanted to help Europe recover from WW2
• Evaluate the reliability of political cartoons
1. What was the Truman Doctrine and
Marshall Aid?
2. Why did the Soviets nickname it
“Dollar Imperialism”?
TASK
Use the political cartoons being handed around the room to
try to work out what you think TRUMAN DOCTRINE and
MARSHALL AID are and explain why you think it.
SOURCE P
This Russian cartoon from 1947 shows
Uncle Sam on the left and on the right
are Greek communists.
An American cartoon.
An American cartoon.
SOURCE Q
This cartoon of 1 October 1947 by
EH Shepard for the British
magazine Punch shows Marshall
(on the left) telling 'Uncle Sam' - i.e.
the American nation - that American
Aid is needed to shore up the
countries of western Europe: 'Come
on Sam! It's up to us again.'
An American cartoon
from the Buffalo
Evening News.
SOURCE R
This cartoon of 18 June 1947
by EH Shepard for the British
magazine
Punch
shows
Truman and Stalin as two taxidrivers trying to get customers.
The 'customers' are labelled
'Turkey', Hungary', 'Bulgaria',
'Austria’
WHAT CAUSED THE COLD WAR?
VI – Doctrine and Aid: Dollar Imperialism
• Explain why the USA wanted to help Europe recover from WW2
• Evaluate the reliability of political cartoons
NEXT TASK
Pass the cartoon you have to the next group, then chose the
right question for you to answer in your book
1. GRADE C TARGET - Explain why the USA gave
money to countries in Europe who wanted it.
2. GRADE B TARGET - Why would the USSR want
to stop countries in Eastern Europe receiving
this money?
3. GRADE A TARGET – How could Marshall Aid
lead to tension between the USA and the USSR?
WHAT CAUSED THE COLD WAR?
VI – Doctrine and Aid: Dollar Imperialism
• Explain why the USA wanted to help Europe recover from WW2
• Evaluate the reliability of political cartoons
FOLLOW UP TASK
Pass the cartoon you have to the next group, then chose the
right question for you to answer in your book
1.
GRADE C TARGET – Describe the cartoon in front of you
with details about which nationality the cartoonist is.
2.
GRADE B TARGET – Describe and Explain the cartoon in
front of you with reference to whether or not you think it
gives a true reflection of Marshall Aid
3.
GRADE A TARGET – Describe, Explain and make a
Judgement about the cartoon in front of you – how
reliable is it about Marshall Aid? How reliable are political
cartoons in general?
WHAT CAUSED THE COLD WAR?
VI – Doctrine and Aid: Dollar Imperialism
• Explain why the USA wanted to help Europe recover from WW2
• Evaluate the reliability of political cartoons
PENULTIMATE TASK
The next cartoons (laminated sheets) are all British and therefore will have a degree of
pro-Capitalist / anti-Communist bias. When you look at the image do the following in
your group:
1. Discuss what the relationship is like between (where
relevant):
• USA and USSR
• USA and Europe
• USSR and Europe
• The American government and the American
people
2. Discuss why the USA are offering to help rebuild
European countries
• Do they have an ulterior motive or not?
WHAT CAUSED THE COLD WAR?
VI – Doctrine and Aid: Dollar Imperialism
• Explain why the USA wanted to help Europe recover from WW2
• Evaluate the reliability of political cartoons
FINAL TASK
Turn over your cartoon to get the NEWS of that time. In one word
how would describe American-Soviet relations?
3.
Words to consider
1. Cordial (OK)
2. Tense (awkward)
3. Fraught (becoming dangerous)
4. Hostile (could lead to violence)
When does it get worse and why?
WHAT CAUSED THE COLD WAR?
SOURCE S
“The ruling gang of American imperialists has taken the
path of open expansion, of enslaving weakened
capitalist countries. It has hatched new war plans
against the Soviet Union. Imitating Hitler, the new
aggressors are using blackmail.”
GM Malenkov, a Soviet politician,
speaking in 1947 about the Marshall Plan.
Andrei Zhdanov echoed this opinion
Compare this to the idea of the “Liberation” of Eastern Europe, which is worse:
“Liberation” or “Dollar Imperialism”
Final
thought
you:
Thought
forfor
you:
Did you
the ever
USA give
money
to European
Have
bought
a birthday
present
countries
ONLYONLY
because
theyyou
wanted
for someone
because
knowto
“buy”
their
loyalty,
ratherthem,
than rather
giving
you’ll get
one
back from
money
justit because
they you
cared?
than
buying
just because
care?
THE FOLLOWING SLIDES ARE FOR PRINTING OFF
18-23
WHILST 24-37 SHOULD ALREADY BE PRINTED DOUBLE
SIDED AND LAMINATED FOR YOU
SOURCE P
This Russian cartoon from 1947 shows
Uncle Sam on the left and on the right
are Greek communists.
An American cartoon.
An American cartoon.
SOURCE Q
This cartoon of 1 October 1947 by EH Shepard for the British magazine
Punch shows Marshall (on the left) telling 'Uncle Sam' - i.e. the American
nation - that American Aid is needed to shore up the countries of western
Europe: 'Come on Sam! It's up to us again.'
An American cartoon
from the Buffalo
Evening News.
SOURCE R
This cartoon of 18 June 1947 by EH Shepard for the British magazine
Punch shows Truman and Stalin as two taxi-drivers trying to get
customers.
The 'customers' are labelled 'Turkey', Hungary', 'Bulgaria', 'Austria’
Artist:
David Low (1891-1963)
Published:
Evening Standard, 17 Jun 1947
U.S. Secretary of State Marshall outlined a plan to aid
Europe, including Britain, Russia, and "everything west of
Asia". If European countries brought all their national plans
together, America offered financial and material help to
revive a working economy in the world. Moscow purported
to see in this just a repetition of Truman's declaration of
three months before concerning Greece, whereby the US
offered aid to free peoples resisting totalitarian pressure.
The whole idea was, to Moscow, an attempt to enslave
Europe with dollars.
Artist:
David Low (1891-1963)
Published:
Evening Standard, 14 Mar 1947
The Communists seemed to be winning the civil war in
Greece when the Foreign Ministers' Conference at Moscow
was shaken by the announcement by President Truman
from Washington of a new policy: The US, as an "investment
in world freedom", in the future would actively assist free
peoples to resist attempts to impose totalitarian regimes
upon them. As a start, the US would help the Greek
government to defend itself in its war against the
Communist aided revolutionaries.
Artist:
David Low (1891-1963)
Published:
Evening Standard, 06 Mar 1947
News: Mar 12. US President Truman told Congress today
that America must abandon her traditional policy of
isolationism and intervene throughout the world to oppose
Communism. "I would not recommend it except that the
alternative is much more serious. The foreign policy and
national security of this country are involved", he said in a
speech calling for an immediate 400 million dollars in aid to
the Greek and Turkish governments, who are opposed by
Communist rebels.
Artist:
David Low (1891-1963)
Published:
Evening Standard, 24 Jun 1947
News: June 19. Bevin warns the USSR that
"appeasement" in Anglo-Soviet relation is over.
June 22. The USSR agrees to attend talks with
Britain and France on the Marshall Plan for
European aid.
Artist:
David Low (1891-1963)
Published:
Evening Standard, 15 Jul 1947
News: July 15. After a meeting in Paris of only two days, foreign ministers of
all European countries, with the exception of the Soviet block and Finland,
agreed on a European recovery programme to be put to the United States.
"It was the quickest conference I have ever have ever presided over," Ernest
Bevin, British Foreign Secretary, said last night. The recovery programme,
drawn up at the invitation of George C. Marshall, US Secretary of State, will
be funded by the US. Last month, Marshall warned that Europe must have
help or "face economic, social, and political deterioration of a very grave
character." ... [Chronicle of the 20th century] As a first step to the Marshall
plan, the European statesmen met in Paris to draw up a balance sheet of
needs and resources, to see how they could help one another and how
much American aid was required to put Europe on its feet. Bidault, for
France, said that the resources of Germany should be used for everybody,
including the Germans, which was interpreted as meaning that the
restriction of the Potsdam Agreement would not be regarded as inviolate.
Artist:
Illingworth, Leslie Gilbert, 1902-1979
Published:
Daily Mail, 15 July 1947
News: July 13. Marshall aid plan splits Europeans.
After a meeting in Paris of only two days, foreign
ministers of all European countries, with the
exception of the Soviet bloc (including
Czechoslovakia and Poland) and Finland, agreed on
a European recovery programme to be put to the
United States.
Artist:
David Low (1891-1963)
Published:
Evening Standard, 19 Sep 1947
As a change from the Soviet denunciations of the bolstering-up
by Britain and America of the Greek Government, Marshall
demanded that the UN should consider the great numbers of
troops and quantity of material which the communists were
sending to help the Greek guerrillas. The UN should discuss
this and similar situations, said Marshall, if it wanted to keep
healthy. Vishinsky, on the other hand thought the UN should
try to lead a quiet life and, in this case, avoid excitement.

similar documents