THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 1 WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION • Psychology: the scientific study of behavior and mental process • Seek to explain how we perceive, learn, remember, solve problems, communicate, feel and relate to other people • Late 20th century psychology expanded dramatically— specializations, new behavior studies, etc. FIELDS OF PSYCH • Developmental Psych • study human mental and psychical growth from prenatal period until old age • Interested in universal patters—patterns of everyone, and cultural patterns • Physiological Psychology • Investigate the biological basis of human behavior, thoughts, and emotions • Look at heredity • Experimental Psych • Conduct research on basic psychological processes, including learning, memory, sensation, perceptions, cognition, motivation, and emotion • How do they remember and why do they forget? • They focus on the brain • Personality Psychology • Study the differences among individuals in such traits as anxiety, sociability, self-esteem, and the need for achievement and aggressiveness • Try to determine what causes peoples moods • Clinical and Counseling Psych • Clinical--Interested in the diagnose, cause, and treatment of psychological disorders • Counseling—deals with eh “normal’ problems that many of us face like choosing a career or dealing with martial problems. • Social Psych • Study how people influence one another • Industrial and Organizational Psychology • Issues like selecting and training personnel, improving productivity and working conditions PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE • Psychologists rely on the scientific method when seeking answers to questions. • Scientific Method: collecting data, generating a theory to explain the data, producing a testable hypothesis based on the theory, and testing those hypotheses • Theory: explanation of a phenomena, it organized facts, and predicts new facts • Hypothesis: specific testable predictions derived from a theory THE GROWTH OF PSYCHOLOGY SECTION 2 THE “NEW” PSYCHOLOGY: A SCIENCE OF THE MIND • Psychology was “born” in 1879 the year Wilhelm Wundt founded the first psychological lab in Germany • Voluntarism and Structuralism • Wundt believed that our mental processes could not be studied scientifically, but set out to find ways that it could be studied scientifically • Voluntarism: attention is actively controlled by intentions and motives • Moved psych out of the realm of philosophy to the world of science • Edward Bradford Titchener • Student of Wundt • Ideas differed from Wundt • Structuralism: stressed the basic units of experience and the combinations in which they occur • William James: Functionalism • First academic to challenge structuralism • Functionalism Theory: mental life and behavior that is concerned with how an organism uses its perceptual abilities in its environments • We act out of habit, and the more we do something it becomes easier than the time before • Sigmund Freud: Psychodynamic Psychology • Most well know and controversial • We are motivated by unconscious desires • Saw unconscious as a mixture of primitive sexual and aggressive desires, forbidden desires, nameless fears and wishes, and traumatic childhood memories • Although repressed, they still come out in forms of dreams, mannerisms, slips of the tongue, and mental illness • Psychodynamic Theory: personality theories contending that behaviors result from psychological forces that interact within the individual, often outside the conscious awareness REDEFINING PSYCH: THE STUDY OF BEHAVIOR • John B. Watson: Behaviorism • Idea of mental life was superstition • You cannot see or define consciousness and if you cannot locate or measure something, it cant be studied scientifically • Behaviorism: studies only observable and measurable behavior • We can train, or condition people to do the thing we want them to do • B.F. Skinner: Behaviorism Revisited • Leader in behaviorists school of psychology • Added to the theory by rewarding his subjects for behaving the way he wanted them to THE COGNITIVE REVOLUTION • Gestalt and Humanistic Psychology • Gestalt: studies how people perceive and experience objects as whole patterns • When we look at a tree that is what we see, we don’t see various branches and thousands of leaves individually • Humanistic: emphasizes nonverbal experiences and altered states of consciousness as a means of realizing one’s full human potential • Importance of love, belonging, self-esteem, self-expression, • Cognitive Psychology • Devoted to studying the mental processes but in the broadest sense • Thinking, feeling, learning, remembering, making decisions, and judgments • How people process information NEW DIRECTIONS • Evolutionary Psychology • Concerned with the evolutionary origins of behaviors and mental processes, their adaptive value, and the purpose that continue to serve • How did we get to where we are today? • Positive Psychology • Focuses on positive experiences, including subjective well-being, self determination, the relationship between positive emotions and physical health, and that factors that allow individuals, communities, and society to flourish WOMEN IN PSYCHOLOGY • Many contributions to psychology came from women • They presented papers and joined the national professional association when it was formed in 1892 • Often faces much discrimination: • Some universities and colleges did not grant degrees to women • Professional journals were reluctant to publish their work • Teaching positioned where often closed to them CLASSWORK • In your textbook: • Read page 22 • Answer the following questions using the reading and the notes we just discussed • 1. What are 3 ways women were discriminated against in psychology? • 2. Select one of the following women and discuss who they are and why they are famous. • Christine Ladd-Franklin • Mary Whiton Calkins • Margret Floy Washburn • 3. Because many women found the doors closed to academic careers closed, what did they do instead? • 4. What historical event changed the cultural climate for women? RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY SECTION 4 INTRODUCTION • All sciences—psychology, sociology, economics, political science, biology, and physics re quire empirical evidence • Empirical Evidence: information derived from systematic, objective observation • Various Research methods to gather Empirical Evidence • Naturalistic Observation • Case Studies • Surveys • Correlation Research • Experimental Research NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION • Systematic study of animal or human behavior in natural settings rather in the laboratory • Advantage—behavior observed in everyday life is likely to be more natural, spontaneous, and varied then in a lab • Disadvantage—Observer Bias: expectations or biases of the observer that might distort of influence his or her interpretations of what actually happened • What twist what actually happened to fit your prediction of what would happen CASE STUDIES • Intensive description and analysis of a single individual or just a few individuals • Similar to naturalist observations, but uses a variety of methods to receive information—doesn’t just watch them • Disadvantages • Observer Bias • Cant draw general conclusion from just one person because everyone is different SURVEYS • RESEARCH TECHIQUE IN WHICH QUESTIONAIRES OR INTERVIEWS ARE ADMINISTERED TO A SELECT GROUP OF PEOPLE • CAN BE DONE FACE-TO FACE OR ON A QUESTIONAIRE CORRELATION RESEARCH • Research technique based on the naturally occurring relationship between 2 or more variables • Ex: The Air Force, is asked to predict which applicants for pilottraining program will make good pilots EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH • Experimental Method: research technique in which an investigator deliberately manipulates selected events or circumstances and then measures the effects of those manipulations on subsequent behavior • First step is to selecting participants—individuals whose reactions or responses are observed in an experiment • Then you follow the Scientific Methods to organize an experiment • Independent Variable: variable that is manipulated to test its effects on the other, dependent variables • Dependent Variable : variable that is measured to see how it is changed by manipulations • There are 2 groups of participants in an experiment • Experimental Group: the group subjected to a change in the independent variable • Control Group: the group not subjected to the change in independent variable ETHIC IN PSYCHOLOGY • American Psychological Association first published the Code of Ethics in 1953 • The code is assed each year • Outlines the ethical outlines for research and teachings psych • Set ethical standards for psychologists who offer therapy and other profession services APA CODE OF ETHICS • Participants must be informed of the nature of research in clearly understandable language • Informed consent must be documented • Risk, possible adverse effects, and limitations on confidentiality must be spelled out in advance • If participations is a condition of course credit, equitable alternative activities must be offered • Participants cannot be deceived about aspects of the research that would affect their willingness to participate, such as risks or unpleasant emotional experiences • Deceptions about the goals of the research can be used only when absolutely necessary to the integrity of the research CAREERS IN PSYCHOLOGY SECTION 5 ACADEMICS AND APPLIED PSYCH • Pursue advances degrees in psych—master’s degree or doctorate • Usually works with colleges and universities • Work in applied settings like schools, health, industrial, commercial, and educational psych • Nearly half of all doctoral psychologists are clinicians or counselors who treat people experiencing mental, emotional or adaptation problems CLINICAL SETTING • Licensed Social Workers (LSW) • Counseling Psychologists (MFCC)—help cope with situational problems • Clinical Psychologists (Ph.D or Psy.D.)—asses and treat mental, emotional and behavioral disorders • Psychiatrists (M.D.)—diagnoses and treatment of abnormal behavior • Psychoanalysts—psychiatrists with additional specialization in psychoanalytical theory EXIT SLIP: VARIABLES • An experiment to see how the mass of the ball effects the distance it travels. • Independent Variable: • Dependent Variable: • An experiment to decide if you are more attracted to a person because they share similar interests in you. • Independent Variable: • Dependent Variable: IDENTIFY THE INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLES. 1. Students want to test the whether listening to music while testing will increase your test scores or lower them. 2. A student wants to set up an experiment where they want to know if the number of visible tattoos a person has will determine the likelihood of getting a job. 3. Students wanted to know if a certain type of dog treat is more affective to use while training their pet to sit. 4. Teachers wanted to determine if the amount of students that came to class on time would increase if they were given a reward.