Topic: Universe Formation from Gravitationally Bound Structure Slide 1 – Introduction Presentation title: Acceleration of Dominant Supermassive Black Hole Singularities Serving as the Catalyst of Dark Energy in the Formation of Universes This is one of several means by which a universe could form from a gravitationally bound galaxy cluster. Short title: Singularity Acceleration Where It Fits in Cosmology: At first, Singularity Acceleration seems like a major new and different idea; however, had Linde and Smolin collaborated and made modest adjustments to their theories this hypothesis could have been published several years ago. Today’s presentation is a brief summary of universe formation from gravitationally bound structures, explaining how singularity acceleration could cause a big bang from a giant quantum fluctuation. Check All Leads Slide 2 From years of caving we have learned to check all leads, for sometimes the passage to the greatest discovery is not at all obvious until after it is found. Short Presentation This is the short presentation, intended for anyone with a science education. Most of the information in smaller type will not be discussed today due to time constraints. It provides documentation and further explanation for those interested. This presentation and the executive summary, plus the entire paper, are available on the internet at http://www.universeformation.org/. Goal: A Testable Model Based On Established Science and Probability Slide 3 • Established scientific fact, reasonable cosmology theories substantiated by statistical probability, and reasonable means of verification can be used to propose a model of universe formation that is testable. That is, the hypothesis should be verifiable or falsifiable within the foreseen future, assuming reasonable advances in astronomical knowledge and the economics of computer simulations. • In order to comply with standard scientific methodology, two axioms were proposed that require causes and effect and account for the existence of major components in any model of universe formation. Methodology: Research Cosmology, Analyze Cosmic Component Functions, Draft Model Slide 4 • The first part of this research project was a review of the scientifically-based cosmology proposals on universe formation and of the published information on the macro functionality of baryonic and dark matter, both major forms of energy, and black holes. • Through cosmological process analysis, (What things do) one observes events and results, suggests the most likely functions for all major components of the universe, and then constructs a comprehensive model of universe formation and evolution. This is done without necessarily knowing the nature of all the components. For example, black holes, dark matter and energy, and other components can be measured to partially understand what they are; however, cosmological process analysis studies what they do in order to evaluate these components by their interactions and plausible functions to produce a model that can explain the formation of the universe. The resulting model, is based on the probable function of all forms of mater, energy, black holes, etc. Criteria and Standards: The universe formation model must meet these standards Slide 5 1. Uses scientific principles; 2. Is testable, at least in principle; 3. Accounts for all forms of matter and energy in the universe; 4. Accounts for the growth in the size of the universe; 5. Explains how the universe or its predecessors could have started from nothing; 6. Accounts for the function of time within the universe, including the beginning and end of all universes; 7. Explains how any proposed exotic (theorized new and unknown) parts, functions, or forces needed to make the universe came into existence; 8. Explains the cause and effect of each phase of universe development, or it must account for spontaneous events; and 9. Demonstrates how the major components of the universe interact in some way to cause a universe-forming big bang. Tactical Goals: People, Presentation, and Refinement Slide 6 • The goal of this paper and presentation is to find the people and resources to refine the proposal in preparation for the time when our knowledge of the black hole growth process advances sufficiently to make an N-body simulation test practical and accurate. • The specific short term goal is to find a person to produce a video or develop a graphic depiction of the universe formation process. The Quest to Understand the Big Bang Slide 7 • In the quest to understand the Big Bang, the three most relevant disciplines have all experienced rapid scientific progress in recent years. They are quantum physics, M theory, and astrophysics. Each could lead to a plausible explanation of the cause of the Big Bang, or perhaps a confluence of three disciplines could result in a successful universe formation theory. • M theory (string theory), for example, presents models such as M-Brane collisions (Steinhardt–Turok or Baum–Frampton) or other interactions among prior universes as the cause of the Big Bang • Quantum mechanics models, for example, are quantum wave merger, loop quantum cosmology, and Penrose's conformal cyclic cosmology. As the knowledge base in quantum mechanics continues to grow, it may be possible either to confirm or falsify quantum fluctuations as the cause of the Big Bang. Proponents such as Andrei Linde, Lawrence Krauss, and others maintain that the uncertainly principle applies everywhere including outside of our universe and presumably outside all universes. Therefore, as quantum articles go in and out of existence and under very rare conditions, they form a massive quantum article outside a universe that causes a big bang to form a new universe. • What event or energy source would cause and sustain quantum fluctuations which result in a big bang? The Singularity Acceleration hypothesis may have an answer to this question. Spontaneous Quantum Fluctuations They Don’t Just Happen Slide 8 • All contemporary scientific models which have been proposed by quantum and string solutions are complex and verifying or falsifying appears to be unlikely in the near future. • The weakness of these universe models occurs when the quantum uncertainty principle is applied to things larger than an atom. What causes a quantum fluctuation to cause a big bang in a one step process? What would cause quantum fluctuations to scale up to a big bang? Does cosmology get a pass on these axioms that spontaneous events only occur on the quantum level? • Andrei Linde has described mathematically how quantum fluctuations could cause a big bang (The Inflationary Universe). While Linde’s proposal is probably the best contemporary explanation of what caused the Big Bang, there is no verifiable evidence that a spontaneous quantum fluctuation did so. The probability of this occurring spontaneously is very small. Eternal chaotic Inflation on page 132 Universe or Multiverse, Edited by Bernard Carr Astrophysics Excels at Falsifying Cosmology “Theories.” Slide 9 Astrophysics and the advances in accurately measuring the cosmos have substantially influenced cosmology. This information has falsified many cosmological models, the most famous being the Steady State theory. The Big Crunch in which the entire universe collapses into a giant black hole and then explodes into another universe has also been falsified. There Is One Class Of Astrophysics Possibilities That Has Not Been Falsified. Slide 10 • Although our entire universe will not consolidate to form a new universe, the possibility that part of it might do so has not been eliminated. • Astrophysics has given us an entirely new perspective with the discovery that dark energy is driving the expansion of the universe and separating everything that is not gravitationally bound. This means that the galaxies in most galaxy clusters will merge, forming giant galaxies. These galaxies will eventually be isolated over the event horizon from each other and the remaining universe. (Kentaro Nagamine and Abraham Loeb, 2002) • If it is plausible that large galaxies in our universe could provide the stimulus for a quantum fluctuation to cause a future big bang, then one might generalize that this is the method that caused the Big Bang. Observation and an N-body simulation will determine what will happen to these giant galaxies in the next several hundred billion years, including the possibility that gravitationally bound galaxies, clusters, and cosmic structures could form universes. Is Our Universe Telling Us Something? Slide 11 • As science discovered supermassive black holes, dark energy, and dark matter that represent the vast majority of the universe, the question arose: are these a significant part of the universe formation process? Could the events that have occurred in the first 13.7 billion years of our universe be part of a pattern that happened in a previous universe? Is our universe doing essentially the same thing that a preceding universe and its predecessor did? This concept forms the basis of Axiom 2, which states that all significant forms of matter and energy and all significant processes and events are critical to the formation of universes. Axioms 1 and 2 provide the philosophical basis of the Singularity Acceleration hypothesis. • The most obvious clue about the cause of our universe is that the Big Bang looks like it came from a singularity. Where could the Big Bang singularity have come from? What force and mechanism could make such a massive universe as ours? Assumptions Slide 12 The same laws and constraints that apply to all other disciplines also apply to cosmology. For the purposes of this hypothesis, it is assumed that the following contemporary science theories are generally true: • General relatively • Quantum mechanics: the standard model • Flat universe • Big Bang • Inflation • Dark energy • Dark matter • The sum of everything in the universe is zero; however, matter separate from gravity has existed since the first universe. Something from nothing proposals convincingly show that the universe is flat and that the total of everything in the universe equals zero. That is, when all forms of matter, energy, and forces including gravity are totaled, the result is zero. The First Two Axioms Provide Requirements for All Cosmological Proposals. Slide 13 • What is the basis of universe formation from gravitationally bound structures, if the Big Bang was not the result of a one step spontaneous cosmic quantum fluctuation, stacked-up quantum waves, or the result of bane collisions? • Nine axioms are proposed as alternative systems that rely mostly on contemporary science. The first two provide the direction to discover the mechanism of universe formation. Trial and Error - Act and Refine Generate and Test Slide 14 • Axiom 1. All complex processes both natural and intentionally designed, are the result of a refinement sequence that is often referred to as trial and error. • Nature discovers new laws and methods from the random and occasionally successful occurrence of a variation from a continual and usually repetitive action. • Great things are not spontaneous. All great events have causes that can at least in principle be identified, measured, and explained. This axiom effectively states that it is unlikely that the Big Bang was a spontaneous event and that instead it was preceded by numerous events. • Ultra small events, such as the formation of certain subatomic particles, may be spontaneous. An example of a plausible spontaneous event may be the formation of one-dimensional strings. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle states that articles go in and out of existence. Before any universe or other matter existed, it is plausible that the uncertainty principle applied and a quantum fluctuation caused the first micro universe. • The likelihood of a large spontaneous event is inversely and exponentially proportional to the complexity of the spontaneous event. The chances of very large events occurring spontaneously are so small that, while they are technically not zero, the reality is that it is impossible. The equation F = 1/u2 describes the probability of numerous independent objects spontaneously combining to form a new consolidated object, where F = the probability of the formation of an object from independent units and u = the number of independently functioning units. No Major Superfluous Stuff Slide 15 • Axiom 2. All significant forms of matter and energy and all significant processes and events are critical to the formation of universes. • Nothing in nature forms and survives very long, relative to its peers, with significant superfluous components. The most significant forces and other phenomena have critical functions in the formation of this universe and have the same critical functions in the formation of all past and future universes. • Everything in the universe is the cause or result of a critical function. Matter, energy, dark matter, and dark energy all have critical functions in universe formation and existence. For example, galaxy clusters are held together by gravity from dark matter and matter. The Singularity Acceleration Hypothesis Requires Seven Steps or Phases. Slide 16 • Singularity acceleration universe formation is a cyclic process analogous to a branching universe having seven phases reoccurring in each daughter universe. • The First 3 of the 7 Phases of Branching Universe Formation from Gravitationally Bound Structure • The first part of the history of our universe can be condensed into three of seven general phases of universe formation, each over many eons. • Phase 1. A big bang and inflation forms our universe • Phase 2. Expansion of our universe and its structure • Phase 3. Dispersion of its mass and increasing entropy Each Galaxy Cluster Will Become Its Own Independent Universe Phase 4 Slide 17 • During Phase 4, each of galaxy clusters and sometimes supercluster complexes in the universe becomes isolated from other galaxy clusters beyond event horizons, so each galaxy cluster will become its own independent universe. Given hundreds of billions of years, galaxies within clusters collide and merge, as do their supermassive black holes. Within each super cluster, all forms of matter, forces, and energy consolidate into a dominant supermassive black hole gravitational singularity. This process provides the basis for Axiom 5, which states that simultaneous universe expansion and galaxy cluster consolidation are essential to making more universes. Gravity is pushing the singularity deeper and warping space, so the warp becomes many light years deep. Consolidation Of Galaxy Clusters Into A Dominant Supermassive Black Hole Over > 3 x 1011 Years Slide 18 • Phase 5 describes the consolidation of much of the galaxy cluster into a dominant supermassive black hole over hundreds of billions of years. • A black hole singularity compresses all of its matter and energy into a singularity that moves by stretching or warping space. Mass bends or warps space, and the more massive an object, the more space bends. A dominant supermassive black hole singularity’s mass is so great that it breaks the equilibrium between it and the constraining gravitational forces of its galaxy, causing it to increasingly warp space and move farther away from its galaxy, reducing their mutual attraction. • So far, this explanation describes five phases of universe formation, all of which are fairly conventional, and in principal, provable. Phase 6, Dark Energy Changes Everything for Cosmology. Slide 19 • The ramifications of the discovery of dark energy, dark matter, supermassive black holes, and inflation have only begun to impact physics in general and cosmology in particular. Dark energy generally has not been factored into all universe formation models, but when considered, it changes everything. The function of dark energy is to push the universe apart, separating each super cluster over the event horizon from all other superclusters. In this later stage of the universe, all that is left in each separated unit is a dominant supermassive black hole, the unconsumed part of the galaxy cluster, and dark energy doing what it does best, pushing these two apart. This process is described by Axiom 6, which states that dominant supermassive black hole singularities can expand and bend space at the speed of light. The mass of dark energy is applied to the singularity as it accelerates, increasing mass by using the E= m.c2 law of momentum conservation by at least three orders of magnitude and possibly more. Acceleration of singularities expanding and warping space to the speed of light is phase 6 of universe formation. This process would bring NGC 4889 to within one to four orders of magnitude of the mass of our universe. Phase 7, Big Bang Phase Transition, a Quantum Fluctuation Slide 20 • The separation of each singularity from the universe, causing a big bang phase transition, is phase 7 of the universe formation cycle. • The occurrence of inflation, when the very early universe appears to have expanded at a rate exceeding the speed of light, provides strong evidence that a phase transition occurred during the Big Bang phase of the universe formation when some physical laws did not apply. For example, during this phase transition, the universeforming singularity became naked, causing quantum fluctuation. The gravitational bond of the singularity was disrupted and ended, causing it to explode as a big bang. Inflation Makes The Case For Quantum Fluctuations and a Big Bang Phase Transition From One Universe To Another. Slide 21 • Inflation provides the best evidence of a phase transition between universes in which the laws of nature are suspended. If the inflation period in the early formation of this universe is correct, then the rules of our universe and the previous universe were not in effect for a short time. This effectively nullifies the law of gravity, thus allowing the release of the energy stored in the singularity, which causes a big bang. With the laws of nature temporally suspended, inflation and the CP violation could occur. This becomes the basis of Axiom 7, which states that a big bang phase transition occurs when dark energy acting upon a singularity expands and warps space at the speed of light and separates from its universe. Several Possibilities Could Account for the Large Scale of the Universe. Slide 22 • Quantum Fluctuation - The acceleration of a dominant supermassive black hole singularity could serve as the catalyst for a quantum fluctuation to expand the scale of the of a new universe • CP Violation - A CP violation and other processes result in a substantial increase in the matter and energy in the new universe over the amount in the singularity. The Singularity Acceleration hypothesis suggests that the larger the singularity, the more efficient the CP violation process or equivalent process is at making mass and annihilating antimatter, thereby increasing the mass of the larger universes. A CP violation is a violation of the combination of C-symmetry (charge conjugation symmetry) and Psymmetry (parity symmetry) of baryons. Nature of Big Bangs to Multiply Mass Slide 23 • The mass creation equation Mu= S2.C2 shows the exponential increase in the production of matter in the most massive singularities, where Mu = the mass of the new universe, S = the mass of the singularity, and C = constant or the speed of light. The mass of the universe remains zero as gravity is considered negative and it equally offsets all the other mass. • The singularity that formed our Big Bang has every feature one would expect to occur in a supermassive black hole singularity that came from an earlier universe. There is just one problem, and that is the matter of scale. If it were not for a daunting size discrepancy of at least thirteen orders of magnitude between the mass of the largest known black hole singularity, NGC 4889, and the mass of our universe, the concept of black hole singularity-causing universe formation might have been considered possible. However, this idea was generally dismissed without serious study, even though black hole singularities would otherwise be considered the perfect candidate as the cause of the Big Bang. New information about extremely large supermassive black holes and the extent of dark energy provides the means for the Singularity Acceleration proposal to explain how a universe such as ours could be caused by a singularity from another universe. From the largest singularity, NGC 4889, I estimate that consolidation with everything in its supercluster complex provides about six orders of the needed thirteen orders of magnitude to be equal to the mass of our universe. These two variables could add another one or two orders of magnitude. However, we are still short five to seven orders of magnitude for an existing supermassive black hole singularity to make a universe roughly equal the mass of our universe. This difference can be explained by Linde’s quantum fluctuations. • This plausible sequence of events accounts for the formation of a new universe from a large galaxy cluster such as NGC 4889 from within our universe. This sequence of seven phases could be applied to all universe formation in a series of never-ending branches. Cosmological Evolution Why Would This All Happen? Slide 24 • In the universe, matter and energy function with the constraints or limits imposed by their nature. Some functions such as a big bang result in producing more matter. Cosmological evolution maintains that universe evolution is analogous to biological evolution, and given enough time, universes will occur that are more efficient in making more universes. This principle leads to the formulation of Axiom 8, cosmological evolution: if it is possible for a type of universe to form, it will; and if it is possible for universes to evolve processes that form more universes, they will. The most reproductively efficient universes will become the most common. This idea that "if it can happen, it will happen" is fundamental to quantum mechanics, and Axiom 8 states the same principle as it applies to cosmological evolution. Quantum Fluctuations Start This Process Slide 25 The first micro universes could have formed by spontaneously occurring quantum fluctuations sufficiently concentrated to make a micro black hole. If the first eight axioms are true, then Axiom 9 could be true; however, it is presented as a plausible means in which the first generations of universes could have begun the process in a manner similar to the formation of all subsequent universes, using a modified version of the Singularity Acceleration hypothesis. Axioms 1-5, Summary Slide 26 Summary of the universe formation axioms and the major implications of each • Axiom 1. All complex processes both natural and intentionally designed, are the result of a refinement sequence that is often referred to as trial and error. States that nature discovers more effective means of existence by activity over time. Great things are not spontaneous. • Axiom 2. All significant forms of matter and energy and all significant processes and events are critical to the formation of universes. States that nature discovers more efficient means to perpetuate existence over time. Any universes that form with significant superfluous parts fail to make more universes. Nothing in nature forms and survives very long, relative to its peers, with significant superfluous components. • Axiom 3. Gravity and black hole singularities are unique in their ability to concentrate and store large amounts of energy for very long periods of time. States that gravity is the only force able to make dominant supermassive black hole singularities. • Axiom 4. Potential space and time are infinite. States that universe formation will go on forever. • Axiom 5. A simultaneously expanding universe and consolidating galaxy clusters are essential to making more universes. States that both gravity and dark energy are required to make more universes Axioms 6-9, Summary Slide 27 • Axiom 6. Dominant Supermassive black hole singularities can expand and bend space at the speed of light. States that dark energy propels the singularity in a space warp, in effect, increasing its mass. According to the law of momentum conservation, the mass of the singularity depends on its speed. Thus, as dark energy is applied to the movement of the singularity, it effectively increases the mass of both the singularity and the new universe it will form. • Axiom 7. A big bang phase transition occurs when a singularity warps space at the speed of light and separates from its universe, stimulating a quantum fluctuation. Gravity and other physical laws prevent big bangs from occurring within a universe. Gravity keeps a black hole singularity in its singularity form until the singularity slowly degenerates by Hawking radiation. The only alternative for a singularity is to separate from the universe, becoming naked and causing a big bang when the laws of the universe do not apply for a brief time. • Axiom 8. Cosmological Evolution – If it is possible for a type of universe to form, it will. There are 24 theorized descriptions, rules, and processes governing universe formation from gravitationally bound structures listed on the website. If it is possible for universes to evolve systems that produce universes, with laws of physics most likely to produce more and larger universes more efficiently and more reliably, they will, given enough universe generations. • Axiom 9. Every universe has a beginning and an end. The first micro universes were formed by spontaneously occurring quantum fluctuations sufficiently concentrated to make a micro black hole. Universe formation systems (multiverses) have a beginning and may have an end. Summaries of the 7 Phases Slide 28 In summary, there are seven phases that reoccur with the formation of each universe. • Cosmological process analysis is used to develop the Singularity Acceleration hypothesis, which is based on nine universe formation axioms. The resulting theorem explains the mechanism by which dominant supermassive black hole singularities form and capture all forms of matter and energy. Supermassive singularity separation from the universe leads to a big bang phase transition in which the laws of the universe do not apply. This results in the loss of gravitational attraction, causing a big bang and inflation. • Singularity acceleration universe formation is a cyclic process analogous to a branching universe, having the following seven phases reoccurring in each daughter universe: • 1. A phase transition big bang that forms a new universe • 2. Expansion of the new universe and its structure • 3. Dispersion of its mass and increasing entropy • 4. Isolation of its galaxy clusters and supercluster complexes beyond event horizons • 5. Many separate consolidations of all gravitationally bound forms of matter, forces, and energy within these supercluster complexes into dominant supermassive black hole gravitational singularities • 6. The resulting acceleration of singularities expanding and warping space to the speed of light • 7. The independent separation of each of these singularities from the universe in a quantum fluctuation, causing a big bang phase transition and producing all forms of matter, forces, and energy in a new universe. Singularity Acceleration Explains Universe Formation Slide 29 • It is the first model describing the cause of the Big Bang that incorporates dark energy and matter and supermassive black holes in its basic hypothesis. (Axiom 2) • Singularity Acceleration uses only established scientific principles and known components. It is the only hypothesis of universe formation that states a complete cause and effect for each phase, including a description of the starting mechanism for the first universe. • The proposal is testable although some of these tests may require technological advances and additional information on black hole growth. • With only a few gaps to discover, the Singularity Acceleration model is the closest hypothesis to being a viable theory of the cause of big bangs and, by inference, how universes are formed. Verification by N-body Simulation Slide 30 • The most practical method to test this hypothesis would be to construct a computer program Nbody simulation to model the relative movement of all the gravitationally-bound components of structures such as galaxy clusters. It is projected that the results of the computer simulation emulating the next 200 to 800 billion years of any galaxy cluster would show consolidation of much of the structure’s mass into a dominant supermassive black hole. It would also show the singularity’s acceleration increasing by expanding and warping of space and, in effect, moving from the mass of the galaxy cluster driven by dark energy. If these phenomena occur as predicted, the dominant supermassive black hole singularity will stimulate a quantum fluctuation and cause a big bang. By inference, one could then assume that this process caused our universeforming big bang. Given enough information, a computer model could predict when and which specific galaxies and galaxy clusters will produce dominant supermassive black holes. This is the proposal that was sent to Tom Quinn for evaluation: • “In our universe over many billions of years in the future, all other galaxies not gravitationally bound to the Andromeda and Milky Way cluster will disappear over the event horizon. The supermassive black holes from these two galaxies and others will merge and form a dominant supermassive black hole at the center of the consolidated galaxy. Over a very long time it will consume much of this galaxy, becoming by far its dominant feature. It is hypothesized that somewhere in the range of 200 to 800 billion years from now, the singularity will break its gravitation attraction with the rest of the galaxy, cause a giant quantum fluctuation, and form a new universe.” Obstacles to Verification Slide 31 Tom Quinn is a professor in the Department of Astronomy at the University of Washington in Seattle where he leads the N-Body Shop. This is his response to the practicality of doing an N-body simulation now. “Such a simulation could be run, but it would take about a decade and cost over a million dollars in equipment and power. Is it worth it? No, I would not trust the black hole growth predictions: we understand too little about how central black holes grow to the present, much less how they will grow going forward.” The following are the obstacles to testing the hypothesis for a sample structure such as the Andromeda and Milky Way galaxy cluster: • The cost • Supermassive black hole growth rates • The need to have a better understanding of how dark matter relates gravitationally to baryonic matter A Few of the Interesting Conclusions If Singularity Acceleration Is Verified. Slide 32 This APS presentation of the Singularity Acceleration hypothesis and the entire paper are available on the internet at www.universeformation.org. See navigation bar under Singularity Paper, APS presentation John M. Wilson: [email protected] A Short Explanation of the Source and Cause of our Universe and How It Formed • In our parent universe, a very large galaxy supercluster complex disappeared over the event horizon from all other galaxies. One supermassive black hole consumed much of this supercluster, becoming the dominant feature of the galaxy and creating a singularity that accelerated to the speed of light propelled by and assimilating the mass from dark energy by the law of the momentum conservation. It burst from its universe, entering a big bang phase transition that created our universe. Supermassive Black Holes • Most of the galaxy cluster’s mass consolidates into a dominant supermassive black hole. Dark Energy • Dark energy’s repulsive force pushes dominant supermassive black hole singularities, increasing their space warp and contributing its mass to its singularity. • The mass of dark energy is added to the mass of the black hole singularities as it propels the space warp acceleration of a singularity, based on the law of momentum conservation. Inflation • The inflation era is part of a phase transition in which a singularity breaks its gravitational bonds with and separates from its universe. What is the Future for Us and Everything? • All mass in the universe has two possible outcomes: it either becomes part of a dominant supermassive black hole, which forms a new universe, or it degenerates into nothing.