APS Slide Presentation

Topic: Universe Formation from
Gravitationally Bound Structure
Slide 1 – Introduction
Presentation title:
Acceleration of Dominant Supermassive Black Hole Singularities Serving as the Catalyst
of Dark Energy in the Formation of Universes
This is one of several means by which a universe could form from a gravitationally
bound galaxy cluster.
Short title: Singularity Acceleration
Where It Fits in Cosmology: At first, Singularity Acceleration seems like a major
new and different idea; however, had Linde and Smolin collaborated and made
modest adjustments to their theories this hypothesis could have been published
several years ago.
Today’s presentation is a brief summary of universe formation from gravitationally
bound structures, explaining how singularity acceleration could cause a big bang from
a giant quantum fluctuation.
Check All Leads
Slide 2
From years of caving we have learned to check all leads, for
sometimes the passage to the greatest discovery is not at all
obvious until after it is found.
Short Presentation
This is the short presentation, intended for anyone with a
science education.
Most of the information in smaller type will not be discussed
today due to time constraints. It provides documentation and
further explanation for those interested. This presentation
and the executive summary, plus the entire paper, are
available on the internet at
Goal: A Testable Model Based On
Established Science and Probability
Slide 3
• Established scientific fact, reasonable cosmology theories
substantiated by statistical probability, and reasonable means
of verification can be used to propose a model of universe
formation that is testable. That is, the hypothesis should be
verifiable or falsifiable within the foreseen future, assuming
reasonable advances in astronomical knowledge and the
economics of computer simulations.
• In order to comply with standard scientific methodology,
two axioms were proposed that require causes and effect
and account for the existence of major components in any
model of universe formation.
Methodology: Research Cosmology, Analyze
Cosmic Component Functions, Draft Model
Slide 4
• The first part of this research project was a review of the scientifically-based
cosmology proposals on universe formation and of the published information on
the macro functionality of baryonic and dark matter, both major forms of energy,
and black holes.
Through cosmological process analysis, (What things do) one observes events and
results, suggests the most likely functions for all major components of the
universe, and then constructs a comprehensive model of universe formation and
evolution. This is done without necessarily knowing the nature of all the
components. For example, black holes, dark matter and energy, and other
components can be measured to partially understand what they are; however,
cosmological process analysis studies what they do in order to evaluate these
components by their interactions and plausible functions to produce a model that
can explain the formation of the universe. The resulting model, is based on the
probable function of all forms of mater, energy, black holes, etc.
Criteria and Standards: The universe formation
model must meet these standards
Slide 5
1. Uses scientific principles;
2. Is testable, at least in principle;
3. Accounts for all forms of matter and energy in the universe;
4. Accounts for the growth in the size of the universe;
5. Explains how the universe or its predecessors could have started from nothing;
6. Accounts for the function of time within the universe, including the beginning
and end of all universes;
7. Explains how any proposed exotic (theorized new and unknown) parts,
functions, or forces needed to make the universe came into existence;
8. Explains the cause and effect of each phase of universe development, or it must
account for spontaneous events; and
9. Demonstrates how the major components of the universe interact in some
way to cause a universe-forming big bang.
Tactical Goals: People,
Presentation, and Refinement
Slide 6
• The goal of this paper and presentation is to find
the people and resources to refine the proposal in
preparation for the time when our knowledge of
the black hole growth process advances sufficiently
to make an N-body simulation test practical and
• The specific short term goal is to find a person to
produce a video or develop a graphic depiction of
the universe formation process.
The Quest to Understand the Big Bang
Slide 7
• In the quest to understand the Big Bang, the three most relevant disciplines have all
experienced rapid scientific progress in recent years. They are quantum physics, M theory,
and astrophysics. Each could lead to a plausible explanation of the cause of the Big Bang, or
perhaps a confluence of three disciplines could result in a successful universe formation
• M theory (string theory), for example, presents models such as M-Brane collisions
(Steinhardt–Turok or Baum–Frampton) or other interactions among prior universes as the
cause of the Big Bang
• Quantum mechanics models, for example, are quantum wave merger, loop quantum
cosmology, and Penrose's conformal cyclic cosmology.
As the knowledge base in quantum mechanics continues to grow, it may be possible either to
confirm or falsify quantum fluctuations as the cause of the Big Bang. Proponents such as
Andrei Linde, Lawrence Krauss, and others maintain that the uncertainly principle applies
everywhere including outside of our universe and presumably outside all universes.
Therefore, as quantum articles go in and out of existence and under very rare conditions,
they form a massive quantum article outside a universe that causes a big bang to form a new
• What event or energy source would cause and sustain quantum fluctuations which result in a
big bang? The Singularity Acceleration hypothesis may have an answer to this question.
Spontaneous Quantum Fluctuations
They Don’t Just Happen
Slide 8
• All contemporary scientific models which have been proposed by quantum and
string solutions are complex and verifying or falsifying appears to be unlikely in the
near future.
• The weakness of these universe models occurs when the quantum uncertainty
principle is applied to things larger than an atom. What causes a quantum
fluctuation to cause a big bang in a one step process? What would cause quantum
fluctuations to scale up to a big bang? Does cosmology get a pass on these axioms
that spontaneous events only occur on the quantum level?
• Andrei Linde has described mathematically how quantum fluctuations could
cause a big bang (The Inflationary Universe). While Linde’s proposal is probably
the best contemporary explanation of what caused the Big Bang, there is no
verifiable evidence that a spontaneous quantum fluctuation did so. The
probability of this occurring spontaneously is very small.
Eternal chaotic Inflation on page 132 Universe or Multiverse, Edited by Bernard Carr
Astrophysics Excels at Falsifying
Cosmology “Theories.”
Slide 9
Astrophysics and the advances in accurately
measuring the cosmos have substantially
influenced cosmology. This information has
falsified many cosmological models, the most
famous being the Steady State theory. The
Big Crunch in which the entire universe
collapses into a giant black hole and then
explodes into another universe has also been
There Is One Class Of Astrophysics Possibilities
That Has Not Been Falsified.
Slide 10
• Although our entire universe will not consolidate to form a new universe, the
possibility that part of it might do so has not been eliminated.
• Astrophysics has given us an entirely new perspective with the discovery that dark
energy is driving the expansion of the universe and separating everything that is
not gravitationally bound. This means that the galaxies in most galaxy clusters will
merge, forming giant galaxies. These galaxies will eventually be isolated over the
event horizon from each other and the remaining universe. (Kentaro
Nagamine and Abraham Loeb, 2002)
• If it is plausible that large galaxies in our universe could provide the stimulus for a
quantum fluctuation to cause a future big bang, then one might generalize that
this is the method that caused the Big Bang. Observation and an N-body
simulation will determine what will happen to these giant galaxies in the next
several hundred billion years, including the possibility that gravitationally bound
galaxies, clusters, and cosmic structures could form universes.
Is Our Universe Telling Us Something?
Slide 11
• As science discovered supermassive black holes, dark energy, and dark
matter that represent the vast majority of the universe, the question
arose: are these a significant part of the universe formation
process? Could the events that have occurred in the first 13.7 billion years
of our universe be part of a pattern that happened in a previous universe?
Is our universe doing essentially the same thing that a preceding universe
and its predecessor did? This concept forms the basis of Axiom 2, which
states that all significant forms of matter and energy and all significant
processes and events are critical to the formation of universes. Axioms 1
and 2 provide the philosophical basis of the Singularity Acceleration
• The most obvious clue about the cause of our universe is that the Big
Bang looks like it came from a singularity. Where could the Big Bang
singularity have come from? What force and mechanism could make such
a massive universe as ours?
Slide 12
The same laws and constraints that apply to all other disciplines also apply to cosmology.
For the purposes of this hypothesis, it is assumed that the following contemporary science
theories are generally true:
• General relatively
• Quantum mechanics: the standard model
• Flat universe
• Big Bang
• Inflation
• Dark energy
• Dark matter
• The sum of everything in the universe is zero; however, matter separate from gravity has
existed since the first universe. Something from nothing proposals convincingly show that the
universe is flat and that the total of everything in the universe equals zero. That is, when all
forms of matter, energy, and forces including gravity are totaled, the result is zero.
The First Two Axioms Provide Requirements for
All Cosmological Proposals.
Slide 13
• What is the basis of universe formation from gravitationally
bound structures, if the Big Bang was not the result of a one
step spontaneous cosmic quantum fluctuation, stacked-up
quantum waves, or the result of bane collisions?
• Nine axioms are proposed as alternative systems that
rely mostly on contemporary science. The first two
provide the direction to discover the mechanism of
universe formation.
Trial and Error - Act and Refine Generate and Test
Slide 14
Axiom 1. All complex processes both natural and intentionally designed, are the result of a refinement
sequence that is often referred to as trial and error.
Nature discovers new laws and methods from the random and occasionally successful occurrence of a
variation from a continual and usually repetitive action.
Great things are not spontaneous. All great events have causes that can at least in principle be identified,
measured, and explained. This axiom effectively states that it is unlikely that the Big Bang was a
spontaneous event and that instead it was preceded by numerous events.
Ultra small events, such as the formation of certain subatomic particles, may be spontaneous. An example
of a plausible spontaneous event may be the formation of one-dimensional strings. Heisenberg’s
uncertainty principle states that articles go in and out of existence. Before any universe or other matter
existed, it is plausible that the uncertainty principle applied and a quantum fluctuation caused the first
micro universe.
The likelihood of a large spontaneous event is inversely and exponentially proportional to the complexity
of the spontaneous event. The chances of very large events occurring spontaneously are so small that,
while they are technically not zero, the reality is that it is impossible. The equation F = 1/u2 describes the
probability of numerous independent objects spontaneously combining to form a new consolidated
object, where F = the probability of the formation of an object from independent units and u = the
number of independently functioning units.
No Major Superfluous Stuff
Slide 15
• Axiom 2. All significant forms of matter and energy and all
significant processes and events are critical to the formation of
• Nothing in nature forms and survives very long, relative to its peers,
with significant superfluous components. The most significant
forces and other phenomena have critical functions in the
formation of this universe and have the same critical functions in
the formation of all past and future universes.
• Everything in the universe is the cause or result of a critical
function. Matter, energy, dark matter, and dark energy all have
critical functions in universe formation and existence. For example,
galaxy clusters are held together by gravity from dark matter and
The Singularity Acceleration Hypothesis
Requires Seven Steps or Phases.
Slide 16
• Singularity acceleration universe formation is a cyclic process
analogous to a branching universe having seven phases
reoccurring in each daughter universe.
• The First 3 of the 7 Phases of Branching Universe Formation from
Gravitationally Bound Structure
• The first part of the history of our universe can be condensed into
three of seven general phases of universe formation, each over
many eons.
• Phase 1. A big bang and inflation forms our universe
• Phase 2. Expansion of our universe and its structure
• Phase 3. Dispersion of its mass and increasing entropy
Each Galaxy Cluster Will Become Its Own
Independent Universe Phase 4
Slide 17
• During Phase 4, each of galaxy clusters and sometimes
supercluster complexes in the universe becomes isolated from
other galaxy clusters beyond event horizons, so each galaxy
cluster will become its own independent universe. Given
hundreds of billions of years, galaxies within clusters collide and
merge, as do their supermassive black holes. Within each super
cluster, all forms of matter, forces, and energy consolidate into a
dominant supermassive black hole gravitational singularity. This
process provides the basis for Axiom 5, which states that
simultaneous universe expansion and galaxy cluster consolidation
are essential to making more universes. Gravity is pushing the
singularity deeper and warping space, so the warp becomes many
light years deep.
Consolidation Of Galaxy Clusters Into A Dominant
Supermassive Black Hole Over > 3 x 1011 Years
Slide 18
• Phase 5 describes the consolidation of much of the galaxy cluster
into a dominant supermassive black hole over hundreds of billions
of years.
• A black hole singularity compresses all of its matter and energy into
a singularity that moves by stretching or warping space. Mass
bends or warps space, and the more massive an object, the more
space bends. A dominant supermassive black hole singularity’s
mass is so great that it breaks the equilibrium between it and the
constraining gravitational forces of its galaxy, causing it to
increasingly warp space and move farther away from its galaxy,
reducing their mutual attraction.
• So far, this explanation describes five phases of universe formation,
all of which are fairly conventional, and in principal, provable.
Phase 6, Dark Energy Changes
Everything for Cosmology.
Slide 19
• The ramifications of the discovery of dark energy, dark matter, supermassive black
holes, and inflation have only begun to impact physics in general and cosmology in
particular. Dark energy generally has not been factored into all universe formation
models, but when considered, it changes everything. The function of dark energy
is to push the universe apart, separating each super cluster over the event
horizon from all other superclusters. In this later stage of the universe, all that is
left in each separated unit is a dominant supermassive black hole, the
unconsumed part of the galaxy cluster, and dark energy doing what it does best,
pushing these two apart. This process is described by Axiom 6, which states that
dominant supermassive black hole singularities can expand and bend space at
the speed of light. The mass of dark energy is applied to the singularity as it
accelerates, increasing mass by using the E= m.c2 law of momentum conservation
by at least three orders of magnitude and possibly more. Acceleration of
singularities expanding and warping space to the speed of light is phase 6 of
universe formation. This process would bring NGC 4889 to within one to four
orders of magnitude of the mass of our universe.
Phase 7, Big Bang Phase Transition, a
Quantum Fluctuation
Slide 20
• The separation of each singularity from the universe, causing a big
bang phase transition, is phase 7 of the universe formation cycle.
• The occurrence of inflation, when the very early universe appears
to have expanded at a rate exceeding the speed of light, provides
strong evidence that a phase transition occurred during the Big
Bang phase of the universe formation when some physical laws did
not apply. For example, during this phase transition, the universeforming singularity became naked, causing quantum fluctuation.
The gravitational bond of the singularity was disrupted and ended,
causing it to explode as a big bang.
Inflation Makes The Case
For Quantum Fluctuations and a Big Bang Phase
Transition From One Universe To Another.
Slide 21
• Inflation provides the best evidence of a phase transition between
universes in which the laws of nature are suspended. If the
inflation period in the early formation of this universe is correct,
then the rules of our universe and the previous universe were not
in effect for a short time. This effectively nullifies the law of
gravity, thus allowing the release of the energy stored in the
singularity, which causes a big bang. With the laws of nature
temporally suspended, inflation and the CP violation could occur.
This becomes the basis of Axiom 7, which states that a big bang
phase transition occurs when dark energy acting upon a singularity
expands and warps space at the speed of light and separates from
its universe.
Several Possibilities Could Account for the
Large Scale of the Universe.
Slide 22
• Quantum Fluctuation - The acceleration of a dominant
supermassive black hole singularity could serve as the catalyst for
a quantum fluctuation to expand the scale of the of a new
• CP Violation - A CP violation and other processes result in a
substantial increase in the matter and energy in the new universe
over the amount in the singularity. The Singularity Acceleration
hypothesis suggests that the larger the singularity, the more
efficient the CP violation process or equivalent process is at
making mass and annihilating antimatter, thereby increasing the
mass of the larger universes. A CP violation is a violation of the
combination of C-symmetry (charge conjugation symmetry) and Psymmetry (parity symmetry) of baryons.
Nature of Big Bangs to Multiply Mass
Slide 23
The mass creation equation Mu= S2.C2 shows the exponential increase in the production of matter in the
most massive singularities, where Mu = the mass of the new universe, S = the mass of the singularity,
and C = constant or the speed of light. The mass of the universe remains zero as gravity is considered
negative and it equally offsets all the other mass.
The singularity that formed our Big Bang has every feature one would expect to occur in a supermassive
black hole singularity that came from an earlier universe. There is just one problem, and that is the matter
of scale. If it were not for a daunting size discrepancy of at least thirteen orders of magnitude between the
mass of the largest known black hole singularity, NGC 4889, and the mass of our universe, the concept of
black hole singularity-causing universe formation might have been considered possible. However, this idea
was generally dismissed without serious study, even though black hole singularities would otherwise be
considered the perfect candidate as the cause of the Big Bang. New information about extremely large
supermassive black holes and the extent of dark energy provides the means for the Singularity
Acceleration proposal to explain how a universe such as ours could be caused by a singularity from
another universe. From the largest singularity, NGC 4889, I estimate that consolidation with everything in
its supercluster complex provides about six orders of the needed thirteen orders of magnitude to be equal
to the mass of our universe. These two variables could add another one or two orders of magnitude.
However, we are still short five to seven orders of magnitude for an existing supermassive black hole
singularity to make a universe roughly equal the mass of our universe. This difference can be explained by
Linde’s quantum fluctuations.
This plausible sequence of events accounts for the formation of a new universe from a large galaxy cluster
such as NGC 4889 from within our universe. This sequence of seven phases could be applied to all
universe formation in a series of never-ending branches.
Cosmological Evolution
Why Would This All Happen?
Slide 24
• In the universe, matter and energy function with the constraints or limits
imposed by their nature. Some functions such as a big bang result in
producing more matter. Cosmological evolution maintains that universe
evolution is analogous to biological evolution, and given enough time,
universes will occur that are more efficient in making more universes.
This principle leads to the formulation of Axiom 8, cosmological
evolution: if it is possible for a type of universe to form, it will; and if it is
possible for universes to evolve processes that form more universes,
they will. The most reproductively efficient universes will become the
most common. This idea that "if it can happen, it will happen" is
fundamental to quantum mechanics, and Axiom 8 states the same
principle as it applies to cosmological evolution.
Quantum Fluctuations Start This Process
Slide 25
The first micro universes could have formed by
spontaneously occurring quantum fluctuations
sufficiently concentrated to make a micro black hole. If
the first eight axioms are true, then Axiom 9 could be
true; however, it is presented as a plausible means in
which the first generations of universes could have begun
the process in a manner similar to the formation of all
subsequent universes, using a modified version of the
Singularity Acceleration hypothesis.
Axioms 1-5, Summary
Slide 26
Summary of the universe formation axioms and the major implications of each
• Axiom 1. All complex processes both natural and intentionally designed, are the result of a
refinement sequence that is often referred to as trial and error. States that nature discovers
more effective means of existence by activity over time. Great things are not spontaneous.
• Axiom 2. All significant forms of matter and energy and all significant processes and events
are critical to the formation of universes. States that nature discovers more efficient means
to perpetuate existence over time. Any universes that form with significant superfluous parts
fail to make more universes. Nothing in nature forms and survives very long, relative to its
peers, with significant superfluous components.
• Axiom 3. Gravity and black hole singularities are unique in their ability to concentrate and
store large amounts of energy for very long periods of time. States that gravity is the only
force able to make dominant supermassive black hole singularities.
• Axiom 4. Potential space and time are infinite. States that universe formation will go on
• Axiom 5. A simultaneously expanding universe and consolidating galaxy clusters are
essential to making more universes. States that both gravity and dark energy are required to
make more universes
Axioms 6-9, Summary
Slide 27
Axiom 6. Dominant Supermassive black hole singularities can expand and bend space at the speed of
light. States that dark energy propels the singularity in a space warp, in effect, increasing its mass.
According to the law of momentum conservation, the mass of the singularity depends on its speed. Thus,
as dark energy is applied to the movement of the singularity, it effectively increases the mass of both the
singularity and the new universe it will form.
Axiom 7. A big bang phase transition occurs when a singularity warps space at the speed of light
and separates from its universe, stimulating a quantum fluctuation. Gravity and other physical laws
prevent big bangs from occurring within a universe. Gravity keeps a black hole singularity in its singularity
form until the singularity slowly degenerates by Hawking radiation. The only alternative for a singularity is
to separate from the universe, becoming naked and causing a big bang when the laws of the universe do
not apply for a brief time.
Axiom 8. Cosmological Evolution – If it is possible for a type of universe to form, it will. There are 24
theorized descriptions, rules, and processes governing universe formation from gravitationally bound
structures listed on the website. If it is possible for universes to evolve systems that produce universes,
with laws of physics most likely to produce more and larger universes more efficiently and more reliably,
they will, given enough universe generations.
Axiom 9. Every universe has a beginning and an end. The first micro universes were formed by
spontaneously occurring quantum fluctuations sufficiently concentrated to make a micro black hole.
Universe formation systems (multiverses) have a beginning and may have an end.
Summaries of the 7 Phases
Slide 28
In summary, there are seven phases that reoccur with the formation of each universe.
• Cosmological process analysis is used to develop the Singularity Acceleration hypothesis, which is
based on nine universe formation axioms. The resulting theorem explains the mechanism by which
dominant supermassive black hole singularities form and capture all forms of matter and energy.
Supermassive singularity separation from the universe leads to a big bang phase transition in which
the laws of the universe do not apply. This results in the loss of gravitational attraction, causing a
big bang and inflation.
• Singularity acceleration universe formation is a cyclic process analogous to a branching universe,
having the following seven phases reoccurring in each daughter universe:
• 1. A phase transition big bang that forms a new universe
• 2. Expansion of the new universe and its structure
• 3. Dispersion of its mass and increasing entropy
• 4. Isolation of its galaxy clusters and supercluster complexes beyond event horizons
• 5. Many separate consolidations of all gravitationally bound forms of matter, forces, and energy
within these supercluster complexes into dominant supermassive black hole gravitational
• 6. The resulting acceleration of singularities expanding and warping space to the speed of light
• 7. The independent separation of each of these singularities from the universe in a quantum
fluctuation, causing a big bang phase transition and producing all forms of matter, forces, and
energy in a new universe.
Singularity Acceleration
Explains Universe Formation
Slide 29
• It is the first model describing the cause of the Big Bang that incorporates
dark energy and matter and supermassive black holes in its basic
hypothesis. (Axiom 2)
• Singularity Acceleration uses only established scientific principles and
known components. It is the only hypothesis of universe formation that
states a complete cause and effect for each phase, including a description
of the starting mechanism for the first universe.
• The proposal is testable although some of these tests may require
technological advances and additional information on black hole growth.
• With only a few gaps to discover, the Singularity Acceleration model is the
closest hypothesis to being a viable theory of the cause of big bangs and,
by inference, how universes are formed.
Verification by N-body Simulation
Slide 30
• The most practical method to test this hypothesis would be to construct a computer program Nbody simulation to model the relative movement of all the gravitationally-bound components of
structures such as galaxy clusters. It is projected that the results of the computer simulation
emulating the next 200 to 800 billion years of any galaxy cluster would show consolidation of
much of the structure’s mass into a dominant supermassive black hole. It would also show the
singularity’s acceleration increasing by expanding and warping of space and, in effect, moving
from the mass of the galaxy cluster driven by dark energy. If these phenomena occur as
predicted, the dominant supermassive black hole singularity will stimulate a quantum fluctuation
and cause a big bang. By inference, one could then assume that this process caused our universeforming big bang. Given enough information, a computer model could predict when and which
specific galaxies and galaxy clusters will produce dominant supermassive black holes.
This is the proposal that was sent to Tom Quinn for evaluation:
• “In our universe over many billions of years in the future, all other galaxies not gravitationally
bound to the Andromeda and Milky Way cluster will disappear over the event horizon. The
supermassive black holes from these two galaxies and others will merge and form a dominant
supermassive black hole at the center of the consolidated galaxy. Over a very long time it will
consume much of this galaxy, becoming by far its dominant feature. It is hypothesized that
somewhere in the range of 200 to 800 billion years from now, the singularity will break its
gravitation attraction with the rest of the galaxy, cause a giant quantum fluctuation, and form a new
Obstacles to Verification
Slide 31
Tom Quinn is a professor in the Department of Astronomy at the University of
Washington in Seattle where he leads the N-Body Shop. This is his response to
the practicality of doing an N-body simulation now. “Such a simulation could be
run, but it would take about a decade and cost over a million dollars in equipment
and power. Is it worth it? No, I would not trust the black hole growth predictions:
we understand too little about how central black holes grow to the present,
much less how they will grow going forward.”
The following are the obstacles to testing the hypothesis for a sample structure such
as the Andromeda and Milky Way galaxy cluster:
• The cost
• Supermassive black hole growth rates
• The need to have a better understanding of how dark matter relates gravitationally
to baryonic matter
A Few of the Interesting Conclusions If Singularity Acceleration Is Verified.
Slide 32
This APS presentation of the Singularity Acceleration hypothesis and the entire paper are available on the
internet at www.universeformation.org. See navigation bar under Singularity Paper, APS presentation
John M. Wilson: [email protected]
A Short Explanation of the Source and Cause of our Universe and How It Formed
In our parent universe, a very large galaxy supercluster complex disappeared over the event horizon from
all other galaxies. One supermassive black hole consumed much of this supercluster, becoming the
dominant feature of the galaxy and creating a singularity that accelerated to the speed of light propelled
by and assimilating the mass from dark energy by the law of the momentum conservation. It burst from its
universe, entering a big bang phase transition that created our universe.
Supermassive Black Holes
Most of the galaxy cluster’s mass consolidates into a dominant supermassive black hole.
Dark Energy
Dark energy’s repulsive force pushes dominant supermassive black hole singularities, increasing their
space warp and contributing its mass to its singularity.
The mass of dark energy is added to the mass of the black hole singularities as it propels the space warp
acceleration of a singularity, based on the law of momentum conservation.
The inflation era is part of a phase transition in which a singularity breaks its gravitational bonds with and
separates from its universe.
What is the Future for Us and Everything?
All mass in the universe has two possible outcomes: it either becomes part of a dominant supermassive
black hole, which forms a new universe, or it degenerates into nothing.

similar documents