HSB4M Lecture APS

HSB4M Grade 12
Challenge and Change Course
Anthropology is the
broad study of
humankind around the
world and throughout
It is concerned with both
the biological and the
cultural aspects of
•Physical Anthropology
Mechanisms of biological evolution, genetic inheritance, human
adaptability and variation, primatology, and the fossil record of human
•Cultural Anthropology
Culture, ethnocentrism, cultural aspects of language and
communication, subsistence and other economic patterns, kinship, sex
and marriage, socialization, social control, political organization, class,
ethnicity, gender, religion, and culture change
Prehistory and early history of cultures around the world; major trends in
cultural evolution; and techniques for finding, excavating, dating, and
analyzing material remains of past societies
•Linguistic Anthropology
The human communication process focusing on the importance of
socio-cultural influences; nonverbal communication; and the structure,
function, and history of languages, dialects, pidgins, and creoles
What would be the
best way to really
get to know another
society and its
culture? Why?
Anthropologists have learned
that the best way to really get
to know another society and
its culture is to live in it as an
active participant rather than
simply an observer.
By physically and emotionally
participating in the social
interaction of the host society
it is possible to become
accepted as a member.
Dian Fossey believed that
in order to study gorillas
effectively she had to
immerse herself with them
in an effort to get them to
accept her presence
She was murdered in her
cabin at Karisoke on
December 26, 1985. Her
death is a mystery yet
Why do we need
social scientists?
Don’t they tell us
what we already know
to be true?
Intuition is believing something to be true
because a person’s emotions and logic support it
Intuition is not proof of fact – this is why we need
social scientists – they prove or disprove what we
BELIEVE to be true
Question: According to your intuition, would
introducing the death penalty into a society
decrease the murder rate?
Kinship is a family relationship based on what
is a culture considers a family to be
The family unit can vary depending on the
culture in which the family lives
Anthropologists have concluded that human
cultures define the concept of marriage in
three ways: mating (marriage), birth (descent)
and nurturance (adoption)
Most human societies are patrilineal
(organized through the father’s line).
 Collection of statistics
 Field interviews
 Rigorous compilation of detailed notes
Fieldwork by anthropologists is know
as an “ethnography”: the scientific
study of human races and cultures
School of thought: when a certain way of
interpreting a discipline’s subject matter
gains widespread credibility, it is considered
to be a ‘school of thought’
Anthropology Schools of Thought
1. Functionalism
2. Structuralism
3. Culturalism
-The theoretical school of Functionalism considers a culture as an
interrelated whole, not a collection of isolated traits.
-The Functionalists examined how a particular cultural phase is
interrelated with other aspects of the culture and how it affects the
whole system of the society.
- Method of functionalism was based on fieldwork and direct
observations of societies.
-according to functionalists, all cultures are set up to deal with the
universal problems that human societies face (physical, or
psychological needs)
-societies must have a set standard of laws and practices to provide
stability. These are referred to as social institutions
-functionalists investigate the social function of institutions i.e.)
what is the purpose? How are they run? Etc.
-a fundamental belief is that society is a logical institution and
functions in the best interest by the needs of the majority
-culture then must be logical ----although a society’s practices may
at first seem strange to the outsider, functionalists believe that the
role of anthropologists is to explain not judge
Structuralism assumes that cultural forms are based on common
properties of the human mind.
This theory states that humans tend to see things in terms of two
forces that are opposite to each other - eg. night and day
The goal of Structuralism is to discover universal principles of the
human mind underlying each cultural trait and custom.
This theoretical school was almost single handedly established by
Claude Levi-Strauss
-according to structuralists, the mind functions on binary
opposites…..humans see things in terms of two forces that are
opposite to each other i.e night and day
-binary opposites differ from society to society and are defined in a
particular culture in a way that is logical to its members
i.e. shoes are “good” when you wear them outside but “bad” if you
put them on the table
-the role of an anthropologist is to understand these rules to
interpret the culture
Technological and economical factors are the most
important ones in molding a society – known as
Determinism – states that the types of technology
and economic methods that are adopted always
determine (or act as deciding factors in forming) the
type of society that develops
Cultural Materialism
-according to cultural materialists, technology and
economic factors are the most important ones in
moulding a society. They also believe that types of
technology and economic methods that are adopted
always determine the type of society that develops.
This is known as determinism.
Comparing the Schools of Thought
-attempts to
understand cultures
as a whole
-attempts to
understand cultures
based on common
properties of the
human mind
-attempts to
understand cultures
though technology
and economy
Investigates the social -seeks out and explains
functions of
rules that are based on
binary opposites (i.e.
Day / night; male;
-explores members’
decisions regarding
human reproduction
and economic
-presents societies as
being more stable
than they are and
downplays the
negative results of
some practices
-tries to establish
laws that apply to all
cultures and their
observes cultures
through biased eyes
-overemphasizes logic
and stability in human
societies; societies
wouldn't die out if they
always met the needs
of their members
•Refers to changes in
the way society is
organized, and in the
beliefs and practices
of the people who live
in it
•Change in the social
structure and the
institutions of society
Adaption to social change takes place
through three methods:
1) Diffusion- one culture borrows cultural
symbols from another
2) Acculturation- prolonged contact between
two cultures where they interchange symbols,
beliefs and customs
3) Cultural Evolution- cultures evolve
according to common patterns
•Anthropologists regard CULTURES,
the focus of their studies as constantly
changing organisms
 •Key Questions
-What are the known basic
mechanisms of social change?
-What ideas or explanations can we
use to describe what causes cultures
to change?
•Anthropologists focus on the process of
ENCULTURATION (members of a culture learn
and internalize shared ideas, values and
•Culture is made up of 4 inter-related parts:
1) Physical Environment
2) Level of Technology
3) Social Organization
4) System of Symbols
1. Invention: new products, ideas and
social patterns. Examples?
2. Discovery: finding something that
was previously unknown to a culture.
3. Diffusion: spreading of ideas,
methods and tools from one culture to
another. Examples?
 Study
of how and why humans act as they
 Instead of studying how humans function
in cultures or societies, psychology
focuses on the individual, and the
personal and unique experiences that
influence how the individual acts and
 The
branch of the discipline that sets
up experiments to see how individuals
act in particular situations
 Question
- Would you help a complete
stranger that was being threatened
with violence from another person?
The Case of Kitty Genovese - Kitty was murdered
on the street outside her New York City
apartment after loud shouting was heard - 38
people witnessed the murder but did nothing to
stop it
 Psychologists have long been interested in our
unwillingness to get involved in uncomfortable
situations even if someone’s personal safety is at
 People have a tendency see themselves as
bystanders in such situations rather than as
 ACTORS are people who become active
participants in a situation
 The Bystander Effect - Kitty Genovese
years after Genovese was murdered,
two psychologists, John Darley and Bibb
Latane, wanted to identify the factors that
influence bystanders’ decisions to get
involved in public situations
 Experiment: What would affect whether
or not people would get involved in a
Frisbee game with strangers
 Conclusions?
 Relation to Genovese case?
is the branch of the discipline
that develops programs for
treating individuals suffering
from mental illnesses and
behavioral disorders
 I.e. Psychologists
dangerous offenders in
federal prisons in an attempt
to prevent them from
reoffending on release
 Like
the other social
sciences, psychology
has been divided into a
number of schools
of thought:
 Psychoanalytic Theory
 Behaviouralism
 Learning
Create a small role play / skit on one of the
following famous psychologists. Highlight his / her
main theories, applications and conclusions to
psychology in your skit!
Sigmund Freud p. 19
John B. Watson and Benjamin Spock p.20
Ivan Pavlov p. 20
B.F. Skinner p. 20, 54
Alfred Bandura p. 21
Carl Jung p. 55
Abraham Maslov p. 58
Marion Woodman p. 58
 The
mind is divided into two
parts: the conscious (aware
of ) and the unconscious
(not aware of)
 According to psychologists,
our unconscious mind has
more influence than our
conscious mind on our
personalities and behavior
 The
Unconscious mind is divided into
three parts:
 Id
– which encourages us to seek
physical satisfaction
 Superego – prompts us to do the moral
thing, not the one that feels best
 Ego – the referee between the two and
deals with external reality, this is our most
conscious self
 Visible
part of the
iceberg (spirit or
conscious part)
Created by
Socialization; goes
back and forth
Between ID and EGO
based on
learning that
acting on just
ID can give
bad results
Incentives and
reflexes “I want it
• Everything you know
and remember
 Unconscious
are things we have
learned and
experienced but
The founder of psychoanalytic
He believed our early childhood
experiences, usually involving our
relationships with parents and family,
are stored in our unconscious mind
While we are normally unaware of
these memories, they can have a
powerful influence on the way we
Those that live with a general sense
of frustration, our behavior may
become neurotic, anxious and
obsessive This could be treated
using dream analysis, hypnosis and
individual counseling
Freud felt that individual sexual
satisfaction or frustration was the key
element in personality development
Adler believed that
difficulties people encounter
in gaining self-esteem and
recognition, if not overcome
by the normal means lead to
compensatory behavior and
resultant personality
disorders which are now
widely referred to as an
inferiority complex.
“I am not as good as
do these terms mean?
people one OR the other?
are some indicators of
Introverted/Extroverted people?
Responsible for the
identification of the
Extroverted (outward-looking;
outgoing; rely on others for
sense of well being) and
Introverted (inward-looking;
emotionally self sufficient;
well being comes from
within) personality types.
Worked closely with Freud
but split later in their careers
The other aspect of Jung's
work which has been very
influential is his approach to
the analysis of dreams
The following is a Jungian dream analysis method. The
method is based on the belief that objects and people in a
dream have a personal meaning to the dreamer, and that the
dreamer (not an analyst) is best able to understand his/her
own dream.
Often people and objects in our dreams represent parts of
ourselves, or ways we would like (or are afraid) to be. For
instance, if you dream of your very outgoing friend, Tom, and
you feel wonderful in the dream, it might be your
unconscious encouraging you to become more outgoing.
Start by recalling a dream you have had, jotting down as
many details as you can. (Choose a dream you’ll feel
comfortable discussing with others.) Then, working with a
small group of students, take turns revealing your dreams
while others in the group ask the following sets of questions:
1. What is the setting or settings?
What does each place remind you of or make you think of?
What does it feel like to be in these settings?
What is the mood of the dream (scary, funny, light, peaceful
How does this mood affect you?
2. Who are the people in the dream? (Discuss each person
What is the main characteristic of each; what is each person
like? (Jung would ask, “What is the essence of each
person?”) For example, organized, funny, worldly....?
How do you feel about each person in the dream?
If a person is unknown, what kind of person would you
imagine him/her to be given the way s/he looks and acts in
the dream?
What is each person doing in the dream?
How do their actions make you feel?
Does a person remind you of anything or anyone in your
Is there some part of you that is like this person, or would
like to be more like this person, or reacts strongly against
3. Describe the objects in your dream as you
would to someone from another planet. What are
they used for? How do they work?
 Do you like or dislike them?
 Do they remind you of anything, any part of
yourself, or anyone in your life?
4.What are the major actions and events in the
 How do you react to them in the dream?
 How do they make you feel?
 Do they remind you of any situations in real life?
5.Considering all the different thoughts that
came to mind as you discussed your dream, how
do you understand your dream now?
 Behaviorists
believe that psychologists can
predict and control or modify human
behavior by identifying the factors that
motivate it in the first place
 Behaviorists
placed particular stress on the
early childhood years, and the rules or
practices parents use to raise their children
 They
believe these methods have a huge
influence on the character of individuals
even into adulthood
CHARLES B. WATSON (18781958)
The founder of
He used animal
experiments to
determine whether strict
of flexible learning
patterns are more
Wrote book
“Psychological Care of
the Infant and Child”
concluded that children
should be brought up
using a ‘scientific’,
strictly scheduled, rulesbased model.
He believed that a
permissive approach to
child rearing, rather than
a strict one, would result
in successful, welladjusted adults.
He encouraged parents
to be loving, flexible and
Wrote book “Baby and
Child Care”
Learning Theorists agree that humans are born with little
instinct but much learning potential
They believe that most human behavior is learned,
especially in child and youth
By controlling the way in which humans learn behaviors,
society can have a great influence on their ultimate
Believe that children who were brought up in loving families
would grow up to become secure and loving adults, but only
if parents provided clear and consistent expectations for
good behavior, and swift but fair consequences for bad
Focus on people’s behaviors (what they do) and attitudes
(what they think)
Key Questions:
-what must people do to successfully change their
-what factors make behavior-modification programs
-do most people need help changing behavior, or can they
be self changers?
Example: Consider an individual who has been convicted
three times for driving under the influence. Is it necessary to
change a person’s attitude about drinking before he or she
will stop drinking and driving?
 Cognitive
Dissonance Theory
 Six Stages of Change (Behavior
-Pre-contemplation (denial, refusal)
-Contemplation (questioning)
-Preparation (investigation)
-Action (commitment)
-Maintenance (transition)
-Termination (completion)
 Apply
Dissonance Theory to the
following scenario:
• A student wants to get better
marks in her Math class but is
having trouble making a
• Highlight what she could be
thinking, feeling, saying or
acting in each stage of CDT
• Share with the class
Skinner proved that pigeons could be
trained to peck at a particular coloured
disk to get food rewards
Rats received food rewards for pressing
specific levers in a complicated sequence
leading many theorists to believe that
learning was a STIMULUS-RESPONSE
He believed that if the subject is correctly
stimulated it will give the appropriate
learning can be programmed by
whatever consequences follows a
particular behavior
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qy_m
 Positive
Reinforcement: Adding a
stimulus to increase a certain behaviour
or response
 Negative
Reinforcement : Take away an
aversive stimulus to increase certain
behaviour or response
 Positive
Reinforcement (add stimulus =
good response)
• Father gives candy to his daughter when she
picks up her toys. Look at the frequency of her
picking up toys to see if candy is a positive
 Negative
Reinforcement (take way
something bad = good response
• Turn of distracting music while studying. If your
productivity increases, then turning off music is a
negative reinforcer.
 Positive
Punishment (adding something
bad to decrease a behaviour
• Mother yells at child when running in the street.
If child stops running into the street, yelling is a
positive punishment
 Negative
Punishment (take away
something good to decrease behaviour
• Teenager sneaks out past curfew. Parents take
away cell phone and Xbox. If frequency of
coming home increases to before curfew, the
removal of the phone is negative punishment
Analysis of human needs organized
into a hierarchy ranging from basic
survival through to the need for
love, security and esteem
 Highest level was “self actualization
(integration of the self > making the
personality whole)
 Maslow's theories had most
profound impact on industrial
psychology (making workplace a
satisfying experience by raising
morale of workers to improve
 You
are a manager at a
restaurant and part of your
business plan is to ensure that
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is
being met.
 Considering
all 5 different
stages, develop a plan to ensure
your workers will be motivated
to work well and enjoy their job.
 Pavlov’s
with dogs showed that
is was possible to get a
dog to associate the
sound of a bell with the
imminent arrival of
 At the sound of a bell,
the dog would salivate
in anticipation
Bandura concluded that
learning is largely a modeling
experience and more
complicated than a mere
stimulus-response effect
 When humans observe
behavior – either acceptable
or unacceptable – they are
more likely to practice it
 Experiment- Bobo
 Question – What does this
mean to us? What applications
can be made to today?
 The social science discipline
that looks at the development
and structure of human society
(institutions) and how it works
 Sociology is the study of social
life, social change, and the
social causes and consequences
of human behavior. (American
Sociological Association)
 Sociologists investigate the structure of groups,
organizations, and societies, and how people
interact within these contexts.
 All human behavior is social so the subject matter
of sociology ranges from the intimate family to the
hostile mob; from organized crime to religious
cults; from the divisions of race, gender and social
class to the shared beliefs of a common culture;
and from the sociology of work to the sociology of
sports. (ASA)
 We all play certain roles in our
society – Social Scientists refer
to this as status
 Status is the term used to
describe our position within an
 Examples: Principal, teacher,
student, boss, employee,
athlete, doctor etc.
 Is there order to a status
hierarchy? Give an example.
 Hierarchy is the ranking system used in any particular
environment based on authority to power
 Each position or role requires a certain type of
expertise which is valued by society
 In order to distinguish between these roles people are
expected to dress and act in a certain way
 On any given day we can play many different roles in
society – i.e. A parent can drive their kids to school
and then go to work and teach their students
What are some examples that follow this model
of a hierarchy in today’s world?
-These are
developed by
cultures based on
their system of
These are rules set
out for a particular
role that are
standard behaviour
-a system of beliefs
carried by people in
that particular
-a set of values are
assigned to each
-if you practice the
role, you accept the
-Implies harsh
-Example: Laws
Drinking and
Going to school
Example: Catholic
priests expected to
be celibate
-Being in the
elevator facing the
-Example: Cultural
values placed on
women in different
 Deviance – Any behavior
that is different from the
societal norm. It is
deviant because we, as a
society, do not accept it
 Deviance can range from
simple eccentricities to
behavior that harms
society or is considered
 Sociology has formed a
strong link with the justice
 A fundamental component
of modern imprisonment is
rehabilitation, or trying to
re-educate and re-socialize
inmates so that they can
grow to accept society’s
values and norms
 Sociologists have debated
among themselves about
the real nature of society
 As societies change and
become more diverse
sociologists need to
consider cultural diversity
when considering
sociological issues
 According to structural-
functionalism, each society should
provide its members with the
fundamental requirements for
 A system must have a way of fulfilling
material needs, a system for
socializing and educating the young, a
way of regulating human
reproduction (usually marriage)
 Structural-Functionalists do not
concern themselves with change but
instead with how society works to
meet their needs
 Based on ideas originally proposed by Karl
Marx (1818-1883)
 Marx believed that economic power led to
political power. This is the key to
understanding societies
 The struggle for economic power means that
society is not static but ever-changing –
social change is the result of a change made
to the economic system
 Therefore, if we want to
understand society, we must
understand the economic system
in place
 Neo-Marxists believe the
economic system creates a rich
class of owners and a poor class of
 They also believe that social
institutions (churches, schools,
prisons etc.) have been created to
perpetuate the division between
the powerful and the powerless
 Symbolic Interactionists believe humans have complex
brains and little instinctive behavior
 This means they can interpret for themselves the
stimuli they receive in their daily life and attach their
own meanings to them
 I.e. One person might pursue fame and fortune while a
sibling might dedicate his or her life to charitable work
in a developing country
 It is essentially how we as individuals process and
interpret what we observe in society, not society’s
institutions, that form the core of our value system
 Feminist Theorists focus on sex and
gender issues, believing that women
have traditionally been disadvantaged
in society because men have
discriminated against them
 They believe that men have made the
decisions in society and that they tend
to favour men.
 Liberal (or “Bourgeois”) Feminism, in which the claim
of women for equal rights is seen in the context of a
general opposition to various forms of oppression and
 Liberal feminism tends to emphasize social policy to
open up professional, better-paid and prestigious jobs
to women and the elimination of laws discriminating
against the political, property and social rights of
women (encyclopedia of Marxism)
 Radical Feminists believe that their natural
child bearing role has led to a systematic
oppression by men
 They believe they live in a patriarchal
society in which men dominate most of the
institutions and are so entrenched that
women cannot break into it.
 Socialist Feminists
try to separate
issues of oppression
that are the result of
the patriarchy
which is a result of
 Inclusionists recognized that conflict could take place
in a society between ethnic, racial and religious groups
as well as between economic classes
 Before WWII, most sociologists took an assimilationist
view of race believing the cultural majority would
eventually absorb the minority (melting pot) U.S.
 In the late 1960s however, changing immigration
policies changed all this as large numbers of
immigrants moved to places like Canada to live
 Create a chart to show similarities and differences
between Anthropology, Psychology and Sociology.
 It should look like this:
Main Focus
Methods Listed
Power of Persuasion
 Type of communication aimed at a particular
audience ( males, youth, age etc)
Directed towards changing another person’s beliefs
both in a positive or negative way
Our daily decisions are affected by what we believe –
corresponds to what is going on around us
Media technologies (Twitter, FB, TV, Music etc) play
a big role in what we see and hear
Skill: Learn how to evaluate style, form, source and
medium influence in the choices we make every day
Persuasion – Product or Cause
 Selling a product:
Vocabulary: Added visuals
in case language is not
Short sentences
Rate of Speech: Fast
Tone: Pushy, Expect,
Repetition: Recap phone
numbers and package
Hook: Improvement
 Selling a cause:
Vocabulary: Added visuals
in case language is not
Short sentences
Rate of Speech: Slow
Tone: Thoughtful,
Repetition: Recap phone
numbers and package
Hook: Guilt, Sympathy
Persuasive Language
 Words carefully chosen to manipulate, influence
and cause change “ if, when, time, change,
 Speaking with conviction – they believe in their
 Disguising – it is very easy to be happy, just follow
these steps
 Statements: To show action and result
 “If you buy this (money), then this will happen...
(feelings change, appearance changes, change a
Basic structure of an infomercial
 Beginning:
 Often begins with questions and promises
 Example: “Have you ever...” “Do you feel...”
 “We’ve got a solution for you...”
 Middle
 Often includes research statistics, video proof, testimonials
 Examples: Studies of the product being used, celebrities, proof
of people using the product, written testimonials – “It changed
my life!”
 End
 More testimonials to leave a memorable impression
 Payment and contact details (Phone, Web, Type of Payment)
Basic structure of an infomercial
 Persuasive Techniques
 Incentives: something that the person will benefit
from when getting the product or contributing to a
 A reason to view spending as “worth it”
 Testimonials: used to convince people with “real”
 Premise: We can trust an average person but not the
 Deception: Pricing that seems easier to buy the
 Example: “In just four easy payments of $19.99...”
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
 Technique for organizing persuasive speeches to inspire
people to take action
1. Attention – from the audience; use stories, examples,
statistics, quotes
2. Need –show that a problem you are talking about
EXISTS in society and action is needed
3. Satisfaction – the need can be satisfied; provide
4. Visualization – tells the audience what will happen if
the solution is used/is not used (visuals and details)
5. Action – Tell the audience what action to do
personally to solve the problem ( pay money, order now,
Infomercial Examples
Infomercial Video Clips
 1. Snuggie
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2xZp-GLMMJ0
 2. Slap Chop
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rUbWjIKxrrs
**When watching, pick out the information that fulfills
persuasive language techniques, structure and Monroe’s
Motivated Sequence
**What did you hear and see? (Class Discussion)
**Infomercial Assignment

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