slides

Report
Differentiated I/O services in
virtualized environments
Tyler Harter, Salini SK & Anand Krishnamurthy
1
Overview
• Provide differentiated I/O services for applications in
guest operating systems in virtual machines
• Applications in virtual machines tag I/O requests
• Hypervisor’s I/O scheduler uses these tags to provide
quality of I/O service
2
Motivation
• Variegated applications with different I/O requirements
hosted in clouds
• Not optimal if I/O scheduling is agnostic of the
semantics of the request
3
Motivation
VM 1
VM 2
VM 3
Hypervisor
4
Motivation
VM
2
VM
3
Hypervisor
5
Motivation
• We want to have high and low priority processes that
correctly get differentiated service within a VM and
between VMs
Can my webserver/DHT log pusher’s IO
be served differently
from my webserver/DHT’s IO?
6
Existing work & Problems
• Vmware’s ESX server offers Storage I/O Control (SIOC)
• Provides I/O prioritization of virtual machines that
access a shared storage pool
But it supports prioritization only at host granularity!
7
Existing work & Problems
• Xen credit scheduler also works at domain level
• Linux’s CFQ I/O scheduler supports I/O prioritization
– Possible to use priorities at both guest and hypervisor’s I/O
scheduler
8
Original Architecture
Low High
Syscalls
I/O Scheduler
(e.g., CFQ)
Low High
Guest
VMs
QEMU Virtual
SCSI Disk
Syscalls
I/O Scheduler
(e.g., CFQ)
Host
9
Original Architecture
10
Problem 1: low and high may get same service
11
Problem 2: does not utilize host caches
12
Existing work & Problems
• Xen credit scheduler also works at domain level
• Linux’s CFQ I/O scheduler supports I/O prioritization
– Possible to use priorities at both guest and hypervisor’s I/O
scheduler
• Current state of the art doesn’t provide differentiated
services at guest application level granularity
13
Solution
Tag I/O and prioritize in the hypervisor
14
Outline
•
•
•
•
•
•
KVM/Qemu, a brief intro…
KVM/Qemu I/O stack
Multi-level I/O tagging
I/O scheduling algorithms
Evaluation
Summary
15
KVM/Qemu, a brief intro..
kernel-mode: switch into guest-mode and handle
exits due to I/O operations
user-mode: I/O when guest needs to access
devices
guest-mode: execute guest code, which is the
guest OS except I/O
Linux
has allpart
the of
KVM
module
Relies
on
a
mechanisms
VMM
Linux kernelasince
Has
3
modes:kernel,
virtualization
capable
needs
to operate
version
2.6
user,
guesteither Intel
CPU with
several VMs.
VT or AMD SVM
extensions
Linux Standard Kernel with KVM - Hypervisor
Hardware
16
KVM/Qemu, a brief intro..
kernel-mode: switch into guest-mode and handle
exits due to I/O operations
user-mode: I/O when guest needs to access
devices
guest-mode: execute guest code, which is the
guest OS except I/O
Linux
has allpart
the of
KVM
module
Relies
on
a
mechanisms
VMM
Linux kernelasince
Has
3
modes:kernel,
virtualization
capable
needs
to operate
version
2.6
user,
guesteither Intel
CPU with
several VMs.
VT or AMD SVM
extensions
Linux Standard Kernel with KVM - Hypervisor
Hardware
17
KVM/Qemu, a brief intro..
Each Virtual Machine is
an user space process
Linux Standard Kernel with KVM - Hypervisor
Hardware
18
KVM/Qemu, a brief intro..
libvirt
Other
user
space
ps
Linux Standard Kernel with KVM - Hypervisor
Hardware
19
KVM/Qemu I/O stack
Application in
guest OS
Issues
an I/O-related
system
This
system
call will lead
to call
(eg: read(), an
write(),
stat()) within
submitting
I/O request
from
awithin
user-space
context of the
the kernel-space
of the
virtual machine.
VM
Application in
guest OS
read, write, stat ,…
System calls layer
The I/O request will reach a device
driver - either an ATA-compliant
(IDE) or SCSI
VFS
FileSystem
BufferCache
Block
SCSI
ATA
KVM/Qemu I/O stack
Application in
guest OS
The device driver will issue privileged
instructions to read/write to the
memory regions exported over PCI by
the corresponding device
Application in
guest OS
read, write, stat ,…
System calls layer
VFS
FileSystem
BufferCache
Block
SCSI
ATA
KVM/Qemu I/O stack
A
These
VM-exit
instructions
will take will
place
trigger
for each
VM-exits,
of the that
The privileged I/O related
privileged
will be handled by the core
instructions are passed by the hypervisor to
instructions
KVM moduleresulting
within the
from
Host's
the original
kernel-space
I/O
the QEMU machine emulator
request
context in the VM
Qemu
emulator
Linux Standard Kernel with KVM - Hypervisor
Hardware
KVM/Qemu I/O stack
These instructions will then be
QEMUcompletion
will generate
block-access
I/O qemu
Upon
of the
system calls,
emulated
by device-controller
emulation
Thus the original
I/O request will
generate
requests,
in an
a special
blockdevice
will
"inject"
interrupt
into the VM that
modules
within
QEMU
(either as of
ATA
orHost
as
I/O requests
to the
kernel-space
the
emulationissued
module
originally
the I/O request
SCSI commands)
Qemu
emulator
Linux Standard Kernel with KVM - Hypervisor
Hardware
Multi-level I/O tagging modifications
Modification 1: pass priorities via syscalls
Modification 2: NOOP+ at guest I/O scheduler
Modification 3: extend SCSI protocol with prio
Modification 2: NOOP+ at guest I/O scheduler
Modification 4: share-based prio sched in host
Modification 5: use new calls in benchmarks
Scheduler algorithm-Stride
 - ID of application 
V – Virtual IO counter for 
ℎ = Shares assigned to 
 = Global_shares/ ℎ
Dispatch request()
{
Select the ID  which has lowest Virtual IO counter
Increase  by 
if ( reaches threshold)
Reinitialize all  to 0
Dispatch request in the queue 
}
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Scheduler algorithm cntd
• Problem: Sleeping process can monopolize the resource
once it wakes up after a long time
• Solution:
– If a sleeping process k wakes up, then set
 = max( min(all  which are non zero),  )
32
Evaluation
• Tested on HDD and SSD
• Configuration:
Guest RAM size
1GB
Host RAM size
8GB
Hard disk RPM
7200
SSD
35000 IOPS Rd, 85000 IOPS
Wr
Guest OS
Ubuntu Server 12.10 LK 3.2
Host OS
Kubuntu 12.04 LK 3.2
Filesystem(Host/Guest)
Ext4
Virtual disk image format
qcow2
33
Results
• Metrics:
– Throughput
– Latency
• Benchmarks:
– Filebench
– Sysbench
– Voldemort(Distributed Key Value Store)
34
Shares vs Throughput for different workloads : HDD
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Shares vs Latency for different workloads : HDD
• Priorities are
better
respected if
most of the read
request hits the
disk
36
Effective Throughput for various dispatch numbers : HDD
• Priorities are
respected only when
dispatch numbers of
the disk is lower than
the number of read
requests generated
by the system at a
time
• Downside: Dispatch
number of the disk is
directly proportional
to the effective
throughput
37
Shares vs Throughput for different workloads : SSD
38
Shares vs Latency for different workloads : SSD
• Priorities in
SSDs are
respected only
under heavy
load, since
SSDs are faster
39
Comparison b/w different schedulers
• Only Noop+LKMS respects priority! (Has to be, since we did it)
40
Results
Hard
drive/SSD
Webserver
Mailserver
Random
Reads
Sequential
Reads
Voldemort
DHT Reads
Hard disk
Flash
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Summary
• It works!!!
• Preferential services are possible only when dispatch
numbers of the disk is lower than the number of read
requests generated by the system at a time
• But lower dispatch number reduces the effective throughput
of the storage
• In SSD, preferential service is only possible under heavy load
• Scheduling at the lowermost layer yields better
differentiated services
42
Future work
• Get it working for writes
• Get evaluations on VMware ESX SIOC and compare with
our results
43
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