pilot training - University of North Dakota

Report
Notice of Proposed Rule
Making Forum
Agenda
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Events leading to the NPRM
Details of the proposed rule
Discuss impact on industry
Discuss impact on collegiate flight program
Explore and share research in regards to issue
Illustrate how to comment on the rule
HR 3371
• Background leading up to proposed Legislation
– Last six airline crashes involved regional carriers
– February - Colgan Air Accident
– May 2009 – NTSB held three day hearing on Colgan
Accident
– June 2009 – Both House and Senate started holding
hearings on Regional Airline Safety
– June 2009 – FAA Administrator (Babbitt) announced ‘FAA
Call to Action”
– Introduce HR 3371 – Late Summer 2009
• Link to Bill
HR 3371
• Initial Bill stated: (July 2009)
– SEC. 10. FLIGHT CREWMEMBER SCREENING AND QUALIFICATIONS
– (2) MIMIMUM REQUIREMENTS.—
• (B) ALL FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS- Rules issued under paragraph (1) shall
ensure that, after the date that is 3 years after the date of enactment of this
Act, all flight crewmembers—
– (i) have obtained an airline transport pilot license (sic) under part 61 of
title 14, Code of Federal Regulations; and
– (ii) have appropriate multi-engine aircraft flight experience, as
determined by the Administrator.
– Many sections of Bill really good for safety!
– Collegiate Aviation, concerned about ATP…
Advance Notice to Proposed
Rulemaking
• FAA put out an ANPRM…
• Encouraged public comment
• Commencement of Pilot Source Study…
FAA FOQ Aviation Rulemaking
Committee (ARC)
• Started work in mid-July 2010
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Aircraft Owners and Pilots Assoc. (AOPA)
Air Line Pilots Assoc. (ALPA)
Air Transport Assoc. (ATA)
Aviation Accreditation Board International (AABI)
Coalition of Airline Pilots Assoc. (CAPA)
National Aviation Disaster Alliance/Foundation (NADA/F)
National Business Aviation Assoc. (NBAA)
Pilot Career Initiative (PCI)
Regional Air Cargo Carriers Assoc. (RACCA)
Regional Airline Assoc. (RAA)
Enter H.R 5900
• Airline Safety and FAA Extension Act of 2010
– Introduced to House on July 28, 2010
– Passed House on July 29, 2010
– Considered in the Senate on July 30, 2010
– Passed Senate on July 30, 2010
– Signed by President on August 1, 2010
• Public Law 111-216
Public Law 111-216 Main Sections
• Title I – Airport and Airway Extension
• Title II – Airline Safety and Pilot Training Improvement
– FAA Pilot Records Database
– FAA Task Force on Air Carrier Safety and Pilot Training
– Flight Crewmember mentoring, professional development
and leadership
– FAA rulemaking on training programs
– Pilot Fatigue
– Safety Management Systems, ASAP and FOQA
Implementation Plans
Public Law 111-216 Main Sections
– Flight Crewmember Screening and Qualifications
• All flight crewmembers must have obtained an ATP
certificate
– Airline Transport Pilot Certification
• Sufficient Flight Hours, as determined by Administrator
– Shall be at least 1500
– Credit toward flight hours
» Administrator may allow specific academic training courses
to be credited toward the total flight hours…
FAA Impact due to Law
After a long awaited release…
• Pilot Certification and Qualification
Requirements for Air Carrier Operations
Main Areas of Proposed Rule
• ATP Certificate for all pilots operating
under Part 121
• Requiring 50 hours of multi-engine time if
applying for ATP in a multi-engine aircraft
• Aircraft type-rating for all pilots operating
under Part 121
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Main Areas of Proposed Rule
• ATP Certification training program for an
Airplane Multiengine to include…
– Currently nothing defined
– Academic Portion:
• 24 hours of classroom instruction
– High altitude ops, meteorology, air carrier operations
– Flight Portion:
• 16 hours of flight training
– 8 hours in a Level C or higher FFS
– 8 hours in Level 4 or higher
– This would make you eligible for the ATP
Written Exam
Main Areas of Proposed Rule
• ATP certificate with restricted privileges
based on Academic or Military Training
– Bachelor’s degree with an aviation major from
an accredited 4-year institution
– Commercial certification obtained through
Part 141 Training
– Aeronautical Experience:
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1000 hours TT
325 hours Cross-Country
100 hours night
75 hours instrument
50 hours multiengine
Main Areas of Proposed Rule
• Minimum of 1000 hours of Part 121 flying
to serve as PIC in a Part 121 operation.
How does this impact the
Industry?
Industry Implications
• Existing First Officers
• Current hiring
• Future hiring (final rule)
Industry Implications
• Existing First Officers
– ExpressJet
• 1526 FOs surveyed
• 1328 do not have an ATP
– Air Wisconsin
• 78% of it’s FOs do not have an ATP
• Have to start training programs for existing
first officers for ATP and Type ratings
– ATP written complete before all recurrent
training
Industry Implications
• Current Hiring
– Position new hire first officers with the Aug. 1
2013 ATP requirement
• ExpressJet hiring minimums at 1100 hours
– Time to complete training
– Average 37.5 hours/month on reserve
– Minimum time for hiring will increase as they get
closer to Aug. 1 2013 (1200, 1300, 1400, 1500)
– Currently “0” applications on file that meet this
minimum.
Industry Implications
• Future hiring
– Minimum as stated in NPRM will be 1000
(college) 750 (military)
– Plan to incorporate the ATP Certification
Training Program (24 hours ground/16 hours
sim.)into their training foot print – may or may
not be allowed based on NPRM wording
– Screened – Hired - ATP Training - ATP
written - ATP Flight training - Certification –
121 training – start line flying (IOE)
Industry Implications
• Regional Air Cargo Carriers Association
– Pursuing lowering Part 135 Cargo ATP down
to 800 hours
– Trying to make their type of flying more
manageable and attractive?
• PL11-216 and this NPRM are affecting
your careers right now
Implication for a Collegiate
Flight Program
Value of Research in
Response to FAA’s NPRM
Pilot Source Study
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Arizona State University – Dr. Mary Niemczyk (Assistant
Professor, Air Transportation Management )
Auburn University – Dr. Raymond A. Hamilton II (Associate
Professor of Aviation Policy)
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University – Dr. Guy M. Smith
(Associate Professor of Aeronautical Science)
Southern Illinois University – Dr. David A. NewMyer
(Professor of Aviation Management & Flight)
University of North Dakota – Dr. Elizabeth Bjerke (Associate
Professor of Aviation)
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2 Outcomes
9 Predictors (Independent
(Dependent
Variables)
Variables)
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Year Hired
College Degree
Aviation Degree
AABI Flight Program
Military
Source of Pilot Training
Flight Instructor
Total Flight Hours
Previous Experience
• Extra Training Events
• Completions
For each Outcome Variable,
we show:
1. The question
2. A description of the variable
For each Predictor Variable,
we show:
1. The question
2. A description of the variable
3. The statistical test results
4. The research conclusion
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AABI Flight
Derived Variable (Only those
programs in the data set that meet
the AABI Program Accreditation
Criteria for Flight Education)
Predictor Variable
AABI Flight
Programs
AABI Flight
Programs
Outcome
Variable
Extra Training
Events
Completions
Statistical Test
Test Statistic
Significant?
t-Test
t = 6.09***
Chi-Square
2 = 16.43***
Yes
***p < .001
Yes
***p < .001
•AABI flight programs produced fewer extra training
events
•AABI flight programs produced comparatively fewer
incompletes
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PILOT TRAINING:
Where did this pilot get
Advanced Pilot Training
(beyond Private Pilot)?
(N = 2156)
Predictor Variable
Source of Pilot
Training
Source of Pilot
Training
Outcome
Variable
Extra Training
Events
Completions
Statistical Test
Test Statistic
Significant?
ANOVA
F = 10.39***
Chi-Square
2 = 30.16***
Yes
***p < .001
Yes
***p < .001
•Pilots trained in college had fewer extra training events
than non-college pilots
•Pilots trained in college had comparatively fewer
incompletes
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Aviation Degree:
Derived Variable (any degree
that contained words like
aviation, flight, airport, pilot, etc.
- these are not all flight
degrees)
Predictor
Variable
Aviation
Degrees
Aviation
Degrees
Outcome
Variable
Extra Training
Events
Completions
Statistical Test
Test Statistic
Significant?
t-Test
t = 1.71*
Chi-Square
2 = 8.13**
Yes
*p < .05
Yes
**p < .01
•Aviation Degrees produced fewer Extra Training
Events
•Aviation degrees produced comparatively fewer
incompletes.
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TOTAL HOURS:
506
How many Total Hours did the
pilot have at the beginning of
training with your airline? (N =
2150)
Predictor
Variable
Total Flight
Hours
Total Flight
Hours
Outcome
Variable
Extra Training
Events
Completions
Statistical Test
Test Statistic
ANOVA
F = 3.31*
Chi-Square
2 = 17.24**
Significant?
Yes
*p < .05
Yes
**p < .01
•Pilots with 501 to 1000 hours had the fewest extra
training events.
•Pilots with 501 to 1000 hours had comparatively fewer
incompletes.
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TOTAL HOURS:
(Continued)
•Effect of pre-employment total flight hours, in order of
performance:
•Group 1:
501 to 1,000 hours
•Group 2:
178 to 500 hours
•Group 3:
1,001 to 1,500 hours
•Group 4:
> 1,500 hours
Note: The most significant difference was between Group 1
and Group 4 for both Extra Training Events and Completions.
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• More detailed text was published in FAA’s
International Journal of Applied Aviation
Studies:
– http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquart
ers_offices/arc/programs/academy/journal/pdf
/Summer_2010.pdf
Impact of ATP Requirement
on CFI career Progression to
Part 121 Carriers
Conducted by,
Elizabeth Bjerke, Ph.D.
Daniel Malott
University of North Dakota
Methodology
• Participants
– Current CFIs employed by UAA member
collegiate flight programs
• Materials
– Electronic survey including demographic
information, aeronautical experience and
career aspirations
• Procedures
– Email was sent to CFIs via an institutional
representative
Results
• 240 Responses from 17 different
collegiate flight programs
– University of North Dakota
– Embry Riddle Aeronautical University (Prescott and
Daytona)
– Purdue
– Western Michigan
– Arizona State University
– University of Oklahoma
– Kansas State – Salina
– Westminster
– Indiana State University
– South Dakota State University
– Middle Georgia College
– Florida Institute of Technology
– Saint Louis University
– Jacksonville University
– Rocky Mountain College
– Northwestern Michigan College
Current FAA and ICAO ATP
Requirements
• Differences FAA and ICAO
– Cross-Country Aeronautical Experience
– Cross-Country Definition
Survey Results (n=240)
• Average Total Time
– 986.6 hours
• Average Cross-Country Time
– 236.6
• Only equates to 24% of total time
• ATP requires that 33.3% of total time be
cross-country
• CFIs do not conduct a lot of cross-country
operations
• Will need over 2,000 hours of total time to get the
needed 500 hours of cross-country for FAA ATP
NPRM 61.160 (Restricted ATP)
• Aeronautical Experience Requirements
– 1000 Total Time
• 325 Cross-Country
• CFI’s teaching in a collegiate program will
have to acquire 1,354 hour of total time, to
meet the 325 hours of cross-country given
the percentages the research found.
Response for NPRM
• Match the FAA ATP Requirements to
ICAO
– 200 hours of Cross-Country
– Change the definition so it does not have to
be 50 nm
• Reduce the Cross-Country time for
Restricted ATP to 200 hours (match ICAO
min.)
– Can assume that once hired by a Part 121
Carrier at 1000 hours, the next 500 hours will
be cross-country
Next Step
FAA seeks comment on the following:
• Throughout the NPRM you will see…
– Is a minimum of 1,500 hours adequate in
order to receive an unrestricted ATP
certificate? Why or why not?
– As a result of the new ATP requirement for
pilots in part 121 operations, what will be the
impact on pilot supply for part 121
operations? For part 135 operations? For part
141 pilot schools? For Part 142 training
centers?
Process to Comment
• Deadline for Public Comments:
– April 30, 2012
• Who can comment???
– The Public
• The process
Questions and Discussion

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