CRJ270 - Chapter 6

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Introduction to Criminology
CRJ 270
Instructor: Jorge Pierrott
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Criminology Today
AN INTEGRATIVE INTRODUCTION
SEVENTH EDITION
CHAPTER
6
Psychological and
Psychiatric
Foundations of
Criminal Behavior
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Chapter Objectives
After reading this chapter, students should be able to
answer the following questions:
• What are the major principles of psychological
perspectives of criminal behavior?
• What two major ideas characterized early
psychological theories, and what was the difference
between them?
• How does personality explain criminality?
• What is psychopathology, and how does it explain
crime? How does it relate to antisocial personality
disorder?
• What are cognitive theories, and what two types of
cognitive theories does this chapter discuss?
Chapter Objectives
• What insights into criminal behavior does the
psychoanalytic perspective offer?
• What role does frustration play in influencing
aggression, according to psychological theories?
• How can criminality be seen as a form of adaptive
behavior?
• What are criminogenic needs?
• How does attachment theory explain behavior, and
what are the three forms of attachment?
• How does behavior theory explain the role of
rewards and punishments in shaping behavior?
Chapter Objectives
• How does social cognition explain how aggressive
patterns of behavior, once acquired, can be
activated?
• What are the treatment implications of
psychological understandings of criminality?
• What are some assumptions underlying the practice
of criminal psychological profiling?
• How does the legal concept of insanity differ from
behavioral definitions of the same concept?
Jared Lee Loughner
What happened after?
• May 25, 2011 – Loughner was found
incompetent to stand trial on the basis of
two medication evaluations.
• August 7, 2012 – After being forcibly
medicated with antipsychotic drugs, new
medical evaluations were performed, which
found him competent to stand trial.
• He pled guilty to killing six people and
injuring 13 others.
• Received seven life sentences without the
possibility of parole.
Principles of Psychological and
Psychiatric Theories
• Forensic psychology
 The application of the science and
profession of psychology to questions and
issues relating to law and the legal system
(also called criminal psychology
 Terms used:
•
•
•
•
Exploitative personality characteristics
Poor impulse control
Emotional arousal
Immature personality
continued on next slide
Principles of Psychological and
Psychiatric Theories
• Forensic psychiatry
 A medical subspecialty applying
psychiatry to the needs of crime
prevention and solution, criminal
rehabilitation, and issues of the criminal
law
continued on next slide
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Principles of Psychological and
Psychiatric Theories
• The individual is the primary unit of
analysis
• Personality is the major motivational
element
• Crimes result from abnormal,
dysfunctional, or inappropriate mental
processes within the personality
continued on next slide
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Principles of Psychological and
Psychiatric Theories
• Criminal behavior may be purposeful
insofar as it addresses certain felt
needs
• Normality is generally defined by social
consensus
• Defective, or abnormal, mental
processes may have a variety of causes
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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History of Psychological Theories
• Key ideas characterizing early
psychological theories:
 Personality – built on growing area of
cognitive science
 Behaviorism/behavioral conditioning –
examined social learning with an emphasis
on behavioral conditioning
• Psychoanalytic theory – together these
areas formed the early foundation of
psychological criminology
Personality Disturbances
• Psychopathology
 Any psychological disorder that causes
distress for an individual or for those in
the individual's life
• Depression, schizophrenia, ADHD,
alcoholism, and bulimia are examples.
• Psychopathy
 A specific and distinctive type of
psychopathology
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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The Psychopath
• Personality disorder characterized by
antisocial behavior and lack of sympathy,
empathy, embarrassment
• Hervey M. Cleckley – developed the
concept of a psychopathic personality
• Poverty of affect – inability to accurately
imagine how others think and feel
Types of Psychopaths
• Primary psychopaths
 Born with psychopathic personalities
 Characteristics: bedwetting, cruelty to
animals, fire-setting, lying, fighting,
and stealing
• Secondary psychopaths
 Born with a “normal” personality but
develop psychopathic tendencies due to
personal experiences
continued on next slide
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Types of Psychopaths
• Charismatic psychopaths
 Charming, attractive,
habitual liars.
• The Talented Mr. Ripley
• Distempered psychopaths
 Easily offended, fly into
rages with slight
provocation
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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The Psychopath
• Psychopathy Checklist (PCL)
(pg. 126)
 definitive modern measure of psychopathy
• Recent research suggests psychopaths do
know the difference between right and
wrong
• Recent study of adolescent psychopaths
found intensive treatment was linked to
reduced violent recidivism
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ngtXPP5krU
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Antisocial Personality Disorder
• Antisocial/asocial personality
 Individuals who are basically unsocialized and
whose behavior patterns bring them into
repeated conflicts with society
• They are grossly selfish, callous, irresponsible,
impulsive, and unable to feel guilt or to learn
from experience or punishment.
 Individuals who exhibit an antisocial
personality are said to be suffering from
antisocial personality disorder (ASPD)
continued on next slide
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Antisocial Personality Disorder
• Causes unclear
 Somatogenic causes – A malfunctioning of the
central nervous system (abnormally low levels of
arousal) as well as brain abnormalities that may
have been present from birth
 Psychogenic causes - A lack of love or the
sensed inability to depend unconditionally on a
central loving figure (usually the mother)
 Most research is done on males, but females
have also shown similar characteristics.
• Sexual misconduct
• Antisocial behavior
Trait Theory
• Eysenck explained crime as result of
fundamental personality traits (supertraits)
 Introversion/extraversion
 Neuroticism/emotional stability
 Psychoticism
• Personality stable throughout life, largely
determined by genetics
• Psychoticism closely correlated with criminality.




Lack of empathy
Creativeness
Tough-mindedness
Anti-sociability
Figure 6-2 Selected Characteristics of the Psychopathic Personality
Source: Schmalleger, Frank J., Criminology. Printed and Electronically reproduced by permission of Pearson
Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Cognitive Theories
• Learning theories – examine thought
processes and try to explain how people
 Learn to solve problems
• Value, morality
 Perceive and interpret the social
environment
• Multiple branches
 Moral, intellectual development, how
people process information
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
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Moral Development Theory
• Jean Piaget – human thinking goes through stages
of development
 Sensory-motor stage (birth–age 2)
 Preoperational stage (ages 2-7)
 Concrete operational stage (ages 7-11)
 Formal operational stage (ages 11-16)
• Child moves from moral absolutism to moral
relativism
continued on next slide
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Moral Development Theory
• Lawrence Kohlberg said preference for
higher levels of moral thinking universal
in humans
• Research shows offenders have less
ability in making moral judgments
 Graph page 130
continued on next slide
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Figure 6-4
Kohlberg’s Six Stages of Moral Development
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
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Cognitive Information-Processing
Theory
• Study of human perceptions,
information processing, decision
making
• Violent individuals may be using
information incorrectly when making
decisions
continued on next slide
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Cognitive Information-Processing
Theory
• Script theory – generalized knowledge
about specific types of situations stored
in the mind
 Career offenders develop scripts to
guide them through criminal activity
 Criminal scripts help form criminal
identity
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
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The Criminal Mind-Set
• Stanton Samenow and Samuel Yochelson
 Criminals make different assumptions
about living and behaving than noncriminals
 Criminal personality develops early in
childhood, includes ways of thinking
characteristic of many types of criminals
but not shared by non-criminals
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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The Psychoanalytic Perspective –
Criminal Behavior as Maladaptation
• Psychiatric criminology envisions a
complex set of drives and motives that
operate from within the personality to
determine behavior
• Sigmund Freud – psychoanalysis
• Criminal behavior is maladaptive, the
product of inadequacies in the
offender's personality
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Figure 6-5 The Psychoanalytic Structure of Personality
Source: Schmalleger, Frank J., Criminology. Printed and Electronically reproduced by permission of Pearson
Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
The Psychoanalytic Perspective
• Violent criminal behavior dominated by
the id, leaving offenders unable to
control impulsive and pleasure-seeking
drives
• Repressed needs provide another path
to criminality
• Many criminals have a secret need to
be punished
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
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The Psychotic Offender
• Psychosis
 mental illness characterized by a lack of
contact with reality
• Characteristics of psychotic individuals
 A grossly distorted conception of reality
 Inappropriate moods and mood swings
 Marked inefficiency in getting along with
others and caring for oneself
continued on next slide
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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The Psychotic Offender
• Psychiatrists recognize at least 9 different
types of psychotic disorders, including:
 Schizophrenia, which is characterized by
disordered or disjointed thinking
• Schizophrenics and paranoid
schizophrenics
 Paranoid schizophrenics suffer from
delusions and hallucinations
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
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Frustration-Aggression Theory
• Freud
 Aggression is a natural response to
frustration and limitations
continued on next slide
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Frustration-Aggression Theory
• Frustration-aggression theory
 Direct aggression toward others is the
most likely consequence of frustration
 Aggression can be manifested in socially
acceptable ways or engaged in
vicariously by watching others act
aggressively (displacement)
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
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Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Crime as Adaptation
• Crime as an adaptation to life's stresses
 Alloplastic adaptation
• Crime reduces stresses by producing
changes in the environment
 Autoplastic adaptation
• Crime leads to stress reduction as a
result of internal changes in beliefs and
value systems
• Stress as a causative agent in crime
commission
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
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Criminogenic Needs
• Donald Andrews and James Bonta
• Criminogenic Needs
 Dynamic attributes of offenders and
their circumstances associated with
rates of recidivism
• May not be actual needs but rather
psychological symptoms of maladaptive
functioning
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
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Attachment Theory
• Healthy personality development
requires that children have a close,
continuous relationship with their
mothers
continued on next slide
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
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Attachment Theory
• Forms of attachment:
 Secure attachment (a healthy form)
 Anxious-avoidant attachment
 Anxious-resistant attachment
• Difficulties in childhood appear to
produce criminality later in life
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
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Behavior Theory
• Ivan Pavlov
 behavior can be conditioned or shaped
• Classical conditioning
 behavior can be predictably changed by
association with external changes in the
surrounding environment
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
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Behavioral Conditioning
• Operant behavior – behavior choices
operate on the surrounding
environment to produce consequences
 Rewards increase the frequency of
behavior
 Punishments decrease frequency of
behavior
continued on next slide
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Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Behavioral Conditioning
• Major determinants of behavior exist in
the environment, not in the individual




Positive rewards
Negative rewards
Positive punishments
Negative punishments
• People can be conditioned to respond
with prosocial or antisocial behavior
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
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Social Cognition and the Role of
Modeling
• Gabriel Tarde's three laws of imitation:
 People in close contact tend to imitate
each other's behavior
 Imitation moves from the top down
 New acts and behaviors either reinforce or
replace old ones
Social Cognition Theory
• Albert Bandura, Stanford University
Professor and president of the
American Psychological Society
 Everyone is capable of aggression but
must learn how to behave aggressively
 Key ideas: observation, imitation,
modeling
continued on next slide
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Frank Schmalleger
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Social Cognition Theory
• Most behavior learned by observing and
modeling
• Aggression can be provoked through
assaults, verbal threats, thwarting
hopes, obstructing goals
• Disengagement allows people who
devalue aggression to engage in it
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
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Policy and Treatment Implications
• Correctional psychology
 Concerned with diagnosis and
classification, treatment, rehabilitation
of offenders
• Some of the most successful
treatments emphasize changing
offender personality characteristics,
such as impulsivity
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
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Cognitive Behavioral Intervention
• Offenders need to acquire better social
skills to become more prosocial
• Lets offenders modify their cognitive
processes to control themselves,
interact positively with others
• Target offender's environment,
behavioral responses skill development
• Increase reasoning skills, problemsolving skills, expand empathy
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Assessing Dangerousness
• Selective incapacitation
 Based on the notion of career criminality
 Protect society by incarcerating most
dangerous individuals
 Use of psychological techniques to
identify future offenders and those likely
to reoffend
continued on next slide
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Assessing Dangerousness
• Strategy depends on accurately
identifying potentially dangerous
offenders
• Risk assessment/classification tools
continually being developed, improved
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
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Predicting Criminality
• Recent study found strong relationship
between childhood behavioral
difficulties and later problem behavior
• Prediction requires more than
generalities – difference between
predicting percentage of people in a
population who will be criminals and
predicting which individuals will violate
the law
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ubG37Jz1ojs
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Critique of Psychological and
Psychiatric Theories of Crime
• Theories criticized for failing to consider
social or environmental conditions that
produce crime
• Idea of moral reasoning sense puts loss
of control within individual –
physical/social barriers to crime may be
more effective
• Individual theories have also been
criticized on various levels
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Criminal Psychological Profiling
• Psychological profiling
 Based on idea that behavioral clues left
at crime scene may reflect offender's
personality
 Assist police investigators
continued on next slide
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Criminal Psychological Profiling
• Profiling techniques used in hostage
negotiation, contributed to
criminological literature
• Some psychologists discount value of
profiling
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Insanity and the Law
• Insanity
 Legal concept, refers to type of defense
allowed in criminal courts
• M'Naughten Rule
 Individuals cannot be held criminally
responsible if they did not know what
they were doing or did not know that
what they were doing was wrong
continued on next slide
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Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Insanity and the Law
• M'Naughten Rule
 1843, Daniel M’Naughten was accused of killing
Edward Drummond, the secretary of British Prime
Minister Sir Robert Peel. He intended to kill Sir
Peel.
 Delusions which led to the crime.
 The court accepted the claims, establishing the
insanity defense.
 Individuals cannot be held criminally responsible
if they did not know what they were doing or did
not know that what they were doing was wrong
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
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Insanity and the Law
• Irresistible-Impulse Test
 Defendant is not guilty if by virtue of
his/her mental state s/he was unable to
resist committing the action
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Guilty But Mentally Ill
• Individual can be held responsible for a
criminal act, even though a degree of
mental incompetence is present
• Requirements for verdict
 All required statutory elements proven
 Defendant found mentally ill at time of
the crime
 Defendant not found legally insane at
time of the crime
continued on next slide
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Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Guilty But Mentally Ill
• GBI offenders sent to psychiatric
hospital for treatment – transferred to
prison after “cured”
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Problems with the Insanity
Defense
• Must be brought before court, proven
by defense
• Rarely used - less than 1% of
defendants adopt insanity defense,
75% still convicted
continued on next slide
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Problems with the Insanity
Defense
• Defendant found NGRI likely to spend a
long time in court-ordered institutional
psychiatric treatment
• Critics question whether idea of mental
illness or insanity useful in study of
criminology
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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